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Is it fair to use knowledge we have today to question tough decisions made 50 years ago on the issue of using atomic bomb in Japan?

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No, it isn't fair to "Monday-morning quarterback" this decision, nor is it even usually done with much historical accuracy involved in the criticism!
The atomic bombing decision was made in view of the situation known and experienced during the time of the decision-making. The primary factor was obviously the casualty estimates that were projected for a conventional troop invasion landing on mainland Japan (over a million U.S. casualties estimated). There were then many other factors taken into account, including the just-recent (in 1945) record of fanatically suicidal defences of Japanese islands.
This same type of second-guessing is, unfortunately, due to today's political correctness, applied to the removal of ethnic Japanese from the U.S. west coast district by General DeWitt, after FDR's executive order of February 1942.

Another view

Yes it is fair and correct to do so. We learn by our mistakes and actions. We should always question our actions, especially when they may have such dreadful consequences.
Third View: Of course this question & answer is a personal opinion. However, an opinion should be based in factual information & not on emotional sentiment. I agree with most of the previous two opinions, in that it is fair to judge past decisions based on what we know now, however the first person said it correctly: "The atomic bombing decision was made in view of the situation known and experienced during the time of the decision-making. The primary factor was obviously the casualty estimates that were projected for a conventional troop invasion landing on mainland Japan (over a million U.S. casualties estimated). There were then many other factors taken into account, including the just-recent (in 1945) record of fanatically suicidal defences of Japanese islands. This same type of second-guessing is, unfortunately, due to today's political correctness..." The decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan was correct & necessary to convince Emperor Hirohito to direct the Japanese (primarily military ) leaders to accept the Unconditional Surrender terms of the Allies. Nothing we have learned since 1945 has altered the truth of the situation as it was believed by American leaders in 1945, as it relates to the decision to use the A-Bombs. Actually as the more we learn, the greater is the evidence that it was a correct decision.
Additionally, the use of the atomic bombs in 1945 has had a lasting positive influence on the US ability to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent during the Cold War, in that the US has actually used them in the past and is likely to use them in the future if sufficiently threatened. This 'threat' has prevented the Soviet Union from achieving many of its territorial ambitions during the Cold War. Case in point: Austrian independence from the Soviet grasp. Few remember that Austria was divided into post-WW2 occupation zones, just as Germany was. Vienna (Wien) was divided like Berlin was, and the rest of Austria was divided like Germany. The Austrians skillfully convinced the Soviets to allow a public referendum on the Soviet presence in Austria. The Austrians led the Soviets into thinking that the Austrians would overwhelmingly support the continued presence of the Soviets. The Soviets thought this would be great public relations/propaganda victory for them. When the referendum took place and the Austrians voted overwhelmingly to reject the Soviet occupation, then the Soviets refused to leave. Enter President Truman: He dispatched long-range bombers to Europe & quietly notified the Soviets that he (the US) was prepared to use nuclear bombs against the Soviets if they did not honor the Austrian vote & depart Austria. Soon the Soviets departed, and all Austrians were free. Most likely, Austrian neutrality (not joining NATO) was the concession made by Truman to allow the Soviets to swallow this bitter pill. If the US had not previously used the A-Bomb against Japan, then how credible would have been Truman's threat? Fortunately, we will not know for sure if it was a bluff, and neither will our enemies.
Thanks for the feedback!

Who chose to use the atomic bomb on Japan?

  Answer     Harry S. Truman President   Answer   President Harry Truman made the most horrendous decision to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,

Why did Americans use atomic bomb on Japan?

Because the invasion of Japan would have been too costly in terms of human life, and the U.S wanted to see the power of the atomic bomb, that's why he dropped the bomb on a ci

Did the US warn Japan about the atomic bomb?

  Yes. The U.S. demanded that Japan surrender unconditionally, or Truman promised that the U.S. would drop an atomic bomb on Japan every three days.   He said this in h

Why was the atomic bomb used against japan?

  To make Japan surrender Japan was not going to surrender and since many lives would be lost  in a military push, the US decided to use the bomb to end the  fighting as

How did the decision to build and use atomic bombs on japan come about?

It was decided to build them to protect against Germany building and using them. It was decided to use them on Japan to end the war ASAP and save lives.

Why did the US use the atomic bomb on Japan?

the decision to drop the bombs caused the Japanese surrender. This prevented massive casualties on both sides in the Operation Downfall invasion of Japan and from an otherwise

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Why did the US drop the atomic bombs on Japan?

Here are explanations:   To put an immediate end to the war  The USA was facing the prospect of invading Japan to subdue it.  The last few battles, Iwo Jima and Okinawa p

How was Japan's decision to bomb the US made?

This isn't a popular view, but it is fact. Japan belived the USA was not negotiating in good faith over the issues of the Japanese war in China (and frankly we weren't). Eith

Why did the US use the atomic bomb against japan?

The atomic bombs were dropped on Japan in order to end the war as  quickly and painlessly as possible. Owing to the fact that every  other viable option would have resulted

How strong are the nuclear bombs made today compared with the atomic bombs you dropped on japan?

In very round figures modern fusion bombs have yields in the range from 200 kilotons to 400 kilotons with a small number over 1 megaton. The two fission bombs dropped on Japan