General and Special Relativity

Relativity is the theory stating that all measurements depend on the relative motions of the observer and the observed. The theories of general and specific relativity were both proposed by Albert Einstein.

1,975 Questions
Space Travel and Exploration
Physics
General and Special Relativity

What is the spacetime continium?

Think of a 3-D grid. that cover's every millimetre of our universe. One of the lengths is time-space, one is mass and energy and the other one is unknown.

The Space-Time continuum is the gathering of the three space dimensions (x,y,z) and the time dimension (t) used to localize everything and every interactions in our universe.

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This depends upon the Theory of Everything (TOE) used to describe the observable physics of the universe.

In Extreme Relativity:

  • space is scalar causal relationships (this than that)
    • relative distances determined by quantum steps
  • time is recursive causal relationships (that if part of this and part of that)
    • relative time determined by quantum steps

The observation of the connected systems of causal relationships forms the base of space/time.

The supposition is that since there exists instantaneous properties (quantum entanglement - electromagnetics, and gravitational aberration - gravity) that the foundations of observable physics are superimposed on an instantaneous foundation. This unifies all forms of physics.

This create an environment supporting extreme relativity.

In this environment space is infinite but relativistic. Look up at a star at night. The star is many millions of years since the photon began travelling. From your position move over some small amount, or a large amount, and you will see the same photons. No matter how close you get to each point of reference, you have the same causality; the same magnitude assertion for what you observe.

This is all based upon the causal properties of functioned quantum entangled systems.

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General and Special Relativity
Delhi
Lucknow

Top 100 colleges of uptu?

uptu top 100 engineering college ki list

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General and Special Relativity
Physics
Electromagnetic Radiation

What is the difference between a concave and a convex lens?

Convex lenses are thicker in the middle than at the edges. They refract toward the center. Only people have convex lenses. Concave lenses are used in telescopes and glasses. Concave lenses are thinner in the middle than at the edges. When light passes through concave lenses always bend away from each other toward the edges of the lens.
A convex or "positive" lens is thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges. A concave, or "negative" lens is thinner at the middle and thicker at the edges. Convex lenses project a real image behind the lens; concave lenses project a virtual image in front of the lens.

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General and Special Relativity
Energy

List the forms of energy in the human body?

-- chemical

-- thermal

-- gravitational potential

-- spring potential

-- kinetic

-- electrical

-- spiritual

-- creative

-- intellectual

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Books and Literature
Word Brain Teasers
Famous Quotations
General and Special Relativity

Where does this quote come from 'the beginning of eternity the end of time and space the beginning of every end and the end of every race'?

a winner Its not a quote its a riddle. The answer is "e"

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General and Special Relativity
Quantum Mechanics
Particle Physics

What is Hawking radiation used for?

Hawking radiation is not used for anything; however, the theory says that black holes will slowly evaporate. What happens is a virtual particle pops into existence near the event horizon of a black hole, where a photons randomly turns into a particle an its antiparticle for about 10^(-31) seconds. The particles quickly annihilate and the law of conservation of energy and respected.

However, near a black hole, one of the particles falls into the black hole and the other does not, meaning they do not annihilate and conserve the law of conservation of energy. In order to respect the law of conservation of matter, the mass of the particle that fell in must be negative to keep the total change in mass of the universe at zero. These decreases the total mass of the black hole and, eventually, will cause it to evaporate.

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General and Special Relativity
Elections and Voting

What does it mean to stand for office?

Same as "run for office". Announce your desire for the office,

and attempt to persuade voters to elect you.

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General and Special Relativity

What is the 4th dimension?

While no scientific theory is ever (or should be) closed to controversy, the answer currently accepted by most Physicists (thanks to Einstein) is that the fourth dimension is time, or that time is the way we experience the fourth dimension.

It depends on your concept of what exactly is a dimension. Initially dimension, as a concept, was determined by a measured displacement or finite movement. Typically one experiences going from Point A to Point B, as a change in placement. As one travels, some x amount of distance has been covered, the same is true of time, as it has passed as the distance was traveled. Typically in math the number of dimensions available, is only limited by your computer and you imagination. But I digress, dimensions are about how many perpendicular lines can cross at any one Point. Volume and space are words that describe 3D type dimensional concepts. The 'D' in 3D stands for 'dimension'. We all know up and down, left and right, and forward and reverse. So then, what else is there, in a linear displacement type distance environment?

The definition : hyper- pref. 1. Over; above; beyond: hypercharge. 2. Excessive; excessively; relates more to your question, and in terms of Extension that Creates Dimension, 'Hyperspace' is a more correct Label for the 4th dimension.

In Hyperspace, one can have four lines intersect at one point, each perpendicular to the others.

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Albert Einstein
General and Special Relativity

What does the theory of special relativity say about the equivalence of different frames of reference?

It says that the speed of light in a vacuum measured in any inertial frame of reference is equivalent to the speed of light in a vacuum measured in any other inertial frame of reference.

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Astronomy
General and Special Relativity

Where is the universe found?

Everywhere. It is the totality of everything that exists.

Well, almost everything. Well, not almost everything. The current "Theory of everything" that unifies physics predicts that we are merely in one universe, "floating" in an "ocean" of parallel universes, the "multiverse." This has yet to be verified.

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Science
General and Special Relativity

What does 'mass' mean in science?

The mass of an object is how much matter is contained within that object. The SI unit of measure for mass is the kilogram. The word mass should be used instead of the term 'weight', which suggests the force of gravity acting upon the object.

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Units of Measure
General and Special Relativity

How do you prove with an experiment that matter has mass?

-- You could apply a force to a lump of it, measure its acceleration, and

show that it obeys the formula [ F = M A ] .

-- You could accelerate it to 75% of the speed of light, then perform the

above action on it, and show that its mass appears to have increased 15%

since it was standing still in the lab, which shows that it's obeying the formula

for the relativistic increase of mass at high speed.

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Science
General and Special Relativity

Does mass slow down speed in space?

Mass changes how time passes near it, versus how it passes far from it. Test objects are still seen to speed up as they fall towards massive objects. Light suffers "Shapiro time delay" when its path includes travelling through space that is near a massive body. So I guess the full answer requires you to tell us who is deciding what is slowing down, and how / where you are measuring relative to.

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General and Special Relativity
Black Holes
Quantum Mechanics

What would happen if antimatter was pulled into a blackhole?

As far as we know, the mass of the black-hole and it's energy would increase.

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General and Special Relativity
Quantum Mechanics
Astrophysics

What are the four dimensions of space-time where humans can survive?

Einstein formulated the spacetime that is the four dimensions of space namely: length, breadth, thickness and a fourth dimension: time are interwoven. apart from euclid's geometry where time is said to move at a constant rate and is unchangable, this theory says that time also can be bent, slowed down or even speeded up just like the other dimensions like length.

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Astronomy
Physics
General and Special Relativity

Will humans be able to travel faster than light in the future?

Probably not.

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Physics
Albert Einstein
General and Special Relativity

When did Einstein prove the theory of Relativity?

In November of 1919, at the age of 40, Albert Einstein became an overnight celebrity, thanks to a solar eclipse. An experiment had confirmed that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the sun in just the amount he had predicted in his 1916 paper on his theory of gravity, general relativity. General relativity was the first major new theory of gravity since Isaac Newton's more than 250 years earlier.

It has never been proven, and it never will be. However, there is a vast amount of evidence consistent with it, and so far nothing has contradicted it either. Einstein didn't prove the theory -- he just created it.

The above paragraph is not entirely correct. There is the Gravity Probe B experiment which should provide some conclusive results regarding proving the theory in the near future. See the following links for more information:

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/gpb/index.html

http://einstein.stanford.edu/highlights/status1.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_Probe_B

The atomic clock has proven his time dialation to be correct.

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General and Special Relativity

Does time slow down as speed increases?

If you go whizzing past me at a high speed, then I'll notice that your wristwatch

looks like it's running slow, and the pitch of your voice has dropped. I'll think to

myself, "Hey ! I'm OK, but his time has slowed down."

At the same time, you'll notice that my wristwatch looks like it's running slow, and

the pitch of my voice has dropped. You'll think to yourself, "Hey ! I'm OK, but his time

has slowed down."

We'll both be correct.

============================================

Another contributor added:

When something goes past you at high speed, it takes longer for the light bouncing off of that thing to reach the observer. This also goes in reverse, say, if you are traveling at high speed and you see that someone standing still has slowed down. To the observer (you) the person standing still is traveling away from you and you are standing still.

___________

This doesn't mean that after the traveler stops, everyone's time will be back in synch. If you start off on earth and accelerate to near the speed of light and you travel for a significant length of time according to earth observers, when you return LESS TIME will have passed for you; you will be younger (relative to your velocity and time away) than the twin brother you left on earth. You will literally have experienced less time.

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General and Special Relativity
Solid State Physics

How is a steel ball more elastic than a rubber ball?

Elasticity is measured as Young's Modulus (a.k.a Modulus of Elasticity).

Young's Modulus is equal to the maximum stress that can be placed on an object that will not PERMANENTLY alter the shape of the object over the strain (think deformation) induced by that stress.

************** Elasticity is a Measure of Stress/Strain **********************

Larger stress with little strain = more "elastic"

So,

A steel ball can undergo a large amount of stress with very little stain induced.

A rubber ball on the other hand will show a larger amount of strain (deformation) with a smaller amount of stress placed on it.

Example:

The stress-strain curve below shows steel compared to a polymer and a rubber. As you can see, steel can have a lot of stress placed on it with little deformation while rubber has large deformation with little stress.

555657
General and Special Relativity
Newtons Laws of Motion

In the absence of air resistance objects fall at a constant what?

rate of acceleration

535455
Physics
General and Special Relativity
Astronauts

Do human beings warp space time?

Sure. Anything that is mass-energy does.

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General and Special Relativity
Atmospheric Sciences
Statics
Gravity

Is there anything lighter than air?

yes, anything with a lower atomic number would be lighter, for example, helium is lighter than air, which is why balloons float when filled with helium... the lighter substance rises above the heavier....

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General and Special Relativity

Difference between special relativity and general relativity?

Please visit the following sites for details explaining the difference between the two: http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/GenRelativity.html http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/SpecialRel.html

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General and Special Relativity

Is potential energy directly proportional to mass?

Only in three special cases.

E=mc2

E=1/2mv2

and

E = GM/r

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General and Special Relativity

What branch of science this theory of relativity?

Relativity describes universal physical properties. Dynamic Physics would be how I'd classify it.

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