What country did Judaism start in?
The country Judaism started in was Israel in the Middle East
The culture, philosophy, and practice of Judaism evolved in the region that is now known as Israel.
The general religious answer is that Judaism originated in Israel, but there are three acceptable religious answers (Israel, Harran, and Sinai). In addition there is also the historical answer (Slow Development in Israel and Babylon). These four viewpoints are discussed below.
The general correct answer is the Holy Land (Canaan; today's Israel), since it was there that Abraham lived most of his life. It was there that Abraham made a covenant with God (Genesis ch.15) and raised his family and taught disciples to carry on his beliefs and traditions (see Genesis 18:19).
Religious: Harran (North Syria/South Turkey) -- The Road Between Babylonia and Israel
Judaism, theoretically, could also have developed in Harran, since it was there that the young Abraham lived for several decades (after being born in Ur) and began teaching others about the One God.
Religious: Sinai (Northeast Egypt)
The Jewish people officially became a nation at Mt. Sinai when G-d revealed Himself to 2 million people and gave them the Torah (Exodus ch.19). This differs from other religions in the fact that the revelation involved the whole nation and not just one individual.
Historical: Israel and Babylonia (Central Iraq)
Jewish teachings began to crystallize in the times of the Kings of Israel, but those beliefs and traditions did not crystallize until the Jewish Exile in Babylon. It was at this point, that the Torah was completed as opined by the JEPD hypothesis.
Judaism was founded by Abraham in the Fertile Crescent.
Abraham (18th century BCE) was born in Ur (Mesopotamia; now Iraq), where he first repudiated idolatry. He then sojourned in Harran (Syria) for several years, and then lived most of his life in Canaan (Israel).
It was in Canaan that Abraham lived most of his life, made a covenant with God (Genesis ch.15), and raised a family to be the center of carrying on his traditions (Genesis 18:19).
Abraham's family carried on his teachings voluntarily. Judaism as a binding, permanent entity, was set forth between God and the Israelite nation descended from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob at Mount Sinai in the time of Moses (Exodus ch.19, ch.24, and 34:27).All of the above places are in the ancient Fertile Crescent.
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