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Native American History

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Herbert Boyer

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โˆ™ 2021-10-06 18:34:11
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Cards in this guide (22)
What was the Trail of Tears

In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed into law "The Indian Removal Act" which allowed or authorized the removal of the "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Seminole) to "Indian Territory" (modern day Oklahoma).
In 1831 combined army, militia, and volunteer forces began to move these tribes along one of several routes to two forts located in Indian Territory: Fort Gibson and Fort Townson. The last tribe moved were the Cherokee in 1838. It should be noted that some tribes accepted bribes of money and or lands, while others did not and were forced under the threat of death - some of these rebelled resulting in armed conflict. During the move there were several way stations along the route, but not all had proper provisioning. For various reasons (from bad planning or indifference to intentional lack of concern, to malfeasant action), many Indians were not allowed or given access to proper food, medical supplies, warm clothing, nor allowed to rest for any significant period of time, which resulted in the deaths of many tribal members. These deaths were exacerbated by the untended dead left along the trail.
The native Americans began to call this trail or series of trails, the "Trail where they Wept / Cried" and it has been changed a little to "The Trail of Tears" by modern translation. The Arkansas Gazette quoted Thomas Harkins (a Choctaw) as saying "[it was] a trail of tears and death"
There were approximately 11 of these trails, taken by different tribes based upon location. They ranged in distance from 200 to 900 miles and went through 14 states (These distances do not include oversea travel):

  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Kentucky
  • Tennessee
  • Georgia
  • Alabama
  • Louisiana
  • Florida
  • Texas
  • Oklahoma
  • Arkansas
  • Missouri
  • Mississippi
  • Illinois

NUMBER OF DEATHS
The number of dead are only estimates, as there was no accurate count taken:
  • Choctaw: 2,500 to 6,000
  • Muscogee (Creek): No estimate
  • Chickasaw: No Estimate - paid $530,000 dollars
  • Cherokee: 4,000 to 15,000
SEMINOLE WAR
The Seminole resisted movement and started a 'minor' war with the US. The first detachment of 110 US soldiers sent to move the Seminole were attacked and 107 were killed. The government marshaled 500 soldiers against the Seminole and the war lasted for 10 years, costing the US Government 20 million dollars. The US eventually gave up hunting through the swamps of Florida for stragglers. There are no other estimates of dead, on either side.

INCLUSION OF SLAVES (Negro slaves):
African American Slaves either as freedmen, as members of the tribes by marriage, or as slaves of the Indians, were forced to move with the Indians at this same time. The inclusion of these families led to the current conflicts of "[the] Freedmen" of the Cherokee nation.

*Please note that this is not intended to be an all-inclusive answer, it is a basic answer to the questions on the subject and could be expanded into a very large book.
What belief was one important feature of the second great awakening

a belief in personal responsibility for salvation

What was the advantage of canals

They connected the middle of the country with the coastal cities.

How did the laws of Georgia affect the Cherokee

The laws allowed the Indians to be treated badly.

Why did so many Americans take part in reform movements

An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on moral issues.

What was one result of the domestic slave trade

Slave families were split up.

What nonreligious movement loved nature and favored a simple life

Transcendentalism

Why was the migration of the Cherokee called the Trail of Tears

The Cherokee had already "refused" to move but they were forcefully moved to Oklahoma. Jackson was already out of presidency but he is held responsible for starting the further intentions for this trail of tears.

Why was cotton called a cash crop

it brought in alot of money

What helped the Cherokee survive on the Trail of Tears

They hunted game to eat (Apex 2020)

What was true about the treaty of new echota

One of the things the Treaty of New Echota did was that it divided the Cherokee.

Why did some Cherokee leaders accept the Treaty of New Echota

they feared more mistreatment

Why did slaveholders try to convince poor whites that slavery was justified

needed their political support

What Trail of Tears ended in the present state

Oklahoma

How did the price of cotton change over time

it decreased (APEX)

Which state was considered part of the Old South

Virginia

Which abolitionist leader originally came from the South

=angelina grimke.

What was a danger of being sold to plantations in the deep south

The further downriver, the more brutal the slave-drivers. Hence the menacing threat that you would be 'sold down the river'.

Jefferson Davis was an exception, that he farmed in Mississippi (although born in Kentucky), and treated his slaves so well that they didn't want their freedom.

What conditions were made even more harsh for slaves

All of the above

What is the overall message of a story

The overall message of a story is called the theme - it's what the author is trying to tell the readers.

What happened to the Cherokee after their forced removal from Indian territory

they continued to lose land promised to them

U.S. cotton exports supplied fiber for clothing and in turn

Encouraged worldwide industrial development

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