Space Travel and Exploration

Ask questions here about the Space Race, the Apollo missions and both human and robotic spaceflights.

Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Skeletal System

Does space travel effect the skeletal system?

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Yes. Prolonged space flight, like on board the space station, can affect the bones density and strength. With the micro gravity of space, the bones do not need to be as strong as they do on earth, because they aren't carrying the weight like they do here. The become weaker. To combat this, the astronauts exercise with some weight resistance to simulate gravity.
Asked in Astronomy, Space Travel and Exploration

Do wings work in space?

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As sails are classified as a propulsive wing, and such craft have been designed to sail on solar winds, the amazing, but true answer to this question would be yes. Previous Answer No since there is no air to move over them or provide lift.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Airplanes and Aircraft

What is the life span of a helicopter?

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Hi! It is two type of life span of flying thing: flying hour and age. The maximum flying hour and age depend on manufacturer. It is extendable by overhauling it. The exact life span is depend the usage and service. Seawater cause much corrosion, sand cause engine troubles, and so on. There are helos in air which are 30 year old!
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Astronauts

What is something important Roberta Bondar did?

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Roberta Bondar is probably most known as Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, she became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific and medical communities.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration

What was the first object launched into space?

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The first manmade object known to have been placed in Earth orbit was Sputnik 1 - a Soviet satellite. However, the first manmade objects to enter space sub-orbitally were arguably German A4/V2 ballistic missiles. These were being developed and launched from the Baltic island of Peenemunde from before WW2 and several thousand were fired in action before the close of hostilities. The standard A4 missile reached altitudes in excess of 50 miles, long considered the threshold of "space". After WW2 the United States continued to launch them experimentally from White Sands missile range. They created a two stage version, the "Bumper" which climbed to even greater altitudes and would be the safest contender for this title of first manmade object in space. Prior to 1950. It should be borne in mind that the question is rendered ambiguous by the fact that "space" has no distinct beginning. Whilst the International Space Station ( ISS ) orbits at about 200 miles altitude and most manned flight occurs there or lower, the upper regions of Earths atmosphere extend several thousand miles further! It is for this reason, resulting in subtle aerodynamic drag that such low orbits decay if the vehicle is not periodically boosted, as is the ISS by means of Russian Progress and Soyuz vehicles. It can therefore be argued that the earliest manmade objects in space were actually high altitude balloons. It is argued, moreover, that the first man in space was USAF colonel Joseph H. Kittinger, who made the highest human balloon ascent in history aboard Excelsior 3, from which he returned by parachute, on August 16th 1960. The highest parachute drop ever, wearing a space-suit and descending for several minutes before his chute could be opened.
Asked in Physics, Space Travel and Exploration, Magnetism

Would a magnetic compass be suitable to be used for space travel . if not what kind of equipment would you suggest?

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In a word, no. A conventional magnetic compass only indicates the *Earth's* magnetic field. The influence of any extraterrestrial magnetic fields falls off according to the inverse-square law, that is, the force is diminished by the square of the distance from the source. What this means is that any fields present from other objects are very small compared to the Earth's own field. You can demonstrate this by influencing a compass with a small bar magnet. Once you leave the vicinity of Earth, the usefulness of a magnetic compass disappears almost immediately. Of present technology, Inertial Navigation is the most suited for space travel. By using accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure acceleration along each axis, and rotation around each axis, you can keep track of distance and direction traveled. That's how spacecraft got to the moon, planets and beyond the solar system. Addition: A sextant will always be a handy navigational tool. If interstellar travel ever becomes a reality a real time pulsar triangulator will be a necessity. Every pulsar has a unique rotational frequency. By triangulating apparent angles between the pulsars a spacecrafts position in space can be known.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Stars

What planet is closest the sun?

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Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun
Asked in Astronomy, Space Travel and Exploration, The Moon

What will happen to a person without a space suit in space?

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When the human body is suddenly exposed to the vacuum of space, a number of injuries begin to occur immediately. Though they are relatively minor at first, they accumulate rapidly into a life-threatening combination. The first effect is the expansion of gases within the lungs and digestive tract due to the reduction of external pressure. A victim of explosive decompression greatly increases their chances of survival simply by exhaling within the first few seconds, otherwise death is likely to occur once the lungs rupture and spill bubbles of air into the circulatory system. Such a life-saving exhalation might be due to a shout of surprise, though it would naturally go unheard where there is no air to carry it. In the absence of atmospheric pressure water will spontaneously convert into vapor, which would cause the moisture in a victim's mouth and eyes to quickly boil away. The same effect would cause water in the muscles and soft tissues of the body to evaporate, prompting some parts of the body to swell to twice their usual size after a few moments. This bloating may result in some superficial bruising due to broken capillaries, but it would not be sufficient to break the skin. Within seconds the reduced pressure would cause the nitrogen which is dissolved in the blood to form gaseous bubbles, a painful condition known to divers as "the bends." Direct exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation would also cause a severe sunburn to any unprotected skin. Heat does not transfer out of the body very rapidly in the absence of a medium such as air or water, so freezing to death is not an immediate risk in outer space despite the extreme cold. For about ten full seconds- a long time to be loitering in space without protection- an average human would be rather uncomfortable, but they would still have their wits about them. Depending on the nature of the decompression, this may give a victim sufficient time to take measures to save their own life. But this period of "useful consciousness" would wane as the effects of brain asphyxiation begin to set in. In the absence of air pressure the gas exchange of the lungs works in reverse, dumping oxygen out of the blood and accelerating the oxygen-starved state known as hypoxia. After about ten seconds a victim will experience loss of vision and impaired judgement, and the cooling effect of evaporation will lower the temperature in the victim's mouth and nose to near-freezing. Unconsciousness and convulsions would follow several seconds later, and a blue discoloration of the skin called cyanosis would become evident. At this point the victim would be floating in a blue, bloated, unresponsive stupor, but their brain would remain undamaged and their heart would continue to beat. If pressurized oxygen is administered within about one and a half minutes, a person in such a state is likely make a complete recovery with only minor injuries, though the hypoxia-induced blindness may not pass for some time. Without intervention in those first ninety seconds, the blood pressure would fall sufficiently that the blood itself would begin to boil, and the heart would stop beating. There are no recorded instances of successful resuscitation beyond that threshold. Though an unprotected human would not long survive in the clutches of outer space, it is remarkable that survival times can be measured in minutes rather than seconds, and that one could endure such an inhospitable environment for almost two minutes without suffering any irreversible damage. The human body is indeed a resilient machine.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Apollo Moon Missions, The Moon

How many moon landings have there been?

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There have been six manned moon landings - Apollo 11 landed 20 July 1969 Apollo 12 landed 19 November 1969 Apollo 14 landed 5 February 1971 Apollo 15 landed 30 July 1971 Apollo 16 landed 20 April 1972 Apollo 17 landed 11 December 1972 There have been numerous unmanned moon landings, 13 soft landings are listed as well as 26 crash landings. Crash landings listed include retired satellites and orbiters, impactors, as well as failed soft landings. USSR probes Luna 2 crashed 13 September 1959 Luna 5 crashed 12 May 1965 Luna 7 crashed 7 October 1965 Luna 8 crashed 6 December 1965 Luna 9 landed 3 February 1966 Luna 13 landed 24 December 1966 Luna 15 crashed 21 July 1969 Luna 16 landed 20 September 1970 Luna 17 landed 17 November 1970 Luna 18 crashed 11 September 1971 Luna 20 landed 21 February 1972 Luna 21 landed 15 January 1973 Luna 23 landed 6 November 1974 Luna 24 landed 18 August 1976 NASA / US probes Ranger 4 crashed 26 April 1962 Ranger 6 crashed 2 February 1964 Ranger 7 crashed 31 July 1964 Ranger 8 crashed 20 February 1965 Ranger 9 crashed 24 March 1965 Surveyor 1 landed 2 June 1966 Surveyor 2 crashed 23 September 1966 Surveyor 3 landed 20 April 1967 Surveyor 4 crashed (or possibly exploded just above surface) 17 July 1967 Surveyor 5 landed 11 September 1967 Surveyor 6 landed 10 November 1967 Surveyor 7 landed 10 January 1968 Lunar Orbiter 1 crashed 29 October 1966 Lunar Orbiter 2 crashed 11 October 1967 Lunar Orbiter 3 crashed 9 October 1967 Lunar Orbiter 4 crashed 31 October 1967 Lunar Orbiter 5 crashed 31 January 1968 Lunar Prospector crashed 31 July 1999 LCROSS crashed 9 October 2009 Other Space Agency Probes Hiten (Japan) crashed 10 April 1993 SMART 1 (ESA) crashed 3 September 2006 MIP (India) crashed 14 November 2008 Okina (Japan) crashed 12 February 2009 Chang'e 1 (China) crashed 1 March 2009 Kaguya (Japan) crashed 10 June 2009
Asked in Astronomy, Space Travel and Exploration, Apollo Moon Missions

How long does it take to get to the moon and back to earth?

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The Apollo 11 astronauts were launched July 16th 1969 at 08:32:00 am EST from Kennedy Space Centre. They reached the Moon when they performed a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) manoeuvre July 19th 12:21:50 pm EST. It took them 3 days, 3 hours, 49 minutes to fly to the Moon. The astronauts took almost 3 days to return to earth. The Apollo 13 astronauts were launched April 11th 1970 at 2:13:00 pm EST from the Kennedy Space Centre. They flew around the Moon and landed in the Pacific Ocean April 17th 1:07:41 pm EST. It took them 5 days, 22 hours, 54 minutes to fly to the Moon and back to the Earth. The NASA Pluto probe New Horizons flew from the surface of the Earth to the Moon's orbital path in eight hours and thirty-five minutes in January 2006. The ESA SMART-1 lunar probe used an ion engine to fly to the Moon. It was launched September 27th 2003 and was slowly spiralling away from the Earth to the Moon. November 11th 2004 it was captured by the Moon's gravity - after one year, one month and two weeks. These two missions did not return to earth.
Asked in Inventions, War and Military History, Space Travel and Exploration

Who invented space rockets?

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Rockets capable of launching people and equipment into space were developed by the US and USSR with scientists and technology captured from Germany in World War 2. Both countries were trying to outdo each other for political and military reasons, and the USSR had the initial successes with the first artificial satellite and the first man in space. Rockets were invented centuries earlier, but it took the resources of the superpowers in competition to create space rockets. Verner Von Braun was the leading German scientist who worked for the US side.
Asked in Inventions, Space Travel and Exploration, Robotics

What is the latest machine invented?

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That has to be the can-opener, invented by Mr. Norman Borman of Lone Wolf, Oklahoma just this afternoon ... at least 125 years late.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration

What was the first animal in space?

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First Animal in Space The first animals intentionally sent into space were fruit flies, which traveled along with corn seeds aboard a U.S.-launched V2 rocket in mid July, 1946. The purpose of the experiment was to explore the effects of radiation exposure at high altitudes. Some further V2 missions carried biological samples, including moss. A rhesus monkey called Albert became the first monkey launched on June 11, 1948; also on board a US-launched V2 rocket. Albert suffocated during the flight. The generally accepted definition of the boundary between earth's atmosphere and "space" is 100 km (62 mi.) altitude, known as the Karman line. Thus, the first "Albert," who flew on a V2 on June 11, 1948 did not fly into space, reaching an altitude of 63 km (38 mi.). Albert II flew into space on June 14, 1949, reaching an altitude of 134 km (83 mi.). Also, it is not clear from commonly available sources whether the 1946 fruit flies reached space or not. Albert II in a U.S. launched V2 became the first monkey in space on June 14, 1949 (after the failure of the original Albert's mission). He was killed on impact after a parachute failure on his return to Earth. Numerous monkeys of several species were flown by the U.S. in the 1950s and 60s. Laika, a Russian dog, and the first animal in orbit, was launched on 3 November 1957 and died a few hours later from stress and overheating resulting from a failure of the temperature control system. At least 10 more dogs were launched into space and on sub-orbital flights by the Soviets until April 12, 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. Since those first historic launches, many monkeys, chimpanzees, rats, mice, frogs, spiders, cats, gorillas and even a tortoise were launched into space. Other contributors have said: The first rocket ever sent to space probably carried bacteria or some other accidental passenger. But the first animals ever intentionally sent into space were fruit flies launched aboard a V2 rocket in 1947. US scientists were studying the effects of radiation at high altitude. A rhesus monkey called Albert 1 became the first monkey launched into space on June 11, 1948; also on board a US-launched V2 rocket. These were just suborbital flights, though. The first animal to actually go into orbit was the dog Laika, launched on board the Soviet Sputnik 2 spacecraft on November 3, 1957. Unfortunately, Laika died during the flight. At least 10 more dogs were launched into space and on sub-orbital flights by the Soviets until April 12, 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. Since those first historic launches, many monkeys, chimpanzees, rats, mice, frogs, spiders, cats, gorillas and even a tortoise were launched into space.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Space Shuttle

Do spacecraft have window wipers?

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No. Operation in rain is not commonly a requirement of spacecraft. Even if it were, the high speeds of spacecraft would cause any rain to fly off the windows. The space shuttle, for instance, is still going just over 400 miles per hour when its wheels touch down when returning to earth.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration

Who was the first child in space?

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No child has ever been in space.
Asked in Astronomy, Space Travel and Exploration, Space Shuttle

Why did they stop the space program?

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They didn't; the "space program" includes a lot of stuff besides the space shuttle, and most of the other stuff is still continuing. The Shuttle first flew in 1981, 30 years ago. Do you still drive a 30-year-old car? It's time for something new. One of the problems has been that NASA has stopped being a SPACE program, and is little more than a PORK program. There are 435 different congressional districts in the United States, and parts for the shuttle are built in almost 400 of them. There's too much in the way of "pork barrel" spending (a term that applies to spending money wastefully) and too little in the way of actual research. The recently-cancelled Constellation program is based on 20-year-old designs, doesn't utilize new technology, and focuses more on keeping all of the existing NASA engineers employed, rather than actually flying missions. Robot probes are still being built, and launched, and instead of having one enormous soviet-styled manned space program, there are a half-dozen different PRIVATE space programs. SpaceX, ArianeSpace, Dragon, Scaled Composites; the list goes on. In 1903, in a massively-funded government development program, the US tried to build a heavier-than-air flying machine. Professor Samuel Langley failed, and his aircraft crashed into the Potomac River on December 8, 1903. On December 17, 1903, two bicycle makers named Wilbur and Orville Wright succeeded where the government had failed. It's happening again.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Neil Armstrong

Did neil Armstrong and edwin Aldrin able to get back to earth?

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Well, you see, during all of the years that the design and development project was going on to take men to the moon, there was also a similar design and development project going on with the purpose of bringing them back. When it was time to launch Apollo 11, they put it all together, and launched three astronauts toward the moon ... don't forget Michael Collins. He went into orbit around the moon with Armstrong and Aldrin, but he didn't descend to the lunar surface with them. Armstrong and Aldrin dropped down to the surface of the moon, stayed there for a while, then came back to orbit, joined up with Collins again, and all three of them returned to Earth. They all lived happily ever after, and 42 years later, in mid-2011, they're all alive and well. Every Apollo astronaut who was launched and got as far as Earth-orbit returned safely to Earth, including all of the ones who walked on the moon.
Asked in The Solar System, Space Travel and Exploration

Why were early spaceflights unmanned?

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You don't risk a human life on an as-yet untested technology. First, there were test flights of the rocket/capsule combination to be sure it worked. Then several flights with chimpanzees as the cargo (the Russians used dogs). Finally, manned flight.
Asked in Airplanes and Aircraft, Space Travel and Exploration, Plural Nouns

What is a spacecraft?

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NASA uses the term spacecraft to mean devices, either manned or unmanned, which are designed for spaceflight. That is, for flight in the vacuum of space. NASA literature is replete with phrases like ". . the Pioneer spacecraft returned the first detailed information on the planets Venus, Jupiter and Saturn." And, ". . . Network used for tracking planetary exploration spacecraft such as the Voyagers, Vikings and Mariners The Wikipedia article linked below does a good job of explaining the meaning of the term spacecraft. A spacecraft is a machine designed by humans to function by human control in space. All manned orbital vehicles are technically spacecraft, as are those remotely controlled from the Earth. Some aircraft have the capability to reach altitudes associated with space, but only for short times and distances. These are not considered true spacecraft.
Asked in Space Travel and Exploration, Planet Mars

When we left Mars why did we bring all of the water here?

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No person has ever been to Mars. No spacecraft has ever surveyed Mars and returned to earth. No spacecraft has ever landed on Mars and lifted off again. No liquid water has ever been observed on Mars, and no samples have ever been removed from its surface. In conclusion, we frankly don't know what the question is talking about.

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