Australia Gold Rushes

The Australian gold rushes: facts about life and personalities in the goldfields, and how the gold rushes shaped Australia's history.

2,760 Questions
History of the United States
History of Australia
Australia Gold Rushes

What were the positives of the Australian gold rush?

i dont knowwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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History of Australia
Australia Gold Rushes
Bushrangers

What was the food for bushrangers on the goldfields?

Bushrangers survived on the goldfields and elsewhere by various means. Some of them stole provisions owned by the settlers in outlying areas of the goldfields, helping themselves freely to salted meats, potatoes, onions, flour and so on. They also stole from store owners in the towns.

Others hunted wild rabbits and native animals.

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Australia Gold Rushes

Was the Eureka stockade a riot or a revolution?

In essence, the Eureka Stockade was a rebellion which led to a revolution in how the diggers were represented in government.

The Eureka Stockade was not a riot because there is no evidence that the diggers who fortified themselve in the stockade were unruly.

In more ways, it was a revolution, because it caused the government to take notice of the conditions on the goldfields, and it led to the birth of democratic representation in Australia.

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Australia Gold Rushes

Why were the miners unable to pay for the miner's license?

There were several reasons why the diggers on the goldfields could not pay for their licence. To begin with, the fees were exorbitant and unfair, and did not last a year, but had to be paid monthly. The diggers simply did not find enough gold to pay for the cost of renewing their licence as well as being able to pay for food. Few miners really struck it rich. There were too many people crowding the goldfields, and not enough gold for them to find easily to make it worthwhile. Many miners were also tradesmen and businessmen who had left their employment, and were not used to the incredibly hard labour of life on the goldfields. There was no workplace Health and Safety in those days - accidents were common, and men would be injured or even killed while mining.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What dangers did the miners face traveling to and from the goldfields?

The biggest danger was bushrangers and other desperate criminals.

Natural hazards such as snakes caused dangers - not so much for the people, as snakes would quickly escape from humans, but because they could scare the horses into suddenly rearing and bolting.

Many people were unprepared for the long journey, and took insufficient food, whilst lack of water was always a possibility.

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Australia Gold Rushes
California Gold Rush

What were the Chinese diggers like in the gold rush?

The Chinese diggers were hard and honest workers, but kept to themselves, as most didn't speak English or trust the other diggers.

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Australia Gold Rushes

How did the Australian gold rush affect the Aborigines?

Aborigines rarely bothered to look for gold, but they were able to trade with the miners. Some of them even became members of the Native Police Corps, and many were employed as "black trackers".

The aboriginal people saw little value in gold for themselves. Gold not be eaten; it could not be used in any practical ways. The Aborigines benefitted more by offering their services as guides to potential diggers looking for new sites. Also, with the wave of workers leaving sheep and cattle stations for the goldfields, Aborigines had better prospects with employment there, rather than the goldfields.

However, the rush of diggers to the goldfields increased the problems of displacement of the Aborigines from their own land. The effects of gold mining on the land were devastating and long-lasting. Gold mining ripped up the land, polluted the rivers and creeks, and left nothing for the aboriginal people who had lived there for centuries. Aborigines were again dispossessed of their land as they had been time and time again since the arrival of the Europeans. After having been forced off tribal lands by settlers and pastoralists, the goldrush forced even more Aborigines deeper into the interior. However, it must also be noted that, with the new wealth of the country and expanding farming land, many Aborigines were given opportunities to work on the sheep and cattle stations. The cost of European labour had increased dramatically with the goldrush, and Aborigines were seen as a cheap alternative.

See the links below for more information on how Aborigines benefitted from the gold rush.

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English to Greek
Australia Gold Rushes
Portuguese to English

What does 'Eureka' mean?

I have found it!

Eureka is a Greek word meaning "Ah-ha!" or "I have found it."

Legend has it that Archimedes shouted the word when he realized that the volume of an irregular solid could be determined by submerging it in water and measuring the amount of water it displaced.

Eureka is an expression which was made famous by the scientist Albert Einstein who made many great advances in science.

Eureka is also a small town in which a show that is on the Sci Fi channel is based off of.

Many people also may use the word in the sentence "it was a Eureka moment" meaning that they all of a sudden had a great idea.

See the website below for detailed information:

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Australia Gold Rushes

Why did the government tell Edward Hargraves to find gold?

nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnno way

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History of the United States
History
Australia Gold Rushes

How were people affected by the impact of the gold rush?

The discovery of gold had lasting effects on Australian society.

  • One of the main effects of the gold rushes was on the growing agricultural industry. Many men who worked on the farms, sheep and cattle stations simply downed their tools and left. Workers, owners, roustabouts, stockmen, jackaroos - they left their jobs for the lure of the goldfields. Often women and children were left to tend the stations their husbands left behind. As a result, Aboriginal labour became more popular. The goldrushes saw the rise of loyal Aboriginal stockmen and jackaroos who were willing to work long and hard for perhaps less pay than their predecessors.
  • Because major gold discoveries were made in Victoria, this newly separated state suddenly found itself very wealthy. Businesses boomed, together with the population, and more people settled further out from the established towns, sparking interest and enthusiasm in exploration. Victoria's newfound wealth was directly responsible for the well-equipped but badly managed exploration of Burke and Wills, which ultimately resulted in their deaths.
  • Immigration was a major effect of the Australian goldrush. Enormous numbers of immigrants, especially Chinese, brought their unique cultural influences to Australia, and many of the Chinese stayed on to build businesses in the towns once the main gold deposits were mined out. Gold attracted immigrants from many other European countries as well, and contributed in large part to the multicultural nature of Australia today.
  • The events of the Eureka Stockade formed the basis for democracy that exists in Australia today. The miners fought for better rights amongst difficult conditions on the goldfields. While they did not immediately achieve their objective, it gained the attention of the Government. A Commission of Enquiry was conducted and changes were implemented. These included abolition of monthly gold licences, replaced by an affordable annual miner's licence. The numbers of troopers were reduced significantly, and Legislative Council was expanded to allow representation to the major goldfields.
  • Gold brought wealth to Australia, and with it, a new sense of identity, and the independence and confidence to push for Federation and the establishent of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Basically, Australia no longer needed to be "piggybacked" by England any more.
  • Because of the rivalry between Melbourne, Victoria and Sydney, NSW, a new site was chosen for the Australian capital. Canberra lies where it is today because of this very rivalry brought on by the goldrush.
  • The goldrushes helped bring improvements in transportation. The famous "Cobb and Co Coaches" ran successfully for half a century, thanks to the goldrush. Train lines were built, linking the major centres, and roadways were improved.

Negative effects for Australia included:

  • The greater displacement of the indigenous people as more and more of them were forced off their land.
  • Separation of families as fathers left their jobs and went to the goldfields, hoping to strike it rich, while their wives stayed behind, sometimes having to operate the farms and stations on their own.
  • Environmentally, the goldrush was a disaster, although unrecognised at the time. Features of the Australian landscape were forever altered in the space of a few decades, and soil erosion was a major effect, the evidence of which can still be seen today. Water quality was affected as people used the creeks and rivers for all their activities, including bathing and washing dirty (sometimes disease-ridden) clothes. Water salinity rose as natural watercourses were diverted. Introduced noxious weeds decimated native flora and affected native fauna, as did the introduction of domestic animals to hitherto unpopulated areas.
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Geology
Victoria
Australia Gold Rushes

What were the Ballarat gold miners unhappy about?

The main source of discontent for the miners at Ballarat was the miner's licence, which cost a monthly fee of 30 shillings and permitted the holder to work a 3.6 metre square "claim". Licences had to be paid regardless of whether a digger's claim resulted in the finding of any gold. Troopers (goldfields police) consucted frequent licence hunts, during which the miners were ordered to produce proof of their licences, and this added to the discontent and increasing unrest.

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Australia Gold Rushes
Gold and Precious Metals

How do you find gold at home?

To find gold at home you must first determine if the area where you live is in fact a gold bound area.Not all areas are gold areas just as not all areas are iron ore areas.If you know as fact that gold has been found or mined in your area then an electronic gold detector can be used by sweeping it over the area you feel might have gold in it and listen for a beeping sound.This sound indicates the presence of gold.If you dont have a detector then dig up some earth and place it into a large dished pan ,add water and swish it around so as all the loose dirt etc is washed out and the heavy particles sink to the bottom of the dish.Look for the shinning of the gold in the base of the pan as it will stand out among the rest of the debris.This is hard work but can be fun and rewarding as well with very little cash out lay.If you where to look for gold else where a gold minning licence maybe required.

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Australia Gold Rushes
California Gold Rush

What was a miner's license in the 1850s?

A miner's licence was used so that the miners could dig for gold.

If the people didn't have a licence they were arrested or fined.

At that time, licences costs a lot of money and not many people could afford a licence to mine.

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Australia Gold Rushes
Gold Prospecting

Where was sluicing invented?

Sluices were first used in the alluvial mining of gold placer deposits during the California Gold Rush.

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Australia Gold Rushes

How did the Australian gold rush affect or shape Australia?

There are many ways in which the gold rush in Australia shaped the country.

One of the ways it shaped Australian history was through immigration. The goldrush brought a large number of immigrants to Australia, all of whom contributed their own cultural influences. It was the beginning of multiculturalism in Australia. The Chinese in particular converged on Australia, and resentment against the Asian nationalities was a contributing factor to the introduction of the White Australia Policy in the twentieth century. Enormous numbers of immigrants, especially Chinese, brought their unique cultural influences to Australia, and many of the Chinese stayed on to build businesses in the towns once the main gold deposits were mined out.

There were huge increases in the population. In 1851, Australia's population was 437,655. By the end of the gold rush, 1861, Australia's population had more than doubled and Victoria's, the site of the gold rush, had increased seven-fold. After the goldrush, many of the new towns shrank to just a fraction of their former size, resulting in ghost towns in many areas.

The wealth of the newly-formed state of Victoria caused rivalry with New South Wales, and indirectly led to the most tragic of explorations - that of Burke and Wills. The Victorian government, fired up with zeal, confidence and wealth, commissioned an enormous exploration party that was doomed to failure by its hasty preparation, interesting choice of leader, and the Victorian desire to be the first to cross Australia from south to north. These factors all had a part in the failure of the expedition and the deaths of Burke and Wills.

There was a new boom of Victorian architecture in cities such as Melbourne, and the richness of this architecture can still be seen today. Unfortunately, the bust that inevitably follows a boom contributed to the general deflation of prices from 1860-1900 which caused multiple depressions in Australia's economy.

There was a huge influx of people to the Victorian goldfields, but businessmen, tradesmen, labourers - the very backbone of Australia - together with many of the state's own administrators, abandoned their work. This threatened the state's infrastructure and administration: vital jobs had no-one to do them. Nonetheless, the newfound wealth meant that Britain no longer had any reason to withhold self-government. New rules, policies and legislation were implemented, giving Australia more of an understanding of how to draft future legislation and, indeed, its own constitution.

Because of the rivalry between Victoria and NSW, a new site was chosen for the Australian capital. Canberra lies where it is today because of this very rivalry brought on by the goldrush. Of course, there quite possibly wouldn't have been the need for a capital city were it not for the goldrush: Australia now had the confidence to "go it alone" - to break free from 'Mother Britain" and aim for independence, which it achieved with the federation of the states in 1901.

The goldrushes helped bring improvements in transportation. The famous "Cobb and Co Coaches" ran successfully for half a century, thanks to the goldrush. Train lines were built, linking the major centres, and roadways were improved.

Another way in which the gold rush shaped history was in the development of democracy. The Eureka Stockade was the 1854 miners' uprising on the goldfields of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. Conditions on the Australian goldfields were harsh. The main source of discontent was the miner's licence, which cost a monthly fee of 30 shillings and permitted the holder to work a 3.6 metre square "claim". Licences had to be paid regardless of whether a digger's claim resulted in the finding of any gold. Frequent licence hunts, during which the miners were ordered to produce proof of their licences, added to the increasing unrest. Previous delegations for miners' rights had met with inaction from the Victorian government, so on 29 November 1854, the miners burned their licences in a mass display of resistance against the laws which controlled the miners. Following a massive licence hunt on November 30, Irish immigrant Peter Lalor was elected to lead the rebellion.

On December 1, the miners began to construct a wooden barricade, a stockade from which they planned to defend themselves against further licence arrests or other incursions by the authorities. At 3:00am on Sunday, 3 December 1854, 276 police and military personnel and several civilians stormed the stockade. It remains unclear which side fired first, but in the ensuing battle, 22 diggers and 5 troopers died.

Although the rebellion itself failed in its objective, it gained the attention of the Government. A Commission of Enquiry was conducted and changes were implemented. These included abolition of monthly gold licences, replaced by an affordable annual miner's licence. The numbers of troopers were reduced significantly, and Legislative Council was expanded to allow representation to the major goldfields. Peter Lalor and another representative, John Basson Humffray, were elected for Ballarat. Later, Lalor was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria. For these reasons, the Eureka Stockade is regarded by many as the birthplace of Australian Democracy.

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Australia Gold Rushes

How did gold affect transport in Australia?

The goldrushes helped bring improvements in transportation in Australia.

The famous "Cobb and Co Coaches" ran successfully for half a century, thanks to the goldrush. Cobb & Co was a passenger and goods transport company which operated from 1853. It had an extensive network of travel routes throughout Victoria and New South Wales (beginning initially on the Victorian goldfields), and even southern Queensland. The company imported specially sprung coaches that could handle Australia's rough roads, and horses were changed at stations along the route.

Steam trains were developed from the 1850s onwards, so railways also began to be built and opened as demand for reliable transportation increased. Train lines were built, linking the major centres, and roadways were improved. Horse-drawn trams were initially used in some areas, until steam-driven and electric trams were brought in during the late 1800s.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What significant role did Cobb and Co have in the Australian gold rush?

The goldrush saw the establishment of the Cobb & Co coach company.

The discovery of gold in Australia in the 1850s brought with it an immediate need for faster and better forms of transport. Four Americans, Freeman Cobb, John Murray Peck, James Swanton and John Lamber started a network of horse and coach runs in a manner similar to what operated in the United States.

Originally called the American Telegraph Line of Coaches, the name was later changed to Cobb & Co. Specially sprung coaches that could handle Australia's rough roads and rocky tracks were imported from America for the enterprise. Horses were replaced at changing stations 25 to 40 kilometres apart, meaning that fresher horses improved travelling time.

The effect of this was faster, better and more reliable transport at a time when traffic to and from the goldfields was increasing exponentially.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What did people on the Australian goldfields eat?

People on the Australian goldfields most commonly ate damper, a simple bread made of flour, salt and water and cooked over an open campfire. They ate mutton with potatoes and onions, perhaps some cabbage and carrots if they were lucky, mutton or rabbit stew, or salted beef. There was, of course, no refrigation, so salted meat was important. Occasionally they might kill a kangaroo or wallaby, but it was not the favoured food. The men might be lucky enough to kill ducks and other waterfowl. Some people kept their own chooks (chickens). There was usually a butcher in the nearest goldfields town who would kill a cow, sheep or pig for fresh meat that was then available for purchase.

Other fruits and vegetables were rare on the goldfields, except for those who were prepared to deal with Chinese, who cultivated market gardens. Food was either brought in with the diggers or bought in one of the "trading posts" that grew up around where the fields were. Food was often very expensive as the local supplier had a monopoly on the market.

People on the goldfields enjoyed billy tea as well, which was tea boiled in a billy over an open fire.

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History of Australia
Australia Gold Rushes

Was one of Peter Lalor's brothers James Fintan Lalor?

Yes. James Fintan was the oldest boy in the family and Peter was the youngest.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What was life on the Australian goldfields like?

Conditions on the Australian goldfields were harsh. The fields were crowded: miners had between 1 and 3 square metres of 'claim' to live and work. Many diggers lived in tents, or even rough, open bark shelters. Those who stayed longer sometimes built larger slab hut dwellings, but these were still very basic. People would live in small humpies made out of wood, scraps and things found around the area. Also many people would live in a canvas tent because they were cheap and portable. Later in the gold rush, when people were more certain about whether they were staying or not, people might decide to live in small cottages. These cottages often incorporated solid brick and stone fireplaces, instead of the diggers having to do all their cooking outside.

The more popular goldfields were crowded and unsanitary, with open latrines running nearby. Scavenging dogs could be seen roaming around, and children wandered unsupervised through the diggings. As a result, disease was rife. These diseases included whooping cough, scarlet fever, measles, cholera, dysentery and typhoid.

Troopers dealt harshly with minor offences. The main source of discontent was the miner's licence, which cost a monthly fee of 30 shillings and permitted the holder to work a 3.6 metre square "claim". Licences had to be paid regardless of whether a digger's claim resulted in the finding of any gold. Frequent licence hunts were conducted, during which the miners were ordered to produce proof of their licences, and this added to the increasing unrest.

Another problem was the exorbitant price of goods on the goldfields. Businesses knew they had a monopoly on the market, and therefore the power to drive their prices up as high as they wished. Many diggers did not wish to spare the time and potential loss of earnings (or even their claim) if they made the extensive journey to the nearest large city, such as Melbourne.

Gold rushes attracted a wide variety of people from all races and parts of society, including China. This created some distrust among the Australians, for the Chinese were a hard-working, reclusive group who did not (and indeed often could not) communicate with the Australians, and tended to find more gold.

The goldfields tended to be out in rocky country (though not always), and often in hilly countryside. They were characterised by many mullock heaps, or mounds of dirt which were the result of diggings. These mullock heaps varied from a few feet to many metres in height and width.

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History of Australia
Australia
Australia Gold Rushes
California Gold Rush

What was the housing at the Gold fields during the time of the Australian gold rushes?

Conditions on the Australian goldfields were harsh. The fields were crowded: miners had between 1 and 3 square metres of 'claim' to live and work. Conditions were unsanitary, due to the open toilet trenches. Many diggers lived in tents, or even rough, open bark shelters. Those who stayed longer sometimes built larger slab hut dwellings, but these were still very basic. People would live in small humpies made out of wood, scraps and things found around the area. Also many people would live in a canvas tent because they were cheap and portable. Later in the gold rush, when people were more certain about whether they were staying or not, people might decide to live in small cottages. These cottages often incorporated solid brick and stone fireplaces, instead of the diggers having to do all their cooking outside.

Those not living on the goldfields but capitalising on the wealth of the goldfields built large, grand stone houses, many of which are still standing today.

See the related Wikipedia link for a range of pictures of different goldfields housing.

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Australia
Australia Gold Rushes

How did the discovery of gold affect Australia?

The discovery of gold had lasting effects on Australian society.

  • One of the main effects of the gold rushes was on the growing agricultural industry. Many men who worked on the farms, sheep and cattle stations simply downed their tools and left. Workers, owners, roustabouts, stockmen, jackaroos - they left their jobs for the lure of the goldfields. Often women and children were left to tend the stations their husbands left behind. As a result, Aboriginal labour became more popular. The goldrushes saw the rise of loyal Aboriginal stockmen and jackaroos who were willing to work long and hard for perhaps less pay than their predecessors.
  • Because major gold discoveries were made in Victoria, this newly separated state suddenly found itself very wealthy. Businesses boomed, together with the population, and more people settled further out from the established towns, sparking interest and enthusiasm in exploration. Victoria's newfound wealth was directly responsible for the well-equipped but badly managed exploration of Burke and Wills, which ultimately resulted in their deaths.
  • Immigration was a major effect of the Australian goldrush. Enormous numbers of immigrants, especially Chinese, brought their unique cultural influences to Australia, and many of the Chinese stayed on to build businesses in the towns once the main gold deposits were mined out. Gold attracted immigrants from many other European countries as well, and contributed in large part to the multicultural nature of Australia today.
  • The events of the Eureka Stockade formed the basis for democracy that exists in Australia today. The miners fought for better rights amongst difficult conditions on the goldfields. While they did not immediately achieve their objective, it gained the attention of the Government. A Commission of Enquiry was conducted and changes were implemented. These included abolition of monthly gold licences, replaced by an affordable annual miner's licence. The numbers of troopers were reduced significantly, and Legislative Council was expanded to allow representation to the major goldfields.
  • Gold brought wealth to Australia, and with it, a new sense of identity, and the independence and confidence to push for Federation and the establishent of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Basically, Australia no longer needed to be "piggybacked" by England any more.
  • Because of the rivalry between Melbourne, Victoria and Sydney, NSW, a new site was chosen for the Australian capital. Canberra lies where it is today because of this very rivalry brought on by the goldrush.
  • The goldrushes helped bring improvements in transportation. The famous "Cobb and Co Coaches" ran successfully for half a century, thanks to the goldrush. Train lines were built, linking the major centres, and roadways were improved.

Negative effects for Australia included:

  • The greater displacement of the indigenous people as more and more of them were forced off their land.
  • Separation of families as fathers left their jobs and went to the goldfields, hoping to strike it rich, while their wives stayed behind, sometimes having to operate the farms and stations on their own.
  • Environmentally, the goldrush was a disaster, although unrecognised at the time. Features of the Australian landscape were forever altered in the space of a few decades, and soil erosion was a major effect, the evidence of which can still be seen today. Water quality was affected as people used the creeks and rivers for all their activities, including bathing and washing dirty (sometimes disease-ridden) clothes. Water salinity rose as natural watercourses were diverted. Introduced noxious weeds decimated native flora and affected native fauna, as did the introduction of domestic animals to hitherto unpopulated areas.

See also the related question below.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What were the names of some people who found gold in the goldfields?

In Australia:

Edward Hargraves: initiated the gold rush in Australia by finding gold near Bathurst, New South Wales (the real finder was John Lister, but Hargraves was given the credit)

Paddy Hannan: started the gold rush that led to the establishment of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia

Jim (or Jack) Larcombe: found the largest gold nugget in eastern Victoria

John Deason and Richard Oates: found the world's largest gold nugget, the Welcome Stranger, in western Victoria

James Nash: found gold near Gympie in Queensland. This led Gympie to be nicknamed "The town that saved Queensland", as the newly formed state was on the brink of bankruptcy prior to the gold discovery.

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Australia Gold Rushes

What did the miners in the Australian goldrush wear?

The men on the Australian gold fields wore loose-fitting, comfortable clothes. They had long trousers held up with a belt, rope or braces. They tended to wear longer sleeved shirts if they were out in the sun, or sometimes they would strip off their shirts when the heat became unbearable - as it often did.

The miners' clothing depended on their ethnic group. Standard clothing for many of European ethnicity was just loose-fitting trousers and shirt, with strong boots. The Chinese wore the clothing of their culture. Many times, miners' clothing may have become quite threadbare: they could not afford new clothing because tailors and/or other suppliers of clothing would chage over-inflated prices, knowing that the rules of supply and demand would dictate how much they could charge. Miners did not want to leave the prospect of "striking it rich" to take a coach all the way to Sydney or melbourne, so suppliers of goods on the goldfields had a monopoly.

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Australia
Australia Gold Rushes

Why was the gold rush good for Australia?

The gold rush had positive lasting effect for Australia in a number of ways.

There were huge increases in the population. In 1851, Australia's population was 437,655. By the end of the gold rush, 1861, Australia's population had more than doubled and Victoria's, the site of the gold rush, had increased seven-fold. After the goldrush, many of the new towns shrank to just a fraction of their former size, resulting in ghost towns in many areas.

There was a new boom of Victorian architecture in cities such as Melbourne, and the richness of this architecture can still be seen today. The newfound wealth meant that Britain no longer had any reason to withhold self-government. New rules, policies and legislation were implemented, giving Australia more of an understanding of how to draft future legislation and, indeed, its own constitution.

Because of the rivalry between Victoria and NSW, a new site was chosen for the Australian capital. Canberra lies where it is today because of this very rivalry brought on by the goldrush. Of course, there quite possibly wouldn't have been the need for a capital city were it not for the goldrush: Australia now had the confidence to "go it alone" - to break free from 'Mother Britain" and aim for independence, which it achieved with the federation of the states in 1901.

The goldrushes helped bring improvements in transportation. The famous "Cobb and Co Coaches" ran successfully for half a century, thanks to the goldrush. Train lines were built, linking the major centres, and roadways were improved.

The gold rush paved the way for the establishment of democracy in Australia. The Eureka Stockade was the 1854 miners' uprising on the goldfields of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. For a variety of reasons, conditions on the Australian goldfields were harsh, leading a large group of miners to barricade themselves in a stockade they had built. The rebellion itself failed in its objective to improve certain conditions on the goldfields, but it gained the attention of the Government. A Commission of Enquiry was conducted and changes were implemented. These included abolition of monthly gold licences, replaced by an affordable annual miner's licence. The numbers of troopers were reduced significantly, and Legislative Council was expanded to allow representation to the major goldfields.

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