The Jewish holy book is the Tanakh (Jewish Bible), containing the Torah and the prophetic books. The Torah is the most holy book of Judaism. Torah, which means "teaching", is God's revealed instructions to the Jewish People.
The purpose of the rest of the prophets is, simply put, to uphold the Torah.
(It is important to note that while "Torah" is generally used to refer to the Five Books of Moses or Pentateuch, it is sometimes used to refer to the basic texts of Judaism in general. In this sense, "Torah" includes the Torah itself, as well as Midrash, Mishnah, and Talmud, which are the Oral Torah. None of the Books of the Oral Torah are sacred and this will be discussed below in "Additional Non-Holy Supplements".)
The complete Jewish Bible is composed of 24 books called the Tanakh (תנ״ך). In Hebrew, Tanakh is an acronym of T, N, K which stands for the three parts of the Tanakh:
1. Torah (Teachings) (the T represents the letter 'taf' - ת),
2. Nevi'im (Prophets) (the N represents the letter 'nun' - נ ),
3. K'tuvim (Writings) (the K represents the letter 'chaf-sofit' - ך which can be transliterated as either 'ch' or 'kh' in English).
1) Torah (תורה) also called the "Teachings" or the Pentateuch and is the primary Jewish holy book. It is composed of the 5 Books of Moses (also called the Books of the Law). These books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Jews believe that the Torah was given by God to Moses (Exodus 24:12), who transmitted it to the people (Deuteronomy 31:24). Traditionally, it is read in front of a congregation three days a week and the scroll containing the Torah is considered holy. The word "Torah" derives from the Hebrew Word "yarah" which means "to aim" or "direct" and Jews believe that the words of the Torah aim and direct a Jew to proper action (orthopraxis) and proper belief (orthodoxos). The word Torah also has the same root as 'morah', meaning teacher.
The Torah laid down the fundamental laws of moral and physical conduct. The Torah begins with a description of the origin of the universe and ends on the word Israel, after the story of the death of Moses, just before the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites.
Traditionally, the document is viewed in two parts: the written and oral Torah. The written Torah is the Five Books of Moses. (Bereshit, "In the beginning," also called Genesis; Shemot, "Names," also called Exodus; Vayikra, "He called," also called Leviticus; Bamidbar, "In the desert," also called Numbers; and Devarim, "Words," also called Deuteronomy). The oral Torah is the discussions and interpretations of those scriptures applied into law and practice over time, collected in Talmud and Mishnah.
1-5: The Torah or Five Books of Moses:
1. (בראשית / Bereshit) - Genesis
2. (שמות / Shemot) - Exodus
3. (ויקרא / Vayikra) - Leviticus
4. (במדבר / Bamidbar) - Numbers
5. (דברים / Devarim) - Deuteronomy
2) Nevi'im (נביאים) which is usually translated as the "Prophets". The Jews see the book of Prophets as the story of their past and the relationship between God and Israel. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Joshua, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, etc. Judges is credited to Samuel, Kings was written by Jeremiah. The Prophets is comprised of a total of 8 books according to the Jewish count.
6-9: The Nevi'im Rishonim, the Early Prophets:
6. (יהושע / Y'hoshua) - Joshua
7. (שופטים / Shophtim) - Judges
8. (שמואל / Sh'muel) - Samuel (I & II)
9. (מלכים / M'lakhim) - Kings (I & II)
10-13: The Nevi'im Acharonim, the Later Prophets
10. (ישעיה / Y'shayahu) - Isaiah
11. (ירמיה / Yir'mi'yahu) - Jeremiah
12. (יחזקאל / Y'khezqel) - Ezekiel
13. (תרי עשר / Trei Asar), or Minor Prophets (or "The Twelve Prophets") Books and Prophets within the Trei Asar
a. (הושע / Hoshea) - Hosea
b. (יואל / Yo'el) - Joel
c. (עמוס / Amos) - Amos
d. (עובדיה / Ovadyah) - Obadiah
e. (יונה / Yonah) - Jonah
f. (מיכה / Mikhah) - Micah
g. (נחום / Nakhum) - Nahum
h. (חבקוק /Havakuk) - Habakkuk
i. (צפניה / Ts'phanyah) - Zephaniah
j. (חגי / Khagai) - Haggai
k. (זכריה / Z'kharyah) - Zechariah
l. (מלאכי / Mal'akhi) - Malachi
3) Ketuvim (כתובים) which is usually translated as the "Writings" and which composes the remaining History Books: Daniel, Lamentations, and others. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, etc. Ruth was written by Samuel, Lamentations was written by Jeremiah, Psalms was set in writing by King David, Chronicles was written by Ezra, Proverbs, Song of Songs and Kohellet (Ecclesiastes) were written by King Solomon, and Esther was written by Mordecai and Esther. Concerning Job, the Talmud states more than one opinion as to when it was written. The Writings consists of 11 books by the Jewish count:
14-16: The "Sifrei Emet"
14. (תהלים / Tehillim) - Psalms
15. (משלי / Mishlei) - Proverbs
16. (איוב / Iyov) - Job
17-21: The "Five Megilot" or "Five Scrolls"
17. (שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim) - Song of Songs
18. (רות / Rut) - Ruth
19. (איכה / Eikhah) - Lamentations
20. (קהלת / Kohelet) - Ecclesiastes
21. (אסתר / Esther) - Esther
22-24: The rest of the Writings:
22. (דניאל / Dani'el) - Daniel
23. (עזרא ונחמיה / Ezra v'Nechemia) - Ezra-Nehemiah
24. (דברי הימים / Divrei Hayamim) - Chronicles (I & II)
Further Discussion on the Tanakh
The Torah is also called "The Five Books of Moses".
The term Torah can refer loosely to the entire Jewish Bible.
There are those who would claim that the canon of the Tanakh was completed after the Second Destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. However, all evidence disproves this claim with the codification being completed no later than the Hasmonean era (140-37 BCE). Tradition places the sealing of the Tanakh around 340 BCE.
The Tanakh is, essentially, what Christians mistakenly call the "Old Testament". They call it that because they think that is has been superseded by the "New Testament". But to Jews the Tanakh can not be superseded by anything.
Additional Non-Holy Supplements
There are other Jewish texts; however, they are not considered prophetic and are not within the above canon.
In addition to Tanakh, there is the Talmud (itself composed of Mishna & Gemara), which are additional writings containing oral laws and interpretations of the Tanakh handed down until about 500 C.E. (when it was sealed and put in writing).
The Mishna and the Talmud are of tremendous importance in Judaism. Some people believe that Jews regard the Talmud as a holy text. While it does contain rich commentaries on the holy texts of the Bible, The Talmud is not often referred to as holy text, but rather an important text.
Other books of major importance include the Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law), the Mishneh Torah (Maimonides' codex), and the Zohar (a mystical Midrash). There are generally accepted prayer books, mainly 'Sidur' (meaning arrangement) and religious Jews would refer to various writings by Jewish Theologises of the past 2000 years, such as Talmud, Gama'ra, "Shulkhan aruch" etc.
Here is a partial list of additional non-holy Jewish books, in no particular order:
Jewish View on Talmud Holiness
The Talmud is a holy book. It is the Oral Torah. While in theory a Torah command supersedes a Rabbinic one, in reality what usually happens is that the earlier text is reinterpreted so that the later one is in agreement with it, rather than the other way around. "Torah le'Moshe miSinai" is a phrase commonly found in the Gemara where no Scriptural source can be found for a Halacha.
In some ways, yes, it is only some Jews who believe that the Talmud is either binding or holy, but those who do not are not considered Orthodox, and Orthodox practices are generally the ones that are most traditional.
The Talmud is holy and is regarded as such by the Jewish community, along with all other works of halacha, hashkafa, and aggada; these are considered to be "sifrei kodesh" and must be regarded with a certain respect under Jewish law (for instance, not sitting down on a surface where such a book is lying), although this is true only up until a certain point, as there is an informal and formal hierarchy (more recent books are generally regarded with less reverence than, say, the Rambam; as are works that are not in Hebrew, with the exception of the Rambam.)
However, the reverence afforded these books is lesser to that afforded a Torah Scroll. While the Talmud is central to understanding Jewish Law and is certainly a treasured book, it is not holy to the same extent or in the same way that the Tanakh and specifically the Torah are.
Answer 2 (Islamic View)
From the Islamic perspective, the Jewish holy book is the Torah. Torah reflects real God words revelation to prophet Moses (peace be upon him). Other books are collections of other human writers and religious leaders texts. The God holy books; that revealed by God; the Creator; are Psalms (revealed by God to Abraham), Torah (revealed by God to Moses), in addition to the Bible that is revealed by God to Jesus and Qur'an; the last God holy book; that is revealed by God to Muhammad (peace be upon them all).
The books considered sacred by the Jewish people are the Tanakh and the Talmud. Even though the Talmud is not considered a holy book, it is (together with the Torah) what most Jews follow, except for the Karaites.
The most important Jewish Holy Book is the Torah.
The Book of Jonah does not mention Leviathan. In any case, scholars familiar with the biblical references to Leviathan and with similar Near Eastern creation myths, say that Leviathan was a mythical chaos monster.
No, Leviathan is not mentioned in Jonah. Perhaps you are confusing this with Jonah being in the belly of the fish God prepared to swallow him where he remained 3 days and 3 nights (Jonah 1:17).
Leviathan is only mentioned in Job 41; Psalms 74:14; 104:26.
1. Hebrews 6:18 in order that through two unchangeable things in which it is impossible for God to lie, we who have fled to the refuge may have strong encouragement to take firm hold of the hope set before us.
2. Titus 1:2 and is based on a hope of the everlasting life
that God, who cannot lie, promised long ago
3. Numbers 23:19 God is not a mere man who tells lies,+
Nor a son of man who changes his mind.*+
When he says something, will he not do it?
When he speaks, will he not carry it out?
A man named Moses introduced one story with two different beginnings and two very different endings. One begins in Gen 1:27 "God created man," and ends with the Apocalypse, "any universal or widespread destruction or disaster." Between that beginning and that horrible ending Jews, Muslims and Christians materialized, each with their own version of God.
The other beginning and ending is completely peaceful and Atheistic. Gen 2:7 "LORD God formed man," and ends with Apocalypse, "a lifting of the veil."
The fulcrum point in Moses' story on which these two opposing views teeter is found in 2Cr 3:15 "But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart."
Currently, those who believe in a God think of themselves as disconnected from their angry Elohiym or Allah, each seeing the other as evil Ps 7:11. This is Moses' international biblical chess game.
To reset Moses' chess board, we begin with Gen 2:7 "LORD God formed man." When Moses wrote the story he personified his characters as authors do. We will de-personify these characters or in biblical terms 'remove the leaven', which will reveal his peaceful Atheistic view.
The new playing field becomes your mind. It is no longer Elohiym vs. Allah. The good vs. evil are now your own opposing streams of thought in your bride chamber mind. Your dominant male mind is Eternity which Moses personified as the character LORD in his story. Your needy female mind is your human nature personified as God. With both mental opponents now in place a conjugal relationship occurs in your mind. When husband Eternity speaks through the mouth of wife humanity (regardless of your human gender) you become enabled to direct your human self around this little planet by Eternal remote control.
One example is Genesis chapter19. In this story of Lot and his virgin daughters, angels of the LORD came as men to Lot's house. The men of that city surrounded the house, banging on Lot's door and demanding to consummate a relationship with these visiting men. Lot exited the house and offered his two virgin daughters to the crowd to appease them rather than grant the mob their request to have a conjugal relationship with the visitors. The old chess board setting results in a fictional situation of deliberate child abuse and human homosexuality becomes labeled as a deplorable act.
Your bride chamber mind sees Lot's daughters as virgin Judaism and Christianity expecting the LORD to consummate them after end times. However, the male visitors have come to complete the conjugal relationship now, in the minds of those virgin religions. But the mob of religious fundamentals refuse to take their eyes off of their Elohiym and Jesus, long enough to look inside the bride chamber of their own thoughts to lift the veil and consummate immediately. So they continue to bang on the doors of their synagogs and churches by praying to their disconnected God. In conclusion, the true homosexual in the waiting bride chamber is the lone human mind, void of her male soul mate mind 'Eternity', who is just waiting to consummate your thoughts so you can be 'born again' as a perfect child. Lot exited his house (mind) to speak, simply because one cannot enter another's mind.
This concept is consistent in every verse and parable in the Bible without exception. Mal 2:16 "I hate divorce," says the LORD God of Israel." This divorce is between your male Eternal mind and your female material mind, perfect soul mates. Their separation is hated by the LORD God who are parents of both streams of thought. When you, the material human, divorce your spiritual Eternal husband mind, you are blaspheming your Holy Spirit.
Mar 3:29 But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never hath forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation: You were a perfect child with both minds naturally in your bride chamber. When you joined a religion, you abandoned that Spirit and entered an international game of battling Gods with Armageddon on the horizon.
You actually imprisoned your mind in the Stockholm Syndrome with your God as your captor. This perfect Atheistic view of the Bible completely deflates the leaven which has created opposing God's. ALL previous mystery is completely resolved. The Bible becomes the perfect spiritual guide which transforms you into Eternity away from the distant earth and its battling world of God followers as Paul described in 2Cr 12:2.
He suffered for 18 years and he lost everything.
He lost everything except for his wife.
The Torah does not give this information, but tradition holds that Sarah was born in Israel, around 4000 years ago.
The Torah does not give any information because it is not biblical. [That sentence is wrong. Actually, the Torah is the first 5 books of the Bible.] Sarah was the wife of Abraham and mother if Isaac; first called Sarai (Genesis 11:29-31). God promised her that, though she had been barren throughout her life, she would give birth to a son in her old age (Genesis 17:15-21; 18:10-15).Taken from the Hold Bible.
Sarah [then called Sarai] was the half-sister of Abraham, and since he was from the city of Ur in Chaldea, it is only logical to assume that she was also from Ur. Regarding dating, she was 127 [Gen 23:2] when she died in 1859BC, which means she was born in 1986BC [All dates Ussher].
The mature men were about 600,000 (Exodus 12:37), plus the 23,000 Levites (Numbers 3:39). To this must be added the converts (Exodus 12:38), and the women and children. Based on the ratio of firstborn to younger children (Numbers ch.3), it can be seen that the children were numerous. Estimates for the total number are usually given at two million or more.
Who survived the entire time in the wilderness?
All of the Levites survived, as did all of the women and children. Plus Joshua and Calev.
The Levites survived: Talmud, Bava Bathra 121.
The women survived: Rashi commentary, Numbers 26:64.
The children survived: because the decree of dying in the wilderness applied only to men aged twenty and over (Rashi, Numbers 14:29).
261 verses mention praise, and 188 verses mention worship, but in only 3 verses are they mentioned together in the Bible
The Bible doesn't go into great detail as to the history of the calling of all of its prophets as it does, say, for Moses. But, in all cases, they are "called by God."
"All scripture is given by inspiration of God..." (II Tim.3:16). The book of Malachi is scripture. So, God inspired Malachi to write.2 Peter 1:21 -for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. [NKJV]
In Malachi 1:1 the author calls the book "The burden of the word of the LORD to Israel by Malachi. Any message (also called a burden or an oracle) delivered to Israel or Judah from the LORD was delivered by a prophet, therefore we know that Malachi was a messenger. Malachi means "by hand of the messenger", and there were 2 kinds of messengers- angels and prophets, and each is clearly identified as the deliverer of the message. Malachi is not an angel, so we know that he's a prophet.
Malachi, Malachias or Mal'achi, meaning "By Hand of the Messenger" was a Jewish prophet in the Hebrew Bible. Brother of Nathaniel and Josiah. Malachi was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Jewish Tanakh. In the Christian Old Testament, the Prophetic Books are placed last, making Book of Malachi the last Old Testament book before the New Testament. The editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia implied that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah (Malachi 1:10; 3:1, 3:10) and speculated that he delivered his prophecies about 420 BC, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Nehemiah 13:6), or possibly before his return, comparing Malachi 2:8 with Nehemiah 13:15; Malachi 2:10-16 with Nehemiah 13:23).
Malachi was the last of the prophets before the 400 silent years between the close of the Dispensation of the Prophets and the Dispensation of the Messiah.
The word Ecclesiastes is a (Greek) translation of the Hebrew word kohellet (to gather). However, it is often taken to mean "the Preacher".
Ek·kle·si·a·stesʹ (Ecclesiastes), meaning "a member of an ecclesia (congregation; assembly)."
The story of Adam and Eve never mentions the post-Exilic Satan, instead having a serpent tempt Eve.
The serpent was more cunning than any other animal in the Garden. First, he called into question God's right to decide which fruit they could eat (Genesis 3:1): "Has God indeed said that you shall not eat from every tree in the garden?"
The serpent told Eve that she would not die from eating the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This impugned dishonesty in the motives of God, who had, in Eve's words, said that they would die if they ate of the tree.
Most importantly, the serpent told Eve that by eating of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, she and Adam would be like the gods, knowing both good and evil. According to Genesis, this was undoubtedly true, as once Adam and Eve had eaten of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, they were like gods (Genesis 3:22: "And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us..."), but had also become aware of their mortality. This exposed God's hidden meaning and motives, showing that he did not want Adam and Eve to achieve their full potential, of knowing good and evil. Finally it created a self-awareness and a longing for knowledge.
Eve was tempted, and ate the fruit.
Genesis Ch. 3. Quote:- v4 And the serpent said unto the woman,(1)Ye shall not surely die:
v5 (2) For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
These are the only words (Tactics) which Satan spoke to Eve. Thought I will agree that what has been said could be close to the truth.
In the King James version
the word - Gabriel - appears 4 time. Twice in the OT and twice in the NT
All humanity descends from Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth.
Ishmael was descended from Shem, through Abraham and his Egyptian wife, Hagar, and was the father of the Ishmaelites.(Genesis 11:10-27)(1Chronicles 1:28)
The Canaanites descended from Ham, through Canaan, and were made up of eleven tribes who lived in the land of Canaan: The Amorites, Arkites, Arvadites, Girgashites, Hamathites, Hittites, Hivites, Jebusites, Sidonians (Phoenicians), Sinites, Zemarites. (Genesis 9:18; 10:6).
Bath Sheba means daughter of Sheba so she was born in either Ethiopia or Yemen depending on which scholar you read.
As far as I can ascertain the word crows is not mentioned in scripture. The word crow however is mentioned seven times, but all have reference to Peter denying Christ i.e., John 13:38 . This does not however refer to a bird but a sound of a rooster.
The raven, of which the Bible speaks often, is in the family Corvidae (crows), probably from where crows generated. In dietary laws of the Old Testament, Israel was forbidden to eat "every raven after his kind," amongst other forbidden animals (Leviticus 11:15). The Lord sent ravens to feed Elijah, when he was in the wilderness: "The ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening." 1 Kings 17:6. Noah had "sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth." Genesis 8:7.
According to Psalm 147:9, the Lord "giveth to the beast his food, and to the young ravens which cry." Jesus used the ravens as an illustration of God's care for us in Luke 12:24: "Consider the ravens: for they neither sow nor reap; which neither have storehouse nor barn; and God feedeth them: how much more are ye better than the fowls?" On another occasion, He similarly used sparrows to illustrate this truth.
In Romans 11, Paul is writing to the Gentile church in Rome regarding an apparent carnal minded "air of superiority" they were feeling among themselves over Israel and the Jews, who they thought God rejected in favor of the Gentiles [a belief that still prevails among some professing Christians today].
He explained to them that Israel was spiritually blinded "temporarily" in order that the door to salvation might be opened to "all the families of the earth" [Gentiles] as God promised Abraham [Gen.12:3].
God the Father is calling a certain number of Children in this present dispensation of time to know and understand His Truth, who shall co-rule the Kingdom of God with Jesus Christ when He establishes it on earth. Some of these are called out from the Gentile nations, where, in Christ, no one is Jew or Gentile... but are the Children of Faithful Abraham... obedient to God's Commandments and Faithful to Christ.
"There is neither Jew nor Greek [Gentile], there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." (Gal.3:28-29)
"...they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham." (verse 7)
Within the plan of God... a certain number of God's "elect" are predestined to be called out from among the "Gentile nations." It is this predetermined number of "Gentile elect" to whom Paul is referring, when he mentions the "fulness of the Gentiles."
That is... the total number of Gentile leaders the Father has in mind who will co-rule with Christ in His Kingdom.
"...judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the Kingdom..." (Dan.7:22).
Speaking about Israel to the Roman church, Paul says: "...Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall SALVATION IS COME UNTO THE GENTILES, for to provoke them to jealousy... For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am apostle of the Gentiles..." (Rom.11:11-13 NIV).
Paul compares Israel to the natural vine with all its branches. Many of Israel's branches were cut off... and Gentiles [unnatural branches] were being "grafted" into the tree.
"...If some of the branches have been broken off, and you, though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive Root, do not boast over those branches. If you do, consider this: You do not support the Root, but the Root supports you.
"You will say then, 'Branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.' Granted. But they were broken off because of unbelief, and you stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but be afraid.
"For if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you either.
"Consider therefore the kindness and sternness of God: sternness for those who fell, but kindness to you, provided that you continue in His kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off. And if they do not persist in unbelief, they will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.
"I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until THE FULL NUMBER OF THE GENTILES HAS COME IN." (Rom.11:17-25 NIV)
When the "full number" of Children that the Father has in mind to become the "kings and priests" who will co-rule the Kingdom with Christ has been reached... He will send His Son back to the earth to establish the Kingdom on the earth.
"...and we shall reign on the earth." (Rev.5:10)
And the "full number of the Gentiles" the Father has in mind will be among them.
Together with Christ... God's saints will then begin to teach all the nations God's ways for a thousand years.
"...to him will I give power over the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron..." (Rev.2:26-27).
"Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection... they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years." (Rev.20:6)
God’s people allowed themselves to be influenced by the false religion of the Canaanites and other nations round about. As a result, they violated their covenant relationship with God. To correct them and guide them back, God sent a series of prophets who bore his messages to the people. Many were used to warned of impending punishment of the nation for their unfaithfulness.
There were many "schools of the prophets," not just one. Every one of the Israelite prophets had disciples, who studied Torah under them, and who attempted to achieve prophecy. Some succeeded and some did not, but all became Torah-scholars.
Until Samuel's time, prophecy had been relatively rare (1 Samuel 3:1). Starting with his leadership, the phenomenon of the "sons (disciples) of the Prophets" (2 Kings 2:3) became a regular phenomenon, and many people reached the various levels of prophecy (Talmud, Megillah 14a) (though only fifty-five prophets were commanded to record their words for posterity. Ibid).
Knowing the date of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt would help us know the name of the pharaoh who let them go, but then drowned in pursuit. It would enable us to know the date of Hebrew settlement in the Promised Land. Most importantly of all, it would prove the historicity of the biblical Exodus account.
The Bible very clearly places the Exodus from Egypt around 1440 BCE, but we now know from archaeology that Egypt was at that time very much in control of Canaan and remained so until the late thirteenth century, which brings us to the time of Ramesses II, or Ramses II, pharaoh from around 1290 to 1224 BCE. No earlier pharaoh could have been the biblical pharaoh who drowned in pursuit of the fleeing Israelites as the crossed the Red Sea. Moreover, it was he who built the city of Ramses (Pi-Ramesses), mentioned in the story of the Exodus, thus ruling out his predecessors.
With so many problems with the biblical date, Jewish tradition places the date of the Exodus around 1312 BCE, while some Christians place it around 1250 BCE. Neither date is acceptable, as the Canaanite cities remained part of the Egyptian Empire throughout Ramses' reign. No pharaoh would need to pursue to Israelites across the Red Sea, knowing that their only escape was into the northern provinces of Empire, where they could once again be enslaved. In fact, no date has yet been suggested that harmonises the Exodus story with history as it is now known. For this and other reasons, over 90 per cent of scholars are said to believe there never was an Exodus as described in the Bible.
The abbreviation for 'New Testament' is NT.
613 laws were given to Israel through Moses.
There are a few, my friend.
Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the
LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside
me there is no God."
Isaiah 44:6, KJV
"Fear ye not, neither be afraid: have not I told thee from
that time, and have declared it? ye are even my witnesses.
Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not
Isaiah 44:8, KJV
"I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God
beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:"
Isaiah 45:5, KJV
"Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel
together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath
told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no
God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none
Isaiah 45:21, KJV
"Yet I am the LORD thy God from the land of Egypt, and thou
shalt know no god but me: for there is no saviour beside
Hosea 13:4, KJV
The book of Ezekiel is separated into several distinct parts. Chapters 1-24 contain Ezekiel's prophecies of warning made before the fall of Jerusalem. Using stern language, he condemns the Jews for arrogantly rebelling against God, and he warns them that judgment day is coming soon".
Therefore I will bring the worst of the Gentiles, and they will possess their houses; I will cause the pomp of the strong to cease, and their holy places shall be defiled. (7:24NKJV).
After the fall of Jerusalem, Ezekiel's message changes completely. He delivers good news for Judah. First, in chapters 25-32, he pronounces doom on the wicked countries that destroy the Jewish nation. Then in the final 16 chapters, 33-48, he promises the exiles that they will one day return to Jerusalem.
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