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Germanium

Germanium (Ge) is a metalloid semiconductor. It is commonly used in optics and electronic circuitry.

1,305 Questions
Germanium

What is the ionic charge for germanium?

Germanium is in the fourth period of the periodic table. It exhibits two oxidation states GeII and GeIV

This tendency for a lower oxidation state is termed the "inert pair effect".

Looking at the halides GeF2 is a volatile white solid with an unusual structure which does not suggest that the bonding is ionic.

GeCl4 is a covalent molecular compound like CCl4 and SiCl4

the oxides GeO2 and GeO are both known but GeO is unstable disproportionates to GeO2 and metallic germanium. In the oxides the bonding but like silicon oxides, it is best described as covalent.

So in summary Ge2+ and Ge4+ (and these will probably be present in mass spectrometer beams) with the proviso that ions with a 4+ charge in reality are so strongly polarising that they will form bonds with a degree of covalency.

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How many valence electrons in germanium have?

4, like all semiconductors.

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Germanium

Is germanium a good conductor of heat?

Germanium is a semiconductor, it means that electrons are relatively strongly attached to nuclei. As result its thermal properties change. Generally semiconductors have worse thermoconductivity than metals but better than insulators.

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Electronics Engineering
Germanium

Why you use silicon not germanium in SCR?

because lekage current of silicon is less than germenium

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What is the typical value of the barrier potential for a germanium diode?

0.3v as opposed to the silicon 0.6v

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Germanium

What acid can dissolve germanium?

Use Aquaregia

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Germanium

What the chemical formula for germanium and sulfur?

Ge is Germanium, S is Sulfur, Germanium (di)sulfide is GeS2

Germanium disulfide refers to the chemical compound with the formula GeS2. It is a colourless white crystalline material, which melts at roughly 800 °C.

Germanium sulfide was the first germanium compound found by Clemens Winkler during the analysis of argyrodite. The fact that germanium sulfide is not soluble in acidic water made it possible for Winkler to isolate the new element from the other elements.

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Electronics Engineering
Germanium

Why silicon is used in most of semiconductors than germanium?

Silicon is the second most abundant material in the Earth's crust (nearly 26%, sThe advantages of Si over Ge are:

=> Stable and strong material & crystal structure like diamond

=> Si has a wider bandgap than Ge

=> higher operating temperature (125-175 oC vs. ~85 oC) and thus become intrinsic at higher temp.

=> Si readily forms a native oxide (SiO2) high-quality insulator protects and "passivates" underlying circuitry helps in patterning useful for dopant masking.

=>Large variety of process steps possible without the problem of decomposition (as in the case of compound semiconductors)

=> Si is cheap and abundant

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Germanium

Why is Copper a good conductor and how is it's structure different from silicon and germanium?

The reason why copper is a good conductor is because there are a lot of free electrons that can carry the flowing current efficiently. These free electrons do not remain permanently associated with the copper atoms, instead they form an electron ‘cloud’ around the outside of the atom and are free to move through the solid quickly. http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/ElementWebSites/copper/uses_of_copper.htm

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Germanium

Germanium diode works at 0.3v?

To forward bias a germanium diode you need to reach between 0.2 and 0.3 V between anode (+) and cathode (-). Once this voltage is reached, the diode will conduct.

Make sure you have a resistor to limit the forward current to a safe (for the diode, that is) value.

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Germanium

What is a germanium's atomic number How many electrons does germanium have?

Germanium Atomic number is 32 and the number of electrons is 32

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Germanium

What would you multiply atoms of germanium by to get the units grams of germanium?

There is no direct relationship between atoms of germanium and grams of germanium. Use Avogadro's number to convert atoms to moles, and the atomic mass to convert moles to grams.

Since you are converting from atoms Ge, this goes in the denominator (on the bottom) of the first factor. You want to end up in units of grams of Ge, so this goes in the numerator (on the top) of the last factor.

atoms Ge1.00 mole Ge72.6 gram= g Ge6.02E+23 atom Ge1.00 mole Ge

Note that the units atoms germanium "cancel out" in the first factor and you are left in units of moles. Moles cancel out in the second factor and the final units are grams germanium.

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Electronics Engineering
Solid State Physics
Germanium

Why germanium and silicon are considered as best semiconductors?

actually diamond should be much better, if fabrication issues can be solved, it is faster and will operate up to 600ºC junction temperature. Silicon is limited to 150ºC junction temperature and Germanium is limited to 50ºC to 60ºC. Germanium was originally used because it was easiest to purify and process. Silicon is the cheapest material now, it comes from sand and there is no shortage of that.

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Germanium

Why Silicon transistor are preferred to germanium transistors?

)silicon has got less leakage current

2)high threshold voltage (to avoid unwanted triggering of the device from noise)

3)more adhesive to aluminum

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Germanium

Which is the pentavalent impurity is boron or germanium or indium or antimony?

Which is the pentavalent impurity is boron or germanium or indium or antimony

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Germanium

Uses of germanium diode?

Answer

Germanium Diodes have a lower forward drop voltage (of 0.3V) compared to more common Silicon Diodes (forward voltage of 0.7V).

Germanium diodes are not very common these days and are hard to find but are still used in hobby AM radio receivers as detectors and also in battery circuits connected to Solar panels.

Very common in guitar pedals.

- Neeraj Sharma

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What is the electron dot notation for germanium?

4 individual dots around the symbol "Ge" (same as for carbon).

See the Related Questions to the left for how to count the valence electrons, which is what the electron dot notation keeps track of.

1..............aplus

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Electronics Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Germanium

If diode works properly in 0.7volts than why we you use ideal diode and practical diode?

In theory A diode clamps 0.7 volts across it but in practice the number is not exactly 0.7 volts because it can not be controlled. This is only the case with Silicon Diodes (clamping 0.7 volts), as Germanium ones, ideally clamp 0 Volts, but in practice it is not exactly Zero.

Basically, in practice it is not exactly 0.7 volts but when doing theory one assumes it to be 0.7volts for ease of operation.

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Germanium

What is the noble gas notation for germanium?

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2

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Germanium

What does germanium taste like?

It tastes all metally.

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Germanium

What is the atomic number of germanium?

The atomic number of germanium (Ge) is 32

The atomic weight of Ge is 72.61 grams per mole.

See the Web Links to the left of this answer for a periodic table with more information about this element!

32

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