Kings sometimes lost power by alienating their vassals to the point of rebellion. King John of England had this happen to him. When they stood their ground against him, he signed the Magna Carta to stay in power. Another king who lost power to rebellious lords was Richard III; in his case, he died in battle.
Kings lost power by getting into arguments with the popes, or sometimes with bishops. King Henry II of England had this happen, as did Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire. In both cases, the monarchs were very powerful, tried to grab power from the Church, and lost a great deal of the power they had.
Some kings were overthrown by family members. King Edward II of England is an example; his wife and her lover imprisoned him and are widely believed to have killed him.
Some kings were overthrown by other people. This happened when Pepin the Short overthrew Childeric III and became King of the Franks.
A king could lose a war with a foreign enemy. When King Edward II of England fought against the Scots and lost, it did not cost him any part of England, but it meant that the King of Scotland was no longer his vassal.
Today the word "banner" is used generally for any type or shape of flag or large poster; in medieval times it meant a very specific and particular type of flag and was just one of many different kinds: banners, banderoles, gonfalons, gonfanons, pennons, pennoncells, standards, streamers, and guidons.
Most people are unaware that there were many different grades of knight, each rank being allowed to carry (or have someone else carry) a specific and strictly-controlled type of flag.
At the very bottom of the grade system were knights bachelor, originally landless and therefore poor knights who had little or no experience of battle. They carried a pennoncelle attached to their spear - a small square or rectangular flag with two, three or more triangular tails on the edge opposite the spear; many of these can be seen on the Bayeux Tapestry carried by Norman knights. Higher grades of knight bachelor carried a pennon, usually a flag about 3 feet long and triangular in shape.
On becoming an experienced and trusted knight banneret, the knight was entitled to remove these triangular tails, leaving just the square or rectangular flag which was called a banner, carrying the same device as shown on the shield. This was carried in different sizes by increasingly higher grades of knight and might be fringed around the edge.
The next level of knights were of very high status and included royalty, their male relatives and most trusted barons. They carried (actually someone else carried for them) flags called standards, which were extremely long, narrow, tapering and swallow-tailed at the end. A royal standard could be 33 feet long. They did not display coats of arms, but the animal or other crests, livery colours, badges and mottoes of the family.
The purpose of the banner was to indicate the presence of a prticular knight on the battlefield; it served as a rallying-point for his own household troops and (since it symbolised the man himself) its loss was considered extremely shameful. It was from these banners that heralds in the opposing armies could identify the coats of arms (and therefore the names) of the important knights in the enemy ranks and where they were positioned.
jerusalem, Kotel, lourdes, canterbury, knock, iona, santiago de compostela, etc...
You receive title through the will. There is no conveyance, as title vests in the receiving heir(s) immediately upon decedent's death, subject to legal contingencies or conditions that may require disposal of the property to someone else during probate. Once the estate is settled, the contingent title becomes clear title. The lawyer handing the Estate (Will) should contact you. It can take up to a year or more for a Will to go through Probate (meaning: all challenges are defended, creditors are paid, all personal income tax is paid and all property taxes are paid off, and all priority gifts have been made.) If in doubt, try finding out who the lawyer is and contact him/her.
They seldom used plates. Most of the time they used a hard chunk of bread to hold the food and either ate it or threw it to the dogs when they were done.
Catholic people were told that if they prayed at holy places called shrines, they could be forgiven their sins or be cured of illnesses. This is why people took the risk of going on pilgrimages.
You found a safe place such as an inn (if you had money) or a pilgrim hospital or monastic hospital (if you had no money).
Monastic and pilgrim hospitals were not places for treating the sick (they were called infirmaries) - hospitals were places of hospitality and free accommodation for a short period (often just one night). In many cases people had to sleep on a pile of straw on a stone floor. In these establishments simple food would also be provided, as well as a chapel for prayer, which pilgrims would certainly have always used.
It follows that a journee (a day's travel) had to be carefully planned to allow overnight stops at safe places - sleeping outdoors was extremely dangerous because of outlaws and robbers, unless you happened to be in a large group with armed men included.
They worked jobs to get money so they could buy food, clothing, shelter, entertainment and so on. Some folks were ridiculously rich but most had to sweat it out in some joe job. What do you mean, it sounds familiar?
It was very hazardous, because you could become ill, be robbed, you could even die on your way. It was very tiring and there are more disadvantages than advantages to going on a pilgrimage.
Some of the Pilgrim routes were specific roads that pilgrims travelled on, where the road itself was a thing to experience for religious reasons. The route from London to the Becket Shrine in Canterbury was of this type, as was the Way of St. James in Spain. Another pilgrimage routes of this type was the Via Dolorosa in Israel, though the specific path has changed through the ages. Another was St. Olav's Way, from Oslo to Trondheim, in Norway.
Some of the Pilgrim routes were simply the main roads between cities or shipping routes to a pilgrim destination. The answers below treat both types. There is a link below to a map of European Trade Routes.Answers pertaining to BritainOne of the main pilgrimage routes in Britain in medieval times was to Thomas a Becket's' shrine in Canterbury. Thomas a Becket was the archbishop of Canterbury, and was murdered by four knights who believed the king wanted him dead, just because he shouted some words. Thomas became a saint 3 years afterwards, and his shrine at Canterbury became a popular site for pilgrimages. More on BritainThomas Becket's shrine was the main route people went on, and the most popular as well, when he died he became very popular and have many visitors per day to come and visit his shrine. More on BritainThe oldest pilgrim destination in Britain is Holywell, in Wales. Other British pilgrim sites are St. Davids, Glastonbury, and St. Andrews. Answers pertaining to the ContinentThe most important pilgrimage route within continental Europe was El Camino de Santiago (The Way of St. James). The route wound through northern Spain, ending at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, said to hold the skull of St. James. More on the ContinentSites in Italy included churches in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica, and the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. Other Italian destinations were Padua and Turin.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was an important destination in France. Other French destinations were several churches in Lourdes, Basilica of St. ThÃ©rÃ¨se of Lisieux, in Normandy, and the Cathedral of Chartres.
One site of importance was the Shrine of St. Olav in Trondheim, Norway. In this case, the specific road to the shrine, called St. Olav's Way, was an important route to travel.
In Germany, Cologne Cathedral was an important destination.
There were pilgrim destinations in nearly every country.Answers pertaining to the Holy LandThe Crusades were seen as Pilgrimages.
The earliest pilgrimages were to Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, the Sea of Galilee, Bethany, and other sites in the the Holy Land. These sites were the destinations of pilgrim from antiquity, and Roman Emperors and Empresses went on Pilgrimage to them. The routes to the Holy Land stretched across the Roman Empire and were often by sea.
If it shifts smothly into the gears before o/d it is not the cable.
Thanks too my name is Duncan and you really helped me on my english home work Thanks again
One of the risk is that whilst traveling you could get an injury or maybe worse you could die!
He was a steward.
Yes, he was a steward, but in a monastery or a college. He was responsible for the purchase of provisions.
Monks did several jobs. They sometimes acted as doctors for local people and they provided a place to stay overnight for travelers. Many spent their lives copying books or writing religious books since they were one of the few that could read and write. They also took in male children that had been orphaned or abandoned by parents. These children, in turn, would become monks. They conducted religious services.
People traveled in groups when on pilgrimages for companionship and protection.
In 1071 the Muslim Saljuq Turks defeated the Byzantine Christians at Manzikert in Eastern Anatolia. Subsequently, the Turks spread all over Anatolia and would have most likely crossed over to Europe had not the Byzantine Empire pleaded with the pope to send an army to dislodge them from his territory. The first crusade did just that...the Turks were defeated and pushed back into central and eastern Anatolia where they would remain for the next two centuries. Alas, by the 1300's they had conquered Anatolia, and in 1354 had crossed over to Europe to wreak havoc and destruction from Athens to Vienna for the next few centuries. The crusades delayed the Muslim invasion of Europe for about two centuries.
The Crusades resulted as a reaction of Muslim aggression against the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines). The Muslims were running constant aggressive conquest campaigns on Christian lands as part of their imperialistic expansion. In 638 the Muslims conquered Jerusalem - the holy land where Jews and Christians would pilgrimage to. The Christian pilgrims to there were persecuted by the Muslims greatly. Over 60 Christian pilgrims were crucified in one short period by the Muslims. A Muslim governor of Caesarea in the 8th Century often seized pilgrims, one large group from Iconium was seized and they were all executed as spies (except for some that chose to convert to Islam instead of facing the sword). Muslims would ransack the churches if the pilgrims didn't pay protection money. Christian iconography and crosses were banned by the Muslims so many churches were pillaged and defaced. Caliph Mansur (around the 8th Century) ordered that the hands of all Christians and Jews be stamped with a distinctive symbol which helped them be 'humiliated' and identified for paying of the Jizzya (tax for being Christian). Converts to Christianity were executed (such as the ex-Muslim monk in 789). Churches and monasteries conquered by the Muslims were plundered and monks and clergy were often murdered such as Saint Theodosius monastery in Bethlehem. By the start of the 9th Century most Christians fled from their hometown to Christian cities such as Constantinople that were still under the Byzantines. In 937 during Easter celebrations, specifically Palm Sunday, Muslims rampaged through Jerusalem against the Christians and destroyed their churches including Church of Calvary and the Church of the Resurrection. It wasn't until the 960's (up to 200 years later) than the Christians actually reacted to this violence and persecution. Cities taken by force such as Crete, Cilicia, Cyprus, Antioch and even parts of Syria were reconquered by the Christians.
In 974 the Muslims then launched an official offensive under Sunni Caliph Abbasid against the Byzantines. The campaign of Muslims against the Christians lasted for around 30 more years until a short ceasfire while the Muslims fought against themselves. Then at the beginning of the 11th Century the Muslims again started their offensive against the Christians under Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim and this was taken out on the average Christian. Churches were burnt, church property was seized. Over the first 10 years of the 11th Century over 30,000 churches were destroyed by the Muslim aggressors.
They even destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher - the traditional site marking were Christ was buried. The Caliph ordered the tomb be destroyed.
All the Christians and Jews of Jerusalem (and other Muslim territories) were forced to wear heavy crosses and wooden calves around their neck. It wasn't until 1021 that this persecution decreased.
In 1056 hundreds of Christians were expelled from Jerusalem and European Christians were blocked from the pilgrimage to the city. On entering Jerusalem in 1077 3000 Jews and Christians were murdered by the Muslim invaders.
Then we get to where the story you quoted began - in response to the calls for help by the Christians persecuted throughout the Middle East and former Byzantine Empire territories the Western Church sent help.
Serfs were on about the same social level as villeins and cottars.
Serfs were above slaves, if any existed in the place where the serfs lived. Serfs were not bought or sold, but they were not free to leave the land on which they lived. They were mostly agricultural workers and unusually had plots of land assigned to them to farm for their own benefit.
Villeins were like serfs, but did not have plots of land assigned to them.
Cottars were apparently like serfs except that they were not bound to the land and had the option of moving away, which would have been a rather risky thing to do since it would leave them without home or income, unless they had some other arrangement. The nature of the cottar is not clearly understood, however.
Above the serf, but not necessarily much above, were freemen, who were not bound to the land.
Most of these people worked in agriculture, but they had other types of work to do. The simpler non agricultural chores of life were performed largely by serfs. These things included cleaning, helping cooks, lugging bricks for masons, digging ditches, washing and repairing clothes, and so on. They might have included such work as weaving, baking, cooking, depending on circumstances. Clearly there were hierarchies within job types.
Please see the link below.
•It is true that there was a cold period around this time in Western Europe, but it probably came a little later, in the 500's and 600's AD, too late to be the cause of the fall of Roman government. But around 500 the climate did get colder.
• In the south, like in Spain, this may have been good: more rain, maybe. In the north, in France, Germany, and England, it was bad. There was a lot of flooding in the river valleys, and many Roman villages in the valleys had to be abandoned as people moved up onto the hills. You couldn't grow olives or wine so far north as before. One result was a general shift to eating butter rather than olive oil and using tallow or beeswax candles for lighting instead of oil lamps.
•By about 800, in the time of Charlemagne, the weather began to improve again, and around 1000 AD was probably a very good time in Europe, when it was easy to grow wheat and barley and even wine again. The same weather patterns that made for good weather in north-western Europe, however, may have made southern Spain hotter and drier than people liked.
•Again toward the end of the Middle Ages, around 1400 AD, there was another "Little Ice Age," with much the same effects as before. There was a lot of flooding, and in England especially there were many years where the crops were ruined and people went hungry. Although changes in government do have important effects on ordinary people's lives, the weather also plays a very important role.Answer relating to technologyThere were a number of changes in agriculture and the way it was pursued.
In Roman times, the plow was pulled by attaching it to a horse by tying a rope from one to the other, with the rope simply tied to the horse's neck. This was very fatiguing for the horse. Plows were light and could not turn much soil or plow deeply. The invention of the horse collar and the heavy plow during the Early Middle Ages made agriculture much more efficient, and this made it possible to free more people to pursue crafts.
Horse shoes did not exist in Roman times (nor did stirrups, though this was not a factor for agriculture). Horse shoes added to the value of horses for agriculture.
Wine presses were introduced, making wine production less labor intensive.
Hops came to be used for beer, which meant a new crop was being raised in Germany. Their use spread to other places in later times.
The Middle Ages saw the introduction of three crop rotation instead of two crop. This meant that on any manor, two thirds of the fields were in use at any time instead of half. One third was for crops planted in fall, and one third for crops planted in spring, and this created a different mix of crops.
During the High Middle ages, someone in Britain figured out that cows, which had little to graze on in the winter, were healthier if they had food from storage. Turnips did nicely for this, and the result was a very large increase in milk, cheese, and beef.
Some specialty crops were introduced. One example is a type of thistle with an edible flower bud. Today we call it an artichoke.
Heavy horses bred for jousting were made available for farms.
An increase in interest in spices from the East lead to an increase in locally grown seasonings.
Medieval castle towers were originally square, projecting out beyond the castle wall to allow for archers to shoot along the outside length of the walls. Square towers have angled corners which not only produce blind spots for the defenders, but which also represent weak parts of the construction - undermining a tower corner will bring down the entire structure.
This is exactly what happened at Rochester castle in 1215; the castle fell and the tower was later rebuilt in circular form.
Circular towers have no blind spots and no angles that can be undermined. But it was soon noticed that the interior part of the tower was really of no value defensively or structurally; only the half facing the exterior needed to be curved. Making the inner face perfectly flat (so the tower now had a D-section) saved on construction time and allowed the wall walk to pass behind the flat face of the tower.
Some of these D-towers were completely open at the back, others had a flat wall of timber or stone.
The 14th century city walls of Canterbury in Kent had many of these open-backed D-towers, together with some older square towers.
See the link below for images:
HajjAnswerThere are 2 types of pilgrimages: UMRAH (which can be performed any time of the year) and HAJJ (performed from 8 to 13th of Islamic month Dhul Hijja-currently December 18 to 23).
Ihram is the intention of the person willing to perform all rites of 'Umrah, Hajj or both when he arrives at the Miqat (boundry of Makkah). It is recommended that a male who intends to perform pilgrimage makes Ghusl (a shower with the intention to purify one's self), perfumes his body, but not his garments, and puts on a two piece garment with no headgear. The garments should be of seamless cloth. One piece to cover the upper part of the body, and the second to cover the lower part. For a woman the Ihram is the same except that she should not use perfumes at all and her dress should cover the whole body decently, leaving the hands and the face uncovered. The pilgrim should say the intention.
Men are recommended to utter the Talbeyah aloud while women are to say it quietly. This Talbeyah is of the form: "Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayka La Shareeka Laka Labbayk. Inna-alhamda Wan-ntimata Laka Walmulk. La Shareek Lak." (Here I am at your service. O my Lord, here I am. Here I am. No partner do You have. Here I am. Truly, the praise and the provisions are Yours, and so is the dominion. No partner do You have.)
Tawaf: When a Muslim arrives to Makkah, he should make Tawaf around the Ka'bah, as a gesture of greeting AlMasjid Al-Haraam. This is done by circling the Ka'bah SEVEN times in the counterclockwise direction, starting from the black stone with Takbeer and ending each circle at the Black Stone with Takbeer, keeping the Ka'bah to one's left. Then the pilgrim goes to Maqam Ibrahim (Ibrahim's Station), and performs two rak'ah behind it, close to it if possible, but away from the path of the people making Tawaf. In all cases one should be facing the Ka'bah when praying behind Maqam Ibrahim.
Sa'i: The next rite is to make Sa'i between Safa and Marwah. The pilgrim starts Sa'i by ascending the Safa. While facing the Ka'bah he praises Allah, raises his hands and says Takbeer "Allah-u Akbar" three times, then makes supplication to Allah. Then the pilgrim descends from the Safa and heads towards the Marwah. Males should increase the pace between the clearly marked green posts, but should walk at a normal pace before and after them. When the pilgrim reaches the Marwah, he should ascend it, praise Allah and do as he did at the Safa. This is considered ONE round and so is the other way from the Marwah to the Safa. A total of SEVEN rounds are required to perform the Sa'i.
After Sa'i, the Muslim ends his 'Umrah rites by shaving his head or trimming his hair (women should cut a finger tip's length from their hair).
The Umrah is now complete. One must pray to Allah The Merciful to accept it.
At this stage, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of Ihram are lifted and one can resume his normal life.
There are no required formulas or supplications for Tawaf or for Sa'i. It is up to the worshipper to praise Allah The Merciful or to supplicate Him with any acceptable supplication or to recite portions of the Qur'an. Although it is recommended to recite the supplications that the Prophet, salla Allah-u alaihe WA salam, used to say during the performance of these rites.
It must be noted that 'Umrah can be performed by itself as described above at any time of the year.
Yes, there are many states where a valid judgment status is from 10-20 years. In addition the majority of judgments are renewable, therefore it is quite likely a judgment could still be in force at nineteen years. You would need to consult the laws of the state that pertain to the specific type of judgment that was granted. Or consult a qualified attorney, most attorneys offer free or minimal fee consultations.
Life on a pilgrimage was very risky and dangerous, I mean, you could be robbed, you could become ill, you could even die on your travels. It was also very tiring, rather than driving for hours on end, on a pilgrimage, you would be walking for days at a time.
It was hard work being a pilgrim it was also life threateningly dangerous as well
It is called a fief.
One was religious, which was that cleanliness is next to godliness. They believed the way a people took care of their bodies was an indication of how they took care of their souls. Clearly, by this way of thinking, a person who was dirty was liable to trouble in the afterlife.
On a material level, they believed that bad air was a vector for diseases. So they tried hard to avoid bad air. The easiest way to tell that the air was bad was that it was likely to smell bad. So anything that smelled bad was likely to be cleaned up.
The result of these beliefs was that they had public baths in most all villages except the smallest. I have read that people even bathed in streams in the winter, if that is how they had to keep clean.
The idea that medieval people were stinky and dirty was promoted by those of the Renaissance, who wanted to look down on medieval people, but had forgotten the reasons to bathe because they had perfume and did not care much for religion.
There is a link below to the history section of an article on bathing.
What's the most outdated thing you still use today?
Asked By Jasen Runte
How old is Danielle cohn?
Asked By Wiki User
When Motorola released its Droid cell phone it had to get permission from which Hollywood director?
Asked By Wiki User
Riddle What is 4 no5?
Asked By Wiki User
What were the names of the pilgrimages that people made strang and often violent pilgrimages to?
Asked By Wiki User
Brotherhood of the flsgellants in time of black death?
Asked By Wiki User
When did the pilgrines find America?
Asked By Wiki User
How did ideas of a just society change during the Age of Reason?
Asked By Wiki User
Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.