the nucleous is positively charged , the electron is negatively charged..the closer to the nucleous an electron is the strongest is the force that attracts it (the force of the nucleous) so more energy is needed to remove it
electrons are closer to the nucleus, force between the nucleus and the electrons is greater, so it takes more energy to remove them.
It is easier to remove an electron from the outer energy level than from one closer to the nucleus. This is due to shielding of the attractive force of the nucleus by inner electrons to outer electrons. It is also due to the relationship of distance and the attraction between two charges.
In general, electrons farther from the nucleus will have more energy than electrons closer in. These "outer" electrons are said to be in higher Fermi energy levels, and they have more kinetic energy than the electrons in lower orbitals. Consider that electrons give up energy to "fall into" closer orbitals, and they will, in general, have less energy than the outer electrons. A consequence of the idea that there is less energy binding outer electrons to that nucleus is that it takes less energy to remove that outer electron from an atom. These are the so called ionization energies of the atom's electrons. And when the electron is in a higher orbital, it has a lower ionization energy. It can be removed more easily. As we attempt to remove more electrons from that atom, it takes progressively more and more energy as we move inward removing electrons.
This is because the atom's radii is getting smaller so the electrons are getting closer to the nucleus, which means there is a greater attraction on these electrons, causing it to be harder to remove the electrons.
Because energy is required to remove an electron from a neutral atom, it increases up and right. It increases up a group and to the right a period because in small atoms, electrons are closer to the nucleus were the attraction is stronger. So these are harder to remove. But in larger atoms, electrons are further from the nucleus and are easier to remove. I learned this in my Chemistry class this year. Hope this helps anyone.
Valence electrons, those electrons in the outer shell of atoms, have lower ionization energies than inner electrons have. It doesn't take as much energy to remove valence electrons from a given atom as it does to remove electrons from closer-in orbitals.
This is called the ionization energy and an is different for each electron in the atom. Electrons in the outer shell (furthest from the nucleus) have the lowest ionization energy, electrons in the innermost shell (closest to the nucleus) have the highest ionization energy.
There is an attraction of the nucleus for electrons. This attractive force must be overcome to remove an electron. The energy to overcome this attraction and remove an electron from the atom is 'ionization energy'.
The electron closest to the nucleus has the lowest energy level. Since electrons are attracted to the nucleus, it takes energy to make them orbit at a greater distance (and even more energy to remove them from orbit entirely).
Generally speaking, yes. A smaller atomic radius means valence electrons are closer to the nucleus; therefore, the Coulombic attraction between the positive nucleus and those electrons will be greater due to their proximity. The farther away a valence electron is from the nucleus, the easier it will be to ionize (remove an electron from) that atom.
electrons in energy levels that are further from the nucleus have the most energy.(the electron shells closest to the nucleus have the lowest energy) this means because the second energy level is further from the nucleus than the first electron, more energy is going to be needed to remove the second electron.
Boron has 5 protons in the nucleus and Carbon has 6 protons in the nucleus. These hold the electrons in place, and since both have electrons in the 2nd energy level (period 2), the electrons are the same distance from the nucleus. So, it will be harder to remove an electron from carbon than from boron, because of the greater attraction by the nucleus. Thus a higher ionization energy.
The first electrons to be removed (1st ionization energy) are the ones that are farthest from the nucleus, and so are not held as tightly (further from the positive protons). As you move closer to the nucleus (2nd and 3rd ionization energies), it becomes harder (more energy) to remove them because they are held more tightly by the protons.
When an atom becomes ionized by losing an electron, the ion will have a positive charge. In order to remove a second electron, you now have to overcome the extra attraction that the electron has toward the positively charged ion. Electrons are attracted to a nucleus even in a neutral atom, because the electrons are negatively charged and the nucleus is positively charged, but electrons are also repelled by other electrons in the same atom, which partially balances the attraction of the nucleus. So when there are fewer electrons, the remaining electrons are more strongly attached to the nucleus, and it takes more energy to remove them.
The ionization energy is the energy it requires to remove an electron from an atom. As you go across the rows, the number of protons (atomic number) increases which increases the positive charge on the nucleus. That, in turn, holds its electrons closer to the atom making it more difficult to remove an electron.
Electrons and protons do interact with each other in that the electrons are pulled towards the positively charged nucleus of the atom (positive attracts negative). Because of the force generated from this interaction, energy is required to remove an electron from an atom (ionization energy). The electrons of an atom are arranged into shells of varying energy around the nucleus and can interact with electrons in other elements to form bonds that can be covalent or ionic.
ionization energy of lithum is greater than sodium.Reason is that atomic size of lithum is smaller than sodium.so,in lithum attraction of nucleus is greater on electrons in valance shell than nucleus of sodium.In other words electrons are more tightly bound by nucleus in lithum than in sodium.so,more energy is required to remove electron from lithum than sodium and amount of energy required to remove electron is ionization energy.
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove one electron from an atom's outer shell. (The atom must be in its neutral state) First ionization energy is the energy required to remove the first electron, second ionization energy is the energy required to remove the second electron (after the first has already been removed) etc. First ionization energy tends to increase across a row, as the number of electrons within the outer shell also increases(the more "full" an outer shell, the more difficult it is to remove single electrons). The reason for this is that as the number of electrons in the outer shell increases, so too does the "Z" effect (the attraction between the nucleus and the valence (outer) electrons). First ionization energy tends to decrease as you go down the periodic table. The reason for this is that there are more electron shells, and thus, less attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons. The more electron shells there are, the more shielding occurs between the nucleus and the outermost electrons. Thus, it is easier to remove electrons. Though this trend is not 100% accurate, it is a descriptive general trend.
the force of attraction between then nucleus and the valence electrons is less than that between the nucleus and the core electrons
If you remove the outer electrons of an atom, the remaining nucleus and inner electons would be called an ion.
The ionization energy.
More tightly. There is an electrical attraction between the positively-charge nucleus and the negatively-charged electrons. By removing an electron, the same positive force is now working on one-fewer electrons, so it is stronger, and it takes more energy to remove the second, and even more to remove a third, and so on...
Non metals have high ionisation energies, since they tend to gain electrons. They have more electrons in the valence shell compared to metals, therefore more energy is required to remove them. They also have more protons, which is essentially the pulling power, therefore the electrons are closer and more energy is required to remove them.
Think of it as like trying to lift a heavy stone up out of a conical pit. The nucleus is down at the bottom of the pit. It takes more work (energy) to remove the stones (electrons) that are deeper in the pit (closer to the nucleus). Remember that the lower numbered shells are lower (deeper) in the pit, and you won't go wrong.
Moving down a group, the atomic radius increases because energy levels are being added with each period. So the outermost electrons are farther away from the positively charged nucleus, so the force of attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons is less. So it takes less energy to remove an electron.