The driver does not have proper insurance at this point. since the insurance did not cover provisional licenses, the insurance provider mask likely does not have to pay out on any claim.
Driver's licensure is a condition of getting auto insurance.
The answer should be yes to both parts of the question. You should notify them.
The money is for an autorepair. I would recomend using it for that, or the insurance company can possibly charge you with intent to defraud.
No, you can't. When you collect from your insurance company, they will pursue the other driver's insurance because the accident wasn't your fault. When your insurance company finds out that you collected from the other insurance company already, they will come after you. It's called double-dipping and it most likely wouldn't end well.
It is possible that the insurance rate would go up if a permitted driver has an accident. Usually, raising insurance rates is not an individual decision.
Typically, the uninsured driver will be cited for it, and your insurance co. is liable for the damages.
The owner of the car is liable for the accident itself and the damage. However, the insurance company might have to pay for it, depending on the owners insurance cover.
He may be at fault for not having insurance. He may or may not be at fault for the accident. Whether or not a driver carries insurance is a separate issue than the one concerning who is at fault in an accident. Do not confuse them or let them overlap. A good, objective assessor won't.
If a taxi driver hits you, and its his fault, the cab company's insurance pays.