How did the founding fathers attempt to design a government in which the people and the state and the federal government would be protected from domination by any person group or part of the govenment?

The Founding Fathers designed a government which protected the people from any one group or branch of government from dominating the government in two ways. First, they set up a system of federalism in the Constitution by which ultimate authority is shared between a central (national) government and local (state) governments. This is also called the Federal System of government. Second, the Founding Fathers provided for the separation of powers in the Constitution. This is a principle whereby constitutional authority is distributed among the three branches of government--legislative, executive, and judicial--which each branch having its own powers while also checking the powers of the other two branches. MrV