Asked in GeneticsBloodDigestive SystemSimilarities Between
What is hydrolisis?
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology
In what type of reaction are glucose molecules formed from starch?
Asked in Erosion and Weathering
How is hydrolysis weathering different from hydration weathering?
Asked in Science
What type of weathering involves the decomposition of rock as minerals react with substances such as oxgenwater and acids?
Asked in Genetics
When amino acids are joined to form a polypeptide chain a waste molecule is given off as a result of the chemical reaction What is this waste molecule?
What are sources of hydrogen ions in the huan body?
What is the process of joining simple sugars into complex carbohydrates called?
I'm not aware of a specific name for simple sugar->complex carbohydrate conversion. But I know that it is a form of condensation polymerisation - when water is removed from the sugar molecules they join together to fill up vacant chemical bondsS. Syhnthesis Hydration is the process in which a water molecule is removed from two sugar molecules to bond into one complex molecule. The opposite of this process would be called Hydrolisis which would be when water molecules would be added to a complex molecule to create two simple sugar molecules.
Asked in Biology, Biochemistry
Why amylase breaks down starch into maltose instead of glucose directly?
Remember that digestion of starch, the most common carbohydrate in the human diet, begins with the secretion of alpha-amylase from salivary glands in the mouth. Salivary alpha-amylase breaks all the alpha(1-4) glucosidic bonds of starch except those next to branches or its outermost bonds. However, by the time the chewed food reaches the stomach, the acidic conditions into it inactivate the salivary alpha-amylase. In that time, the average lenght of starch has been reduced from several thousands to only eight glucose units. It will be until the food continues in the small intestine when the starch remnants continue it digestion. Then, pancreatic alpha-amylase continues the hydrolisis to produce a mixture of: a) the disaccharide maltose (glucopyranosyl alpha(1-4) glucopyranoside, or alpha-amylose unit); b) the trisaccharide maltotriose (three glucose residues linked with alpha(1-4) bonds; and c) dextrins (oligosaccharides containing alpha(1-6) branches. Finally, specifc enzymes (e.g., alpha-glucosidase, alpha-dextrinase or debranching enzyme, sucrase, and, in infants, lactase), in the brush border membranes of the intestinal mucosa, will finish to break the remnant bonds to hydrolize the oligosaccharides and produce their component monosaccharides. From this point of view, only pancreatic alpha-amylase produces maltose units during the time the food is in the small intestine. The final hydrolisis, where monosaccharides are produced, takes place in the intestinal mucosa.
Asked in Swimming Pools
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using copper ionisation in a swimming pool?
I have been using in smarte pools copper system for 1 year in las vegas. It was a new pool so it never had clorine. Salt pools do use clorine. I have used the copper about once every two weeks and hydrolisis every day. My pool was open all winter and used the spa side often.Added advantage is it turned the very hard las vegas water into soft water and leaves no water marks on my water falls. the system worked on the moon shots in the seventies and still works today. Because of the vegas water I do have to put 1/2 gallon of strong acid per week much cheaper than clorine. Can open eyes under water and never smell anything.
Asked in Biochemistry
What molecule uses active transport?
Considering that active transport is the movement of a solute across a biological membrane such that the movement is directed upward in a concentration gradient (i.e., against the gradient) and requires the expenditure of energy. Acrtive transport is an endergonic process that is often coupled to the hydrolisis of ATP. Three types of ATP hydrolizing, transmembrane proteins or "pumps" are known that actively transport cations: a) P-type ATPases, located mostly in plasma membranes; b) F-type ATPases (F1F0), located in mitochondria; and c) V-type ATPases, located in plant vacuolar membranes and acidic vesicle, such as animal lysosomes. The most known active transport pumps are: (Na+-K+)-ATPase of plasma membrane, Ca2+-ATPase , and (H+-K+)-ATPase of gastric mucosa. Finally, the most known ions that use active transport are Na+, K+, and Ca2+.
Asked in Biotechnology
What are examples product of modern biotechnology?
Biotechnology has presence in different fields, these are some of the most characteristic products that come from biotech development: Biopharmaceuticals, such as: recombinant proteins for treatment of diabetes (insulin), anemia (erythropoietin), cancer (monoclonal antibodies or mAbs, granulocyte colony stimulating factor or GCSF, etc.), multiple sclerosis or MS (interferon), etc. Ecology, such as: conversion of cellulose and lignocellulose compounds by enzymatic hydrolisis and acetone-butanol fermentation. Biofuels, e.g., the obtention of ethanol as biofuel by yeast fermentation of corn raw materials and the production of biogas (methane) by anaerobic fermentation of organic waste (also called as biogas farms). Medicine, the creation of new drugs based upon immobilized proteins or enzymes specific for a particular antigen in degenerative diseases, and the new "nanobots" for specific site-directed deliver biotech drugs. Agriculture, such as: the new genetic modified organisms or GMOs with improved resistance to diseases or plagues and increased or nutrient contents.
Asked in Biochemistry, Digestive System
Why is starch easily digested by mammalian enzymes but cellulose is not?
Humans, with animal metabolism, can digest starch because we have the enzyme alpha-amylase to do the job. Starch is a mixtures of glucans (polymers of glucose) that plants synthesize as their main food reserve, deposited in the cytoplasm of plant cells as insoluble granules of alpha-amylose (a linear polymer of several thousand glucose residues linked by alpha(1-4) bonds), and amylopectin (glucose residues linked by alpha(1-4) bonds and with alpha(1-6) branches every 24 to 30 glucose residues on average). The enzyme alpha-amylase (present in saliva) randomly hydrolyzes all alpha(1-4) glucosidic bonds of starch (except those next to branches, and its outermost bonds). Once the chewed food reaches the stomach, acidic conditions of gastric juices inhibit the enzymatic activity of salivary alpha-amylase. However, by that time, starch has been reduced from several thousand to fewer than eight gluse units. Starch digestion continues in small intestine by the action of pancreatic alpha-amylase and produces a mixture of maltose (a disaccharide of alpha(1-4) linked glucose residues), maltotriose (three glucose residues linkd by alpha(1-4) bonds), and dextrins (oligosaccharides with alpha(1-6) branches) that will be degrades into its monosaccharides by specific enzymes present in brush border membranes of the intestinal mucose (i.e., alpha-glucosidase, alpha-dextrinase or debranching enzyme, sucrase, and, at least in infants, a lactase. Now, animal metabolism cannot metabolize cellulose because alpha-amylase, as the principal enzyme to metabolize starch, and the others that take place in the digestive tract, can hydrolize only glucoses linked with alpha bonds. Cellulose is a polymer of glucoses linked with beta bonds, this a tremendous impediment to alpha-amylase to digest cellulose. This enzymatic hydrolisis is given by microorganims.