There were a number of European countries that either (a)
colonized Africa, (b) were imperial powers, but did not colonize
Africa, or (c) were neither imperial nor colonial powers in the
(a) Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, Italy,
(b) Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Netherlands
(c) Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania
Britain, France, Belgium and Germany to name a few of the major countries that colonized parts of Africa. they were in a sort of Competition . No major powerful European country didn't have a colony.