What are the differences in Lincoln's Plan Johnson's Plan and Radical Plan after the civil war?
The differences in between Lincoln's and Johnson's plans and the
Radical Republicans Plan were, the radical republican's plan was to
punish the south and make sure blacks were made completely equal to
whites. Lincoln and Johnson's plans were just to get the union back
together without punishment.
Lee's overall plan for the Gettysburg Campaign was risky because, though it is usually termed an invasion, it was in fact a gigantic raid. This was because in venturing into the north Lee would have only the most tenuous lines of supplies, particularly for ammunition. Without a well established means of supply, an army cannnot hope to remain indefinitely on enemy soil as an invader; the presence can only be temporary, which makes it a raid, even though on a tremendous scale. Everything his army needed would have to be brought north from the Potomac River by horse drawn wagon, through miles of enemy territory. Almost every major Civil War battle was fought near a railroad or a navigable waterway, because one or the other was required to bring supplies to the army. Relying on horse drawn transportation was not really feasible, because the horses have to eat, and so their wagons must also carry food for the horses. Beyond a certain number of miles nothing but horse feed can fit in the wagon. Lee's army could depend to a certain extent on "foraging" to feed the men and animals. Foraging meant taking all food from farms the army passed, and foraging parties would be sent out to either side of the army's line of march, to do the same. They also took all the horses and mules they could find. The Pennsylvania farmers knew this would happen and tried to move their animals away, and hide their food. But foraging could only be done when it was safe for Lee's army to be somewhat dispersed, and spread out over the countryside. When the enemy appeared, the army had to concentrate in one place, and foraging could not be done. Food would soon run short. Lee's plan was to remove the war from Virginia, at least long enough to let the Virginia farmers get a crop in, without having it foraged away by one army or the other, and to live off of Pennsylvania farms, but he also hoped to win the war while he was in the north, by defeating and destroying the Union army. This meant a huge battle, and there would be only the one try at it, because the ammunition they had with them would be, and was, used up in that one effort. So, if Lee failed to win the war while he was in the north, then sooner or later afterward, because of food and ammunition shortages, he was going to have to go back south, and when he did, it was going to look like a retreat, no matter what he had accomplished short of outright victory. This would be bad for morale, of both the army and southern civilians. Another risk of Lee's plan to invade the north was that it committed the Confederacy to the war in the east. There was not enough strength to both carry out Lee's plan, and to also deal decisively with the threat of Grant's army in Mississippi to Vicksburg. Following Lee's plan meant a choice to stake all on a victory conquered in the east, and hope Vicksburg could hold out against Grant with what resources could be scraped up to deal with that crisis. As it turned out, this was a vain hope, and Vicksburg was lost and the Confederacy cut in two, at almost exactly the same moment Lee was failing to obtain a total victory in the east. Some have argued since that it would have been better to remain on the defensive in the east in 1863, instead of invading the north, and to detach as much strength as could thus be spared for an effort to crush Grant in Misissippi.