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because germanium has lower energy gap between conduction and valence bands

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Q: Why the breakdown voltage of silicon is 0.7V whereas for germanium it is 0.3V?
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Why is Copper a good conductor and how is it's structure different from silicon and germanium?

The reason why copper is a good conductor is because there are a lot of free electrons that can carry the flowing current efficiently. These free electrons do not remain permanently associated with the copper atoms, instead they form an electron ‘cloud’ around the outside of the atom and are free to move through the solid quickly. http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/ElementWebSites/copper/uses_of_copper.htm


How are carbonate mineral different from silicate minerals?

Carbonate minerals contain carbon and oxygen in the form of the carbonate ion (CO3-), whereas silicate minerals contain silicon and oxygen in the form of various ions containing silicon and oxygen.


What makes silicon like a non-metal?

Silicon is normally classified as a metalloid. It resembles a non-metal in the following respects:- elemental silicon is not a good conductor and is a brittle solid. In its chemistry silicon does not form ionic compounds where it is the cation. It has many resemblances to carbon forming silane SiH4, a gas, covalent compound- also there are compounds wuth chains of silicon atoms (although by no means as extensive as carbon) Its oxide is "acidic" whereas metal oxides are basic or amphoteric (react with bases and acids)


Why diamond has a higher melting point than silicon carbide?

The bond energy of Si -C is generally considered to be lower than that of the C-C, so a simple explanation is that diamond has a stronger bond. Both diamond and silicon carbide have a three dimensional network structure. Diamond consists of tetrahedral bonded carbon atoms whereas silicon carbide has many polymorphs (crystal structure which are temperature dependant). As you heat silicon carbide up the crystal structure changes. Silicon carbide does not melt "congruently" to give a liquid of the same composition, it decomposes at around 2700 0C .


What element fills the role of carbon?

There is really no other element that can substitute for carbon. Carbon is unique. There are other elements with four valance electrons, such as silicon, but silicon forms stronger bonds than carbon, therefore you do not get the same flexibility of compounds that can be changed relatively easily. Carbon dioxide is a gas, which is essential to photosynthesis, whereas silicon dioxide is a solid, with a very high melting point and a very low solubility in water, which does not form a part of biological processes. So silicon does not make a good substitute for carbon.

Related questions

Why the graph of breakdown voltage is cheaper than knee voltage?

Break down voltages happens at low voltages (.6 for silicon & .3 for germanium), whereas knee voltages at higher voltages. That's why its cheaper.


What is the cut in voltage of germanium and silicon diodes?

cut in voltage *** for silicon is 0.7volts and that for germanium is 0.3volts.According to Millman and Taub, "Pulse, Digital and Switching Waveforms", McGraw-Hill 1965, the cutin (or offset, break-point or threshold) voltage for a silicon diode is 0.6, and 0.2 for germanium.Breakdown voltage is another thing entirely. It is the reverse voltage at which the junction will break down.


Compare the characteristics of a silicon and germanium diode?

Potential barrier of silicon is 0.7, whereas potential barrier of germanium is 0.3


Why silicon prefer to germiniuam?

Four reasons. First, it is a LOT cheaper and easier to get silicon. Germanium is a trace element in rocks. You need to mine and process lots of rock to get any germanium. Silicon is also known as sand--very easy to find. Second, germanium is heat sensitive. It's harder to solder a germanium device in than a silicon one because the heat can mess up the germanium. Germanium devices pretty much have to be soldered in by hand because you have to heat sink them, whereas silicon devices can be soldered in a soldering machine. Third, germanium's hazardous and silicon is generally not. People eat off glass plates, which are made from silicon. They do NOT eat from germanium plates, if they could even afford them. And fourth, germanium has a variable voltage drop--the higher the voltage, the greater the drop. If you pump 5000 volts into a silicon diode, you're going to get 4999.3v out the other side.


Why is silicon is preferred is germanium?

Silicon is actually preferred to germanium within the manufacture of semiconductor devices due to the following reasons:Silicon is cheap and abundantIn silicon, leakage current is less affected by temperature as compared to germanium.The leakage current in silicon is very very small as compared to germanium.The working temperature of silicon is more than that of germanium. The working junction temperature of silicon can go as high as 150C whereas the working junction temperature of germanium can only go as high as 60CSilicon dioxide is a stable insoluble solid that can be used both to electrically insulate circuitry and to passivate junctions preventing contamination (allowing use of inexpensive plastic packages), germanium dioxide is a crumbly water soluble solid (this requires all germanium devices to be packaged in expensive metal or glass hermetically sealed cases and making germanium integrated circuits almost impossible)


Which element does gallium have more in common with germanium or indium?

Gallium has more in common with indium as they are both metals whereas germanium is a metalloid.


Why is the co-valency of silicon 6 whereas that of carbon is 4?

silicon is 4 not 6


Why Silicon is used widely as a semiconducting material?

AnswerSilicon is abundant in nature as SiO2(sand).Getting the Si from SiO2 is comparatively easier than other semiconductors like Ge.And Silicon is a better conductor at room temperature.valence electron in germanium are in fourth shell whereas on silicon valence electron is in third shell.germanium valence electron are at higher energy level than silicon .hence germanium valence electron will need smaller amount of energy to escape form the atom due to this germanium more number of electron pair than silicon . hence leakage current is more.this property makes germanium more unstable at high temperature.


Will a zener diode work the same as a germanium diode?

No. An ordinary diode, be it silicon or germanium, conducts in one direction only, whereas a zener diode conducts in both directions, but at different voltages. An ordinary diode is used to rectify, using its forward bias characteristics, while a zener diode is used to regulate, using its reverse bias characteristics.


Why silicon is preferred over germanium as a semiconductor?

The oxide of silicon is a stable insulating insoluble solid, making it possible to integrate the metal interconnects in planar layers over the semiconductor. The oxide of germanium is unstable and soluble in water, making it necessary to connect the integrated components with individual wires which is far too labor intensive and is also impractical for integration levels beyond MSI. Texas Instruments made some prototype SSI germanium ICs this way in 1958 and 1959 but abandoned the process when they licensed Fairchild's planar silicon IC process. No ICs are made of germanium now, only discrete transistors and diodes. Some work has been done on ICs made of silicon-germanium alloy, but I am not sure of the current status.


Why only silicon in IC fabrication?

Transistors require semiconductor material to be able to function since a transistor must be able to change it's state of conductivity according to its working conditions. Although many elements these days are involved in manufacturing of transistors. Fundamentally two common semiconductors are described for educational purpose for BJT (bipolar junction transistors). They are Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge). Silicon is never intrinsic (pure) in transistors. To form a p-n-p or n-p-n junction they are doped with pentavalent (5 valance electrons) and trivalent (3-valance electrons) impurities into their crystal lattice. Common impurities in silicon transistors may be trivalent Boron for p-type and pentavalent phosphorus for n-type. Germanium conducts better when in conductive state than silicon due to 32 electrons per atom, but due to high electron density the device can handle very little electrical current. Germanium was used in the past for pre-amplifiers. Silicon does not have as good conductivity and also does not provide very high hfe values. The highest hfe value you will find in signal transistors would be approximately 300, whereas power transistors you would commonly have an hfe of about 25. Silicon only has 14 electrons per atom. The main advantage is with silicon is that it has a lower electron density when it is in conductive state; to allow larger currents and higher power dissipation. In the past, difficulty was experienced with the practical use of silicon due to its lack of 'purity'. Once a purer form of silicon was produced, there was no stop to it. Silicon is more cost effective. In 1998 silicon sold for $10 p/kg compared to germanium which was almost at $1800 p/kg. Germanium is showing some comeback again. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) in wireless communications devices are being replaced with Silicon-germanide (SiGe) and become more useful with modern high speed integrated circuits. Germanium is also commonly used in infrared night vision systems and fiber-optics. Ultimately one cannot say that Silicon is the only element used in transistors, but what one can say is that it is probably the most commonly used and most fundamental for modern applications.


What is the comaprison of felsic and mafic?

Felsic minerals are Silicon-rich; whereas Mafic ones are low in Silicon, but contain Iron and Magnesium.