How did the British rule of India effect India?

It modernized the nation. Infrastructure (railroads, modern roads, bridges), electricity, and telegraphs were brought to India by the British. Proof of benefits of British rule live on even today in the importance of Indian rail, a modern parliamentary-type government, and the fact that many (if not most) Indian cities are still dominated by British-era buildings. The areas under direct British control tend to be much more advanced than the former Princely States.