There are several type of circuit breakers now a day we are using these are as follows:
1. M.C.B. (Miniature circuit Breaker)
Rating : 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 20, 25, 32, 63 Amperes
2. M.C.C.B. (Miniature current circuit Breaker)
Rating : 10, 16, 20, 25, 32, 63, 100, 200, 250, 400 Amperes.
3. A.C.B. (Air Circuit Breaker)
Rating : 400, 800, 1000, 1200, 1500, 1800, 2000 Amperes.
4. A. B. Switch (Air Breaker)
used in High tension line.
5. SF6 Breaker (Contact break in the Sf6 medium)
used in High tension line.
A useful definition of a renewable resource is one "that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time." Typical examples of renewable sources of energy include solar (thermal & photovoltaic), wind (turbines), water (dams, tidal, wave), geothermal, and biomass.
There are a number of caveats that should be mentioned here however, such as the fact that at long enough time scales all sources of energy are ultimately finite. For example, the hydrogen that fuels the Sun's conversion of energy into light which yields photosynthetic biomass and that drives Earth's atmospheric wind pressure systems along with its hydrological cycle is consumed irreversibly. Geothermal energy arises from the natural radioactive decay of unstable elements deep in the Earth's interior and such radioactive decay is also finite in nature.
In addition technologies needed to harness these renewable forms of energy require material inputs which are not themselves "renewable". For example, both multi-junction photovoltaic solar cells and wind turbine-generator magnets require rare-earth elements.
Given these qualifications there is no reason to exclude nuclear fission from renewable energy mix. After all both thorium and uranium are a lot more common than rare-earth elements such as indium, neodymium, or praseodymium. Furthermore it is estimated that the oceans of the world contain dissolved within it some 4.5 billion tons of uranium; and its rate of consumption in fast-spectrum breeder reactors would be constantly renewed by additional deposition from rivers and streams.
One wind turbine consumes about 20 square meters of land at its base. There are sometimes gravel roads that lead to them from the nearest road, usually 2-3 meters wide and 10-50 meters long, to allow maintenance trucks to get to them. Calling it 120 square meters per wind turbine of actual land taken out of use isn't far off.
That's about a tenth of a hectare or a quarter of an acre. The rest of the land is still useful for whatever it was being used for before, whether that was farming, hiking, growing weeds, snowmobiling, grouse hunting or just sitting there unused.
As a wind turbine will generally bring in a lease value of $5000 - $8000 per year to the owner of the land, and as that is higher than most crops will yield per acre per year, it's an excellent additional revenue stream, especially for the multi-revenue stream, small-business owners we call farmers.
As wind turbines are spaced 6-10 blade diameters apart, a gigawatt of power generation would be spread over about about 518 square kilometres, or about 200 square miles. It would take up about 0.01% of that land. If it were all compressed together, it would be about the size of a nuclear plant.
There's a US land use requirements reference at the link referenced.
Trees, leaves, crops, vegetables, sheep, cows, fish, birds, mulch and paper.
mulch and paper
A renewable resource is something that we can use, and it's still there after we've used it. Solar power, geothermal power (heat from deep under the ground), wave and tidal power and wind power are all renewable.
Renewable resources can also be resources that need some effort to use up like oxygen, wood, fish, insects.
The definition written in the dictionary :any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time.
Coal, oil, natural gas and other fossil fuels like wood that we burn once are finished and are non-renewable.
Hydro comes from the Greek word for water. Hydro-electricity, or hydro-power, is usually generated by turbines in a dam in a river. The dam means that a great body of water builds up in the river valley behind the dam. This is released through the turbines when electricity is needed.
Smaller than dams are barrages across the mouths of rivers which capture water from high tides and release it to generate electricity. Smaller still are turbines in river and tidal streams which do the same thing.
Hydro was the first commercial source of power of any size. The uses were understood right away, but there certainly are drawbacks.
They destroy farmland and alter the course of rivers. They must also be located at the discretion of the plant rather than our choosing. Much of our power that we use today is not even used constructively. There is a large portion of our energy that is used in transporting it across the country. The major disadvantage I would put against this form of power would be the land and energy consumed in transporting the power away from the plants. Grid loss is a major issue for energy users.
It is a renewable energy source. Unlike fossil fuels which will eventually run out, hydro power plants do not use up the energy source. It is also not polluting to the environment. They output power at a relatively reliable rate (compared to solar or wind, especially). On the other hand, they drastically affect all ecosystems upstream of the dam, and are much more environmentally destructive than nuclear power plants.
Nuclear fusion is nonrenewable, because it relies on uranium being found and extracted from ores, and there is no way to replace this once it is used up. It is true you can make fissile material from nonfissile U-238, but then eventually all the U-238 would be used up, so that breeding process just enables more energy to be obtained from the uranium source, it does not make any more.
If fusion power becomes a reality this will make a huge energy resource available, namely the water in the oceans, and this would never be used up in millions of years, but strictly speaking it would still not be renewable. It requires hydrogen nuclei as an energy source, and once these have been used in fusion they are not naturally replenished. In fact, fusion power has a very high energy change, rendering it near impossible to reverse the process. A star, for example, is powered by nuclear fusion, and will eventually die out due to a lack of hydrogen.
Nuclear Fission is a non-renewable energy source, but it depends on your perspective. Uranium-235, the primary fuel for nuclear power, has an abundance of 0.7 percent in the Earth. An enrichment of 4% to 5% is required in order to achieve an effective fission reaction, and the half-life of uranium-235 is about 70 million years, with uranium-238 (with an abundance of 99.3%) having a half-life of about 447 billion years. As a result, it is unlikely that we will run out of uranium-235 in the near, mid, and distant future.
In addition, Plutonium-239, an effective alternate source of nuclear power, which can be formed from uranium-238, has a half-life of about 24,000 years.
Because there is no way of making more uranium, once it is used up it will not be replaced. If nuclear fusion becomes possible, using hydrogen isotopes, then there will be a vast new source of energy from the earth's water, but again it is using a fixed resource.
In my view the only truly renewable sources of energy are those which are provided by the sun on a daily basis.
Well, if you want to be pedantic about it, so is solar, wind and tide energy. The sun will transition to red giant in a few billion years then (probably) become a white dwarf. No more sunlight. And even longer after that, as the universe is expanding, due to the law of entropy, everything will eventually be spread out thinly across space, and the energy levels will be constant everywhere. So if you want to be pedantic, EVERY source of alternative energy will run out eventually, but the person asking this question obviously wants to know what alternative energy sources are exhaustible in the timeframe of human existence, and the answer to that is biomass and nuclear (with the current technologies, the figures show we will run out of uranium in about 160-200+ years, but potential new technologies look to be able to extend our uranium supply almost indefinitely). And technically we can run out of (useable) biomass.
Realistically, we're never going to run out of biomass, though producing enough to satisfy fuel demands could be very difficult. Efficient use of current technology and (more important) fuel recycling means that we're unlikely to run out of nuclear fission fuel, either. We're never going to run out of nuclear fusion fuel.
Geothermal is tricky. We're never going to run out of geothermal energy to tap into (as that would require cooling of the earth's core, which won't happen on a human timescale), but individual places where geothermal energy is available can easily change, and as geothermal isn't portable, it is entirely possible for a given location to be unable to produce geothermal power at some point.
Renewable energy has a role only in reducing climate change. In a world powered by renewable energy the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would slowly return to their normal levels, and the dangers from global warming would disappear.
Energy use from fossil fuel is the dominant source of greenhouse gas emissions made by man. Burning fossil fuels to generate electricity releases additional carbon dioxide which the carbon cycle is unable to deal with. If we could produce all our energy from renewable sources tomorrow we would have very little problem with climate change.
Renewable energy includes hydroelectric power, tidal power, wind, solar, geothermal and biomass. These are not depleted when we use them. If I put a solar panel on my roof, that will not make it less sunny tomorrow. Renewable energy does not cause carbon dioxide emissions, and therefore does not contribute to climate change, like burning fossil fuels does. (Actually, nuclear power is non-renewable, but does not contribute to climate change.)
It is true that no single technology can provide all the power we need, but by combining different technologies (for example: Solar and hydrogen fuel cells, which could store energy from the solar panels for when the sun does not shine), it will be possible to provide base load power from renewable sources.
It does not need to be renewed, it is constantly available as long as the sun is shining. And that will last several more billion years.
Solar power is energy collected from the sun. While not 100% renewable, as long s we have sun and a planet to live on, we will have this virtually unlimited power source.
Most of the time the two terms are referring to sources of energy:
Renewable sources are sources of energy that can be reused or that will continue regardless of you using them: power from the Sun, power from waves, power from wind.
Nonrenewable sources are sources of energy that have a limited supply and will run out, and not be able to be used in the future: Oil, Coal, Gas.
Renewable energy sources are wind, solar, and hydro-power, and biomass. They will never run out. Nonrenewable energy sources are coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. The similarities are that most of them have a relation with the Sun. A nonrenewable energy source and a renewable energy source are similar in the way some of them are used to transform energy (you cannot create energy, it can only be transformed from one energy form to another.) The similarities are few but there are many differences, most of the positives are on the renewable energy's side.
When you use petrol, gas, coal... basically anything you burn to produce heat and then turn this energy into electricity of mechanical energy (a car engine) you are using a raw material that is not going to be replaced. In fact petrol, gas, and coal take million of years to be naturally produced.
When you are burning wood (from trees), the tree grows again... eventually if you let it do so. This energy can be "kind of renewable" as long as another tree grows as fast in order to replace the one you cut.
In short: no.
Geothermal energy harnessing is still in its infancy compared to wind energy, and therefore, more expensive. Overall geothermal energy has been done on a very small scale, but technological breakthroughs need to occur before it can be successfully worldwide.
Then again, with the U.S. energy industry being deregulated, wind energy can be more expensive than other energy types. For instance, when I lived in western Arkansas, I used OG&E as my energy provider, and they offered wind power for just 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour, which was half of a conventional plan. In Texas, providers generally charge 2 cents MORE per kilowatt hour for using purely wind power than conventional.
Alternate Energy Sources: Solar, Wind, Hydro, Biomass, etc.
There are many, but it depends a bit on what you mean by "alternate." Mostly, people mean sources other than fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas), and maybe nuclear fission as well. Personally I prefer the term "renewable" sources of energy because the meaning is more clear, and maybe some day in the future renewable energy sources will be our main source of power, and won't be "alternate" at all!
Here are a few:
Solar: Solar power or sun's energy can be used to make both electricity and fuel with solar panels. These panels take energy from sunlight and turn it into either electricity or they drive a chemical reaction to make a fuel (hydrogen gas for instance). More energy from the sun hits the earth's surface in one hour than ALL the energy used by people on the entire earth in one year!
Hydroelectric: By building a dam on a river, and only letting the water pass through a small passage, you can use the force of the moving water to spin a turbine to make electricity.
Geothermal: If you drill down deep enough into the surface of the earth, you will reach very hot rocks. You can inject cold water into this deep hole, and the rocks heat the water, turning it to steam. You can then use this steam to turn a turbine to make electricity.
Wind: Giant windmills spin to make electricity from the force of wind moving through the blades of the windmill.
Biomass: Many plants can be turned into chemical fuels that can be burned. Ethanol is the most common, and usually corn or sugar cane is grown to make ethanol. You can burn ethanol in many cars just like gasoline.
Waves and Tides: The movement of water due to crashing waves or rising and falling tides can be used to spin a submerged propeller or a turbine to make electricity
Fusion: A costly and somewhat dangerous resource is being developed which is known as fusion. This is the same energy which generates the sun's heat and energy. It fuses hydrogen atoms into helium atoms but is not yet cost effective and they have yet to make a self sustaining reaction.
Alternate renewable sources of energy are those that can be harnessed naturally and repeatedly by humans without damaging the environment or adding to the possibility of global warming.
the smallest turbine is in thatipur
Trees may not grow back in an area of deforestation.
As always, our Corporations put Cash ahead of Casualties. Clear-Planting cannot keep up with Clear-Cutting.
Niagara Falls is important on both sides of the Canada-US border for two reasons: it is an important tourist attraction; and it is a major source of hydroelectric power.
The main renewable sources of energy to generate electricity are:
*Strictly speaking an energy source is not 'renewable' if you mean "can humanity restore it?", as it must with trees, for example.
Geothermal, for example, is self-renewing - the Earth is constantly giving off its heat to water which is close enough to the heat to be warmed by it. It is not diminished to any noticeable extent by our using it. It is possible to use a geothermal resource to capacity locally. One example is in the geothermal area of Rotorua, New Zealand, where too many thermal bores resulted in the decline of the geysers that were a tourist attraction. This has since been addressed by controls on the bores in the area, and the geysers are performing as before.
Heat or light from the sun, wind (turns turbines which produce electricity), and water (the power of the flow turns turbines which produce electricity).
wind, tidal, geothermal and hydroelectricity
Hydro electric power generally is generally thought of as the power of water falling through a distance (like the generators at Niagara Falls). This also a demonstration of the problem with the process, it requires water at high places that can be fed down to generators at low places. this makes it unavailable for flat or arid countries. Hydro power can also include wave or tidal power systems. Large bodies of water are required excluding land locked or arid countries. The third case is turbines in rivers with the attendant concern that not all locations have such resources.
Many small hydro installations of these types can be developed for small user communities, but the ability to replace large thermal power stations is limited.
Sources of Renewable energy-
1. Biomass (Wood, forest and agricultural wastes, domestic sewage, industrial waste)
2. Solar Energy (Photo-voltaics and Solar Thermal)
3. Wind Energy (wind turbines)
4. Hydro Power (Rivers, waves and tides)
5. Geothermal Energy (This is the energy tapped from the heat inside the earth)
Water is also a renewable resource, as is wheat, rice, potatoes and other crops.
there is no comments from my side
Gasoline Oil Coal Petroleum Basically any natural resource that cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate.
oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium
Gasoline, precious gems, gold...
Oil and coal.
sorry that's all i got!
Examples of nonrenewable resources would be coal, oil, gas and nuclear fuel like uranium.
These fuels are nonrenewable because they once you burn them or use them they can't be used again.
Anything that's mined from the Earth.
In the field of energy, that includes:
In the field of materials,
The only non-renewable resources are ones that cannot be replaced, or at least replenished as quickly as it would be consumed. Hardwoods would be an example, if you don't replant them. Generally this is applied to fossil fuels : coal, oil, and natural gas, which would take millions of years to replace, and not quickly enough to replace what is used.
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