Nuclear Physics

Most commonly known for its applications in nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, Nuclear Physics also has applications in medicine and archaeology. This category is for questions about the branch of physics that deals with the study of the forces, reactions, and internal structures of atomic nuclei, Nuclear Physics.

11,065 Questions
Physics
Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

Matter attracts other matter does antimatter will repel the antimatter?

Antimatter observes and obeys the same fundamental forces that matter does:

  • gravity
  • electromagnetism
  • weak interactive
  • strong interactive

A positron, which is the anti-particle of the electron, for example, has the same mass as an electron and experiences the same attraction to all other matter (gravity) as an electron. That same positron is repelled by positively charged particles and attracted to negatively charged particles (electromagnetism).
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Chemistry
Nuclear Physics

What is the definition for Radioactive Element?

A radioactive element is an element with an unstable nucleus, which radiates alpha, beta or gamma radiation and gets converted to a stable element

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Physics
Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

Are quarks nucleons?

No, quarks are not nucleons. A nucleon is a term (in physics) that is given to either of the two component particles of an atomic nucleus: the proton and the neutron. Both protons and neutrons are composite particles from the family of hadrons, and hadrons are made up of quarks.

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Physics
Nuclear Physics
Quantum Mechanics

What is mutual annihilation?

I am not the expert in the field of physics. But I also have not lost my common sense. When electron and positron collide with each other, you get two gamma rays. My esteemed colleague Quirkyquantummechanic has said that the particle and antiparticle are completely converted into energy. Then does this formation of the energy match with the famous equation of the Einstein? The equation goes as E = m c square. Here c is the speed of light. Speed of light is fairly high. Speed of light is roughly 300,000,000 m/s. The square of this number is 90,000,000,000,000,000. As per the theory of my colleague, you get only one gamma ray each from the entire mass of the electron or the positron. It fallows that from the mass of one electron, you get one gamma ray only and from the mass of positron, you get another gamma ray only. Then it is logical that you get one electron from one gamma ray and one positron from another gamma ray. ( The reverse of the process of annihilation.) This is not correct. If you put the mass of the electron and positron, in the equation of the Einstein, you will get much higher energy, than what my colleague has mentioned. (He has mentioned that you will get pair of gamma rays.) This is called as 'emotional' involvement into what you 'believe' in. Science has nothing to do with your 'emotions' and 'beliefs'. You have to explain every thing with logic. Here goes the explanation for the same. It is the 'kinetic' energy of of the electron and positron, that is left as the pair of gamma rays. The electron and positron vanish into 'nothing'. This is one of the greatest invention of the modern time. From particle (electron) you get gamma ray. It fallows that from antiparticle (positron), you get anti-gamma ray. When proton collide with anti-proton, you get many gamma rays, electrons and positrons and neutrinos. Here the kinetic energy has to be much more than electron positron pair. As the mass of the particles is much larger. There has to be 'equal' number of electrons and positrons get generated in the process. They can in turn again get annihilated into nothing and pairs of gamma and anti-gamma rays. The best way to study the annihilation is to study annihilation between neutron and anti-neutron. Here the element of electrical charge is not there. Here you will find that there is complete destruction of the mass into number of electrons and positrons and number of gamma rays. These electrons and positrons will annihilate each other to give you more pairs of gamma rays. So you will get complete destruction of the particle and anti-particle into nothing and only kinetic energy remains there as gamma and anti-gamma rays. If neutrinos are released, then half of them has to be anti-neutrinos. As per Einsteins equation you have E = m c square. if you multiply the equation by minus one, what you get is : minus E = Minus m c square. If you denote the particles as 'm' in the above equation, then you have to denote anti-particle as 'minus m'. It fallows that from anti-particle, you get anti-energy. Even if the 'slightest' mass can be destructed into nothing, then 'all' the mass can be destructed into nothing. This explains the the theory of origin of matter and anti-matter from nothing. Any thing of this sort is bound to generate the emotional reaction. But then the truth only prevails. Here goes the link to the theory. http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_theory_of_creation_of_the_matter_and_anti_matter_from_nothing

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Science
Physics
Nuclear Physics

Do protons in a very large nucleus have a greater chance of flying apart?

Sort of... The general tendency is for a larger atom to be less stable. Above a certain point (after lead) no stable atoms are known to exist.

Sort of... The general tendency is for a larger atom to be less stable. Above a certain point (after lead) no stable atoms are known to exist.

Sort of... The general tendency is for a larger atom to be less stable. Above a certain point (after lead) no stable atoms are known to exist.

Sort of... The general tendency is for a larger atom to be less stable. Above a certain point (after lead) no stable atoms are known to exist.

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Physics
Nuclear Physics

How do you convert gamma rays to electricity?

The answers below are confusing electrons (and positrons) with electrical energy (electricity). Electricity is just the movement of electrons.

Gamma rays of E > 1.022MeV can, and do naturally form e- and e+ pairs when interacting with atomic nuclei. It's a process known as 'pair production'.

To convert gamma radiation (which is just high frequency light) in to usable electrical energy, one could make a solar cell from materials with the right band gap energies. Due to the larger penetration depth of gamma rays compared to visible light, these cells would have to be thick to increase efficiency.

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I have been trying to research this answer. I have been unsuccessful in finding one, although I've almost come up with the formula to turn gamma photons into electrical energy. The first thing I had to find out was how are gamma photons created. (e+) + (e−) = γ

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I've also been researching into the topic and backing it with maths. it's possible,

we simply don't have the technology yet. but in about 8-12 years the technology should be set up to separate matter X and Z and create e- and e+, this may also give us spectacular amounts of direct electricity. and by the annihilation process we can generate 511 KeV of energy and then the direct electricity through conversion. It's renewable and will provide us with such efficient technology that we simply won't be able to believe.

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Science
Nuclear Physics

What is in the nucleus of a carbon atom?

The standard isotope of carbon contains six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus.

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Chemistry
Nuclear Physics

Orbitals in the 6p sublevel?

In all p sublevels there are 3 sublevels, including 6p.

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Nuclear Physics

The half-life of tritium is 12 years so if you started with 2.00 g of tritium how many mg would remain after 120 years?

Let's see. 1g = 1,000 mg

2g = 2,000 mg

half life of tritium is 12 years.

How much will we have after 120 years?

We now have 2,000 mg

After 12 years 1,000 mg

After 24 years 500 mg

After 36 years 250 mg

After 48 years 125 mg

After 60 years 62.5 mg

After 72 years 31.25 mg

After 84 years 15.625 mg

After 96 years 7.8125 mg

After 108 years 3.90625 mg

After 120 years 1.953125 mg

Of course the above includes too many significant figures.

If we start out wit 2 g, we are probably measuring to 2 place accuracy.

The final result would probably look something like this.

We now have 2,000 mg

After 12 years 1,000 mg

After 24 years 500 mg

After 36 years 250 mg

After 48 years 130 mg

After 60 years 63 mg

After 72 years 31 mg

After 84 years 16 mg

After 96 years 7.8 mg

After 108 years 3.9 mg

After 120 years 2. mg

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Physics
Nuclear Physics

Why do alpha particles have high ionizing power?

Because, like Alabama Man, alpha particles are big, strong, and active! An alpha particle is about 16,000 times more massive than an electron and has twice their charge, but of opposite sign. Therefore, as alpha particles plow through a material, they're ripping electrons off of the atoms and molecules within that material left and right without breaking a sweat, ionizing all of those poor atoms and molecules in the process.

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Chemistry
Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What was discovered first nucleus electron proton neutron?

EDIT: JJ Thompson, Ernest Rutherford's supervisor, discovered the electron first in 1897. Later, 1911, Rutherford postulated the nucleus model of the atom, replacing the 'plum-pudding' model of JJ Thomson.

First it was discovered by Ernest Rutherford that atoms had an area of condensed positive charge in the centre, which he called the nucleus. Then the particles that made up the nucleus were identified as protons, and then the smaller charges around the nucleus were found and called electrons. Then to explain the mass of the nucleus the existence of the neutron was hypothesised and confirmed.

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Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Fusion

What are the requirements for nuclear fusion?

  • high temperature
  • high pressure
  • a fuel that can undergo fusion
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Physics
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Fusion

Can nuclear fusion be done on earth?

Yes.

Examples: The hydrogen bomb and the creation of new elements.

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Stars
Galaxies
Nuclear Physics

What causes the sun to produce light?

Heat from nuclear fusion produces massive amounts of energy. Thermal energy is usually associated with Light. The concept of heat creating light is the same basis as to why light bulbs get hot when you turn them on, or why metal gets bright red when you heat it up.

299300301
Science
Earth Sciences
Nuclear Physics
Cosmology

What are the stars all about?

The sun we have is a star. Just the closest to us.

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Physics
Chemistry
Nuclear Physics

The stability of a nuclide depends on the?

The stability of a nuclide depends on:

  • the specific neutron/proton ratio that corresponds to a stable nucleus, and or
  • the number of protons not to exceed the stability limit (exceeding 83).

Referring to question below for more information.

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Science
Nuclear Physics

What is speed of fast neutron?

A fast neutron will have an energy of around 1MeV. This equates to about 14 000 km/sec. The Deuterium - Tritium fusion produces fast neutrons of ~14MeV, - about 52 000 km/sec. This is fast enough to fission uranium 238.

A thermal neutron has an energy of ~0.025eV, equivalent to a velocity of about 2.2 km/sec. This slow enough to guarantee many more thermal collisions.

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Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Physics

Should nuclear power be banned?

No. Nuclear power should be encouraged. However, there have to be limits and controls because it is not appropriate for nuclear proliferation to continue.

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Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics
Uranium

What is size of uranium nucleus neutron?

All the neutrons in all the elements have the same mass and dimensions. The neutron mass is 1, 674 927 29.10-27 kg.

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Chemistry
Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Atomic Structure

How much charge is contained in 9 kg of electrons?

9kg of pure electron matter would consist of around 988,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 individual electrons. This represents a total charge of 1,583,000,000,000 coulombs.

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Chemistry
Nuclear Physics

How long is the half life of a uranium ion?

There are several different isotopes of uranium, each with a different half-life. The two most commonly encountered isotopes are 238U, 99.3%, 4.5 billion years, and 235U, 0.7%, 700 million years. See the related link, below, for more information.

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Physics
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Physics

What is the mass number of reactants of fission and fusion?

Well, provided with enough energy, any atom can be a "reactant" of fission and fusion. We're usually concerned about atoms producing exothermic reactions though, which for fission are heavy (mass numbers around 90 and greater), and for fusion are light (mass numbers around 25 and lower).

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Nuclear Physics

Where do you find promethium?

You don't. It's made in a cyclotron or reactor. It has no stable isotopes.

There are trace quantities in some radioactive ores, where it occurs as a decay product of other elements (for example, in pitchblende as a result of a the spontaneous fission of uranium).

The largest scale production of promethium ever on Earth was at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where they could produce about 650 grams of it per year. That's a bit under a pound and a half.

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Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

Why neutrino has much penetrating power?

I'm going to assume that you're wondering why they can travel through matter so easily, which is kind of a layman's term for asking why their cross section is so low.

There's a number of reasons:

- They have almost no mass, so they travel at nearly the speed of light.

- They have no charge so they don't interact electromagnetically.

- They don't decay.

- They have no color so they aren't bound, unlike quarks.

- They only interact via the weak nuclear force, who's range is about 10-18m

This is why a neutrino can easily travel through a light-year of lead without interacting.

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Physics
Chemistry
Nuclear Physics

What is the age of a meteor with half being uranium 238 half being uranium 206?

There is no isotope of Uranium 206 - Uranium 217 is the lightest.

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