Police and Law Enforcement

Agencies dedicated to preserving the obedience of criminal laws and order within a society

13,894 Questions
Police and Law Enforcement
Human Behavior

What is reckless behavior?

Texas' definition:

"A person acts recklessly, or is reckless, with respect to circumstances surrounding his conduct or the result of his conduct when he is aware of but consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the circumstances exist or the result will occur. The risk must be of such a nature and degree that its disregard constitutes a gross deviation from the standard of care that an ordinary person would exercise under all the circumstances as viewed from the actor's standpoint."

Police and Law Enforcement

What's the nicest thing a police officer has done for you?

I'd just bought a car charger—the one that plugs into your cigarette lighter—for my first 8-hour drive to visit my girlfriend at her college that weekend. Without it, I wouldn't have been able to use my phone's GPS for longer than a few hours before it died—that'd leave me lost, at night, in a state I'd never been in. For me, using paper directions is just begging to get into an accident.

So anyway, I'd bought the charger, and I was driving home when I realized, "Hey... do I even have a cigarette lighter to plug this thing into?" On an empty road, I looked down into the center panel and found nothing. The dash, nothing. I looked deeper, above where I kept my change, no—ope, I'm driving on the wrong side of the road. Begging to get in an accident. Heart jumping, I correct my path, catch my breath, and decide to look on the way home. Then I saw lights.

I got pulled over and I deserved it. I also had points on my license for a massive speeding ticket in a speed trap...any more points—for, say, wreckless driving—and I wouldn't be able to make this trip, or, like, drive at all. I told the officer the charger thing—that I made a dumb mistake checking to see if my purchase was worth it. He looked puzzled. He took my information and was heading back to his car when I called out again and further explained the situation. That I was making a big trip, and that if I got any points on my license, that would not happen. Also that I was an idiot. He stood there and thought, then went back to the car—I'm assuming to look my record up.

When he returned, he let me go. "Have a good trip. Just be careful."

Oh, also, turns out I did have a cigarette lighter.

History, Politics & Society
Police and Law Enforcement

Downloadable questions in neuro psychiatric exam?


Police and Law Enforcement

Why do police hate blacks?

I don't think all police hate blacks due to the fact that some cops themselves are black. The problem is that since there are racist people, there will undoubtedly be racist cops. those cops are the ones that unnecessarily arrest, kill, or act violently towards black people. Most black people are aware of this, and when my mom always told me that if I ever encountered a cop, to tell them that I would like to speak to my lawyer and was not obliged to do anything else and if the attacked, they were the ones in the wrong and would be considered racist for attacking a black woman unprovoked.

US Constitution
Police and Law Enforcement
US Supreme Court

How did Miranda v Arizona change the standard for admissibility of confessions and admissions?

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436 (1966)

Miranda applied the "exclusionary rule" to any statements or confessions the defendant made in response to police interrogation if the defendant hadn't been informed of relevant due process rights beforehand. Under the exclusionary rule, illegally obtained evidence may not be used to convict a defendant in court.

According to the US Supreme Court, a person in police custody must be told he (or she) has the right to remain silent to avoid self-incrimination (Fifth Amendment). The person must also be advised of the right to have an attorney present before and during questioning, and to receive court-appointed legal counsel if he (she) can't afford to hire an attorney (Sixth Amendment).

The decision in Miranda wisely assumes ignorance of constitutional rights. If the person in custody is not advised of these rights, and doesn't invoke the rights, any exculpatory or inculpatory statements are considered unconstitutionally obtained evidence, and are inadmissible in court.

The Miranda ruling has been revised somewhat by subsequent Supreme Court decisions. On June 1, 2010, the Roberts' Court released the opinion for Berghuis v. Thompkins,08-1470 (2010), which held a defendant must invoke his right to remain silent (by stating he wants to remain silent), rather than waive it (by explicitly agreeing to answer questions before interrogation).

Accounts Payable
Acronyms & Abbreviations
Police and Law Enforcement

What does ARO stand for?

ARO stands for After Receipt of Order.

Criminal Law
Police and Law Enforcement

Why would a US Marshall arrest someone instead of a police officer?

THE US Marshal appointed for a particular district is unlikely to arrest someone themselves. It is a politically appointed position who is not required to have law enforcement experience. However, a DEPUTY US Marshal is likely to make arrests. They might arrest someone rather than a police officer if it is for a violation of federal law. For example, the US Marshall's service is responsible for federal prisoners and tracking down those who are wanted for federal crimes and those who escape federal custody.

a Deputy US Marshal might arrest someone if the person had a federal warrant, if the person fled the state jurisdiction in which they committed a state offense, or if the Deputy Marshal was assigned to a multijurisdictional task force of agents and officers who are charged with apprehending violent fugitives (Fugitive Investigation Strike Team, for example).

Police and Law Enforcement

What is police arresting code PC459?

California Penal Code Section 459 is Burglary. Entering a widely defined structure with the intent to commit a larceny, grant theft, or felony there in.

Police and Law Enforcement
Criminal Justice Careers

Can a former police officer take pictures of you?

Former police officers don't have any special rights in this regard, but that still means the answer is "yes," since basically anyone can take pictures of you.

There are some limitations on how the pictures can be used ... people are generally considered to own the rights to their own likeness, so you usually can't use a photograph of someone for commercial purposes without their consent (with some exceptions if the subject is "newsworthy"). But the act of taking a picture is not illegal, nor can you sue over it.

US Constitution
Police and Law Enforcement

How has Miranda vs Arizona changed the arrest and interrogation process?

it set forth and clarified a suspect's Fifth Amendment Rights to remain silent and to have access to a lawyer before answering questions.

Arresting Officer don't have to issue the Miranda warning when making an arrest for instance a crime committed in the presence of an Officer or a third party saying that person committed a crime the rule of thumb is Custody and asking questions about a crime = Miranda warning, common question like address, name, age ext. no Miranda, spontaneous utterance like I didn't mean to hurt or kill that person could be used in court Judge would have to decide but after a spontaneous utterance like above Miranda must be giving.

Job Training and Career Qualifications
Police and Law Enforcement
US Army

Do you get nights off during the police academy?

While this will vary from police academy to police academy, those I have spoken to tell me that you generally get weekends off.

US Constitution
Police and Law Enforcement
US Supreme Court

Who was the defendant in Terry v Ohio?

In the US Supreme Court case, Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968), the respondent (like a defendant) in the case was the State of Ohio. John W. Terry was the petitioner or appellant (like a plaintiff).

Terry was appealing his criminal conviction in People v. John W. Terry, 95 Ohio L. Abs. 321 (Court of Common Pleas of Cuyahoga County 1964), in which Terry had been the defendant and the State of Ohio had been the plaintiff.

Law & Legal Issues
Acronyms & Abbreviations
Police and Law Enforcement

What is fullform of police FIR?

FIR is first information report.

Police and Law Enforcement
US Army
US Air Force History and Traditions

Can you still be a police officer with a medical discharge from the military?

Yes, so long as you're able to perform the duties required of you as a police officer.

Added: You can expect to undergo a particularly rigorous medical examination covering the specific area(s) that caused your discharge.

History, Politics & Society
Police and Law Enforcement

What does four fingers mean by police?

every thing is ok ( code 4)

Police and Law Enforcement

Do a deputized us marshall have the same power as a regular us marshall?

There is only one US Marshal. The rest are Deputy US Marshals.

Another View: The US Marshalls Service is headed by a Director.

Each of the 94 federal court districts has a US Marshall assigned to that district.

All sworn personnel under the 94 US Marshalls are known as DEPUTY US Marshalls.

Mobile Phones
Police and Law Enforcement
Civil Rights

Can a police officer go through a lost phone?

Lost property is often turned over to the police department. Its very common for a citizen to hand over a knapsack, or wallet, or a cell phone.

When property of value is turned over, there are three possible choices for the officer:

1. Throw it out. This is not really an "official" or Police approved method of dealing with found property, but if someone turns over a used sock, well its garbage. You aren't going to catalogue it or look for its owner. The value of the item will be taken into consideration. And trust me, you would be surprised what some citizens would try to turn over....

2. Catalogue it and file the found property report. It's a report commenting on the specifics of the item, the finder and the location/time it was found. It gets stored until the rightful owner claims it, or a predetermined time passes.

3. Return it to the owner. Now, how would an officer do this? Well, he would have to look through the item.

In answer to your specific question, an officer is doing his job when he is looking through a lost phone. He is attempting to find some kind of identifier to establish the owner. The officer may even start calling people in the contact list of the phone. If during this point he uncovers some information of a sensitive nature, or of criminal nature, he has been doing his job in good faith. Any investigation that is started through this incident is legitimate, and fault cannot be placed on the officer.

In looking to the owner's information, the police officer finds something that MAY be criminal, that information CANNOT be used as evidence against the accused because the information was obtained from the accused personal property without his consent.


Not sure when this answer was last improved, but, in US v. FLORES-LOPEZ, the Seventh Crcuit Court of Appeals, ruled that Warrantless Searches of cell phones is permitted. -- Demsd

Salary and Pay Rates
Police and Law Enforcement

How much money do police officers in Europe make?

Europe has many different countries and the rates of pay for the police officers in those countries would vary by a lot.

Police and Law Enforcement

Who can fire the sheriff?

A Sheriff can be appointed or elected, depending on state or local law.

If the Sheriff is appointed he can be removed by the appointing authority. If the Sheriff is elected he can be removed like any other elected official, usually through a recall.

Salary and Pay Rates
Police and Law Enforcement
US Marine Corps
Criminal Justice Careers

Do auxiliary police officers get paid?

City of Glen Cove, N.Y. pays their Aux. P.O.'s minimum wage. (No F.T. work or health, time off, pension benefits etc. provided.)

Another View: It would depend entirely on the jurisdiction in question. Some do, and some don't, and still others don't have auxiliaries.

Police and Law Enforcement

What does police code signal 61 mean?

Codes and signals are not standardized. Each department has their own version of both ten codes and signals.

For instance, Signal 61 for the Tampa Police Department would mean that there is an airport emergency. There is an international airport as well as other smaller airports in Tampa. If a city did not have an airport, it would make little sense for them to have a code for an airport emergency.

The Indiana State Police use Signal 61 to mean homicide.

The Dallas Police use Signal 61 to mean foot patrol.

To find out codes and signals for a specific area, you can call the local police department and ask. Many will supply you with a sheet or direct you to a website, as they are all a matter of public record.

Police and Law Enforcement

Who can fire a sheriff?

If the sheriff is an elected official, he must be removed by a recall election.

If the sheriff is an appointed official, he can be removed by the chief executive of the county.

Job Training and Career Qualifications
Police and Law Enforcement

What classes do you need to take to become a swat?

The only classes you will definitely need are the classes provided in the law enforcement academy. If you do not complete the academy, you will not be able to serve in any official law enforcement capacity (be licensed) in your jurisdiction. Other than that, you could come in with a GED and possibly make SWAT, without taking any civilian courses! However, that would be after many years of law enforcement training and proving yourself to be a "top cop".

However, if you want a boost to your career, start out and apply to be a reserve officer in the department you are seeking to get into. Take college courses in police science, administration of justice or related coursework. Work towards at least an Associates Degree, but try for a Bachelors or a graduate degree. Take some of the knowledge you learn in the reserve academy and spend some time in local shooting ranges working towards a tight shot group, which will be important for SWAT. In fact, practice all the skills you learn in the reserve academy and work towards a solidification of those skills, eventually applying for a full commission (hopefully with your college degree!). From there, once you get in find out policy and procedures towards becoming a SWAT team member (like how long you may have to serve before applying, etc.).

Though every department has their own policy and procedures, I do not know of an agency where you can go in directly as a SWAT team member. And, once again, you will have to put in your time and prove yourself in the field.

Police and Law Enforcement
Forensic Science

What do you call someone who studies criminals and killers?

a criminal psychologist or a forensic psychologist.

Added: . . . or a CRIMINOLOGIST.

Forensic Biologists

Forensic Anthropologists(Identification.)

Forensic Botanists (Leaves, Seeds and Plants)

Forensic Odontologits (Teeth- Dental Records)

Forensic Entomologists (Insects and Arthropods)

Forensic Ostiologists (The Causes and Circumstances of a death.)

Forensic Pathologist (Studies Cause Of Death)

Criminal Phsycologust (Studied Criminology- Liek a Phsyciactrist in some ways)

Police and Law Enforcement

Why is teamwork important in the police?

There are many reasons that teamwork is important to policing.

Uniformed law enforcement agencies tend to all be set up on a para-military command structure in which the the efforts (or lack thereof) of the individual affect each and every member of the agency. It is an efficient use of manpower and an effective management and supervision model.

Safety is a prime concern to officers. They need to work together to not only keep squad members and themselves safe, but also civilians. If an officer tries to pull over a stolen vehicle, but it flees, he would alert the other officers in the area. If they see the vehicle, they know in advance that the occupants are an increased risk. If they come in contact, they would likely request a backup right away.

Teamwork is also key when working a scene. Working together can increase the chances of making an arrest, gaining a full story, or securing a scene. Sometimes one officer will remain on the scene and relay information through dispatch to other officers. The other officers will search the area with the information they are being passed. This is not only common when searching for criminals, but also young children or at risk elderly.

Officers also must work together to do their jobs in a timely manner. They often pay attention to what calls their squad members are on, and what calls are gathering in other zones. If an officer in zone 1 isn't getting many calls, but an officer in zone 2 is on a very long involved call, the officer from zone 1 may start picking up calls from zone 2. This not only relieves the busy officer of a backlog, it helps civilians be seen without as heavy of a wait time.


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