The three major orders in the sacrament of Holy Orders include Bishop, Deacon and Priest.
No responsible observers were excluded from the observer or spectator role. an excellent if somewhat dated book on the subject was entitled- Observer In Rome. Curiously, in translation- Roman Observer is the official Vatican newspaper. Osservatore Romano. This may have influenced the title of the book. Of course the Swiss National Guard had beefed up security , no Rebel-Rousers allowed, but as I said no responsible media types were barred.
Pope John XXIII convened the Council and Pope Paul VI made the changes to the Mass.
The Second Vatican Council had been considered by Pope Pius XII, but Blessed John XXIII actually called it. The Council was primarily a pastoral council to see how the church could deal with the needs of people in the 20th century. The Council did not change the language of the Mass, but allowed for certain parts (such as the readings) to be in the language of the people. Many of the changes that people associate with Vatican Council II such as the design of churches and, even Mass in the common language had been tried before the Council and were brought about by people in the church in opposition to what the documents actually call for. Ultimately, a Council is the work of the Holy Spirit, and so it is God's way of communicating things to us.
They are the Pope, Bishops and the Cardinals all over the world.
Yes, it was an ecumenical council.
While it covered an enormous arc of religious doctrines and para-religious subjects ( such as church music, etc) Vatican II had little or no impact on Section V of the Canon Law- that dealing with the Matrimonial laws and practices. Direct oppositional language to other faiths was, of course toned down and expressions like ( Heretic and Schismatic) throttled back or even switched off the line. To the best of my knowledge the possibility of eliminating or even modifying the doctrine of Priestly Celibacy was never even discussed. It is within the scope of church laws that Could be modified by a future pope.
De-emphasis on ritual and statuary- which hit the ecclesiastical Wares firms like a bombing raid!- the advent of the so-called Flying Washboard Altar- where the celebrant faces the congregation throughout the Mass. The phase out of Latin as the official ritual language of worship ( point two) Modification of fast and dietary laws to a bare minimum. ( some people still observe the Friday laws out of either penance or economy!)- There were many changes- also maybe TOO MUCH of what might be called ( Interaction) on Hymn singing ( OK up to a point) and in the worship itself- some could almost say an excess ( compared to the past) of (Audience Participation)- and with that- a new wave of tolerance, botgh inter-racial and towards other faiths- hate propaganda towards other faiths well it has been scaled back to the vanishing point. Amen.
The most visible change was that the Mass could now be said in the vernacular rather than Latin.
Vatican II lasted approximately 3 years: 1962-1965.
The purpose of Vatican II was to update the Liturgy or the expression of how we worship Our Lord. According to Pope Benedict XVI, Vatican II was a "renewal in the continuity of the one-subject Church which the Lord has given us."
Many myths abound about Vatican II, the greatest of these are that the Church was in need of reform, that it departed from the "sacred patrimony of Truth received by the Fathers," the things that you disagree with are no longer in force, and the Church embarked on a voyage of endless change fueled by the "modernist spirit."
The truth about the "Spirit of The Second Vatican Council" was primarily to involve the laity in many of the duties that were once relegated to the religious and to give a greater roll to the laity in all aspects of Church Life.
.Catholic AnswerBelow is a link to Pope John XXIII's address to open the Second Vatican Council, he called for the Council to do a number of things, primarily to:
1) provide a defense and advancement of Truth
2) To bring the Church's teaching to the modern world
3) To transmit the truth fearlessly
4) To promote the unity of the Christian family.
RCIA (Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults) is the modern name for the catechumenate and its surrounding processes, a catechetical system developed in the Early Church to prepare and initiate converts into the Church and largely structured by St. Augustine of Hippo in his De Catechizandis Rudibus. The catechumenate fell into disrepair during the Middle Ages as the Edict of Milan legalized Christianity and future emperors made it the official religion of the empire, which prompted mass conversions and led to a decreased need for such a system. Furthermore, the rise of Infant Baptism led to a fall in adult conversions, for which the catechumenate was established. These factors combined allowed the Christian culture of Europe to evangelize on its own, so that a non-Christian desiring to join the Church would already be very aware of the Church's teachings.
The Second Vatican Council restored the Catechumenate in response to the needs of the modern world and the rise of secularism, which changed the culture from being an authentically Christian one that would automatically evangelize its citizens and renewed the need for a system and process of catechesis for non-Christian adults. In restoring the catechumenate under the RCIA, the Second Vatican Council responded to the real need of modern society.
The RCIA is generally used for any adults seeking to join the Catholic Church, even though it is technically only for catechumens, who are non-Christians converting to Catholicism (non-Catholic Christians converting to Catholicism are known as "RCIA candidates").
The catechumenate is a stage of the RCIA process and therefore the two are not technically identical, but the terms are usually used interchangeably. The RCIA consists of the Pre-Catechumenate (a basic, less formal stage of instruction and venue for inquiries about the faith), the Catechumenate (a formal stage of instruction), Purification and Enlightenment (a spiritual preparation before joining the Church, usually during Lent since most RCIA candidates are welcomed into the Church at Easter), and Mystagogy (a post-baptismal period of ongoing catechesis for new Catholics, who are called neophytes).
To update and amend the Catholic Church's policies and practices. Catholic services were still conducted in Latin, which nobody spoke anymore outside of church. They changed the rules, to allow services to be conducted in the local language, so people could understand what they were saying (and praying). There were also other changes that had happened in society (like divorces becoming easier to obtain, the introduction of the Pill, and people wishing to marry outside the faith or choose cremation instead of burial), that the Church wanted to address. The Church was further being pressed to own up to its earlier excesses (like the Inquisition), and they did so through the Council.
Visible and audible: language of liturgy changed to local vernacular- in the case of the United States- English. Celebrant faces the congregation- which brought about the flat topped or ( Flying washboard) altars. Some minor changes in customs and practices not directly liturgical- statuary toned down, broader range of hymns, etc. an attempt at ( Updating) that well, like all movements there were highs, and lows, and some , well turbulent currents. The flying washboard idea was not liked by all- and was slow in phasing in. I attended what I believed was a Catholic Mass in England in l966 and the Clergyman in Black clerical robes- used Latin for most of the mass, and had his back towards the congregation- this was Roman Catholic- not Episcopal. I only vaguely mention this, Perhaps there were cooling-off periods for regular clergy such as Benedictines, Dominicans, etc, which had their own rituals and habits.
Roman Catholic Answer, wait, just call this my viewpoint:In many ways, when the Vatican was redoing the Mass (the Eucharist), they were trying to get back to the way it was done in the first several centuries of the Church. They tried to remove things that they thought had been added for no good reason, or what they viewed as mindless repetitions. They also tried to take the focus off of sacrifice and put more emphasis on the community. The Council had called for the readings to be in English, the priests working on the new Mass asked for everything to be translated into the vernacular. This has been a mixed blessing, if one can be the charitable. The current Holy Father, Pope Benedict, has freed the older rite, the older version of the Mass - pre-Vatican II and I believe we will see it celebrated more and more as the years go on.
It depends. It almost wrecked the Middle and middle-upper level merchandising of what are called Ecclesiastical Wares- that his upper level Religious articles- immediately prior to Vatican II three Jewelers ( Jewelers, not primarily religious goods shops)- in Jersey City had big Ecclesiastical Ware departments. It was a common practice for parishioners to donate big-ticket religious articles- such as Chalices, Pattens, and so on following the death of a family member- more practical than mass cards in a sense... It practically wrecked the Ecclesiastical Ware industry. On the other hand there are some areas which could have been more opened up- the possibility of abolishing or modifying the Celibacy laws- which was not even given an earnest fair-shake during the conferences which went on a number of years. Openings-up to other denominations, were, for the most part- a positive change a progression indeed. Much updating remains to be accomplished!Roman Catholic AnswerThis is an odd question: to ask if an Ecumenical Council of the Church went "too far". An Ecumenical Council is a gathering of all the bishops of the Church under the leadership of the Holy Father. As such, all of its pronouncements are infallible, and a result of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit IS God and we, as human beings, have no business judging God.
If, on the other hand, you are asking about the implementation of Vatican II, which is what the above answer is about, then, yes, it has gone way too far, for the simple reason that many of the implementations of Vatican II ignored previous Councils which were also infallible. As the Holy Father has pointed out, one must not look on Vatican Council II with a hermeneutic of rupture. As in the above answer, people who were responsible for the implementation of Vatican II often did things that were at odds with the Council and with previous Councils - thus "too far".
Pope Paul VI
Before, women could not do readings, pass out communion, or female children could not be altar servers.
Baptism is a sacrament of the Church. It has been dogmatically and doctrinally defined long ago. No "changes" to baptism occurred, to my knowledge and investigation. This includes but is not limited to, questions regarding the position of the Church as pertains to Protestant baptisms, ceremonial rite, regenerative nature, form and intent. ARTICLE 1
THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM "Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration through water in the word." Baptism is God's most beautiful and magnificent gift. . . .We call it gift, grace, anointing, enlightenment, garment of immortality, bath of rebirth, seal, and most precious gift. It is called gift because it is conferred on those who bring nothing of their own; gracesince it is given even to the guilty; Baptism because sin is buried in the water; anointing for it is priestly and royal as are those who are anointed; enlightenment because it radiates light; clothing since it veils our shame; bath because it washes; and seal as it is our guard and the sign of God's Lordship. St. Gregory Of Nazianzus, Oratio 40, 3-4: PG 36, 361C. == The reforms that came out of Vatican II radically changed the ceremonies surrounding baptism. Firstly, they suspended the exorcism that took place before the baptism. This exorcism involved two anointings with holy oils, the imitation of Christ's ceremonial use of saliva (here replicated by the priest), the placing of salt upon the tongue, symbolizing both wisdom and preservation from sin, and the procession to the baptistry. It was often common to consecrate the child/baptized to the Virgin Mary after the ceremony, this custom has fallen into obscurity except in local cultures and among conservative parishes. As well, it is now only required that one godparent be Catholic, a very strange compromise in light of the purpose of godparents. As well, the entire orientation of the sacrament has changed. While it's effect remains intact, much of the ceremony and ritual has been stripped away in the modern rite and the emphasis put upon preaching and the symbolism of joining the Faith community. The old rite put the emphasis on the rituals and the effect of the sacrament, not only as the passage to Christian fellowship but also as a combative rite against original sin and sin in general.
in briefly their order of shall we say, impact on the man or woman in the pew. l. change of language of worship to phase out Latin. 2. the celebrant ( usually a priest) facing the congregation at all times - and co-tangent with this the advent of a new, flat table type of altar, sometimes called the Flying Washboard altar ( derisively)- 3 related to this, a de-emphasis on gaudy or overly showy church furnishings or articles of religion- this had a serious impact on the middle grades of the Ecclesiastical wares industry in this area. One outfit changed their product line to military insignis and badges and has done well in this area. Others did not fare so well, Statuary in particular and elaborate church customs like Benediction were scaled back. 4. an attempt 6o maximize congregational participation in the liturgy ( folk masses, folk songs adapted to hymns, an increased frequency of what might be called audience participation ( again not liked by all)- finally a reform of the dietary and fast laws, now operative only in Lent and then only on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays in Lent. so it went.
The Second Vatican Council was called by Blessed Pope John XXIII (soon to be canonized). As with all Ecumenical Councils, it involved the bishops of the entire world, although, Vatican Council II was different in that it allowed observers who were not Bishops to attend, although they had no official input nor voting rights. The observers were dignitaries from other religions. The only ones directly involved with the Council, and the only ones to have a vote were Bishops (which includes Archbishops, Cardinals, and, of course, the Holy Father), with their attendants - theological experts, confessors, and such.
Pope John XXIII
The Second Vatican Council happened in the first half of the 1960's a little over three years: It opened under Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI on 8 December 1965.
Bl. Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council. He died before it ended, and it was left to his successor Pope Paul VI to reconvene the council and see it concluded.
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