In astronomy which constellations are visible in winter fall and spring?
All of them - just about. Too many to name.
My favourite winter constellation (in the north) is Orion. I don't feel winter has started until I see it.
The red giant star Betelgeuse is the bright reddish star at the "shoulder" of Orion, the Hunter. Orion is one of the most distinctive constellations in the winter sky, and is easily visible in the winter and early spring. In this season, Orion is setting as the Sun goes down, and it will not be especially visible until the late fall again, when it will rise at sunset.
Because the constellations that are visible during winter are on the other side of the sun during the summer. During the year the earth spins around the sun like a big satellite. So while the earth is constantly moving, the distance that the stars are away from us cause them to look stationary from our point of view some constellations can only be seen a few months out of the year.