What are the different parts of the desktop?

These are parts required in a basic computer and not other systems such as a gaming computer with complicated technologies such as watercooling systems. These parts are not limited to and may include:

the case/tower, power supply, motherboard, hard-drive, cpu(Processesor) with fan/cooler, RAM/Memory, just as an addition you will need a vga cable, power cord, a monitor.