Were any US Presidents of black ancestry?

According to J.A. Rogers, there are five, Thomas Jefferson, Calvin Coolidge, Andrew Jackson, Warren G. Harding, and Abraham Lincoln, as chronicled in his book Five Negro Presidents. Dr. Leroy Vaughn, makes the same case in his book, Black People and Their Place in World History. Auset Bakhufu adds Dwight Eisenhower to the list in his book, Six Black Presidents: Black Blood : White Masks. It seems that even in their day, there was controversy over the ancestry of these Presidents. Harding did not deny his African ancestry when Republican leaders called on him to deny his "Negro" history, he said, "How should I know whether or not one of my ancestors might have jumped the fence." Some today feel that African ancestry does not make these men black. However, the one-drop rule, a historical colloquial term used in the United States during the Jim Crow era, holds that a person with one drop or any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white, and therefore must be considered black. So, by this estimation, America has indeed had black Presidents. Take a look at the websites below. They offer more insight into the issue. http://indisputabletruth.wordpress.com/2007/12/18/research-shows-that-we-have-had-5-black-presidents-in-our-history/

http://www.geocities.com/cureworks1/5blkpres.htm http://www.computerhealth.org/ebook/5blkpres.htm There is no "one drop rule" in an absolute sense. It depends on self-policing. Latinos and Arabs are almost all of partial "black" ancestry and very few of them identify as "black." The promoters of the "one drop" myth take pains to ignore the black ancestry of Latinos and Arabs plus the fact that no one today is penalized for claiming their white ancestry and identity despite the traditional "taint" of so-called "black blood." If the "one drop" myth had been truly enforced, one third of the white population and nearly all of the Latino and Arab-American populations would have been labeled "black." The "one drop" myth was intended to frighten whites into supporting Jim Crow. More on white identity combined with partial black ancestry: http://www.scholarspublishing.com/ http://backintyme.com/ad230.php http://backintyme.com/ad222.php