Asked in War and Military HistoryGulf War
What are the causes of the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991?
May 15, 2016 10:47AM
Saddam Hussein ordered Iraqi troops to invade the sovereign nation of Kuwait to plunder its wealth, oil was involved in an indirect way in that most of the Kuwaiti wealth was due to oil production. But the world stepped in when an aggressive dictatorship invaded an established nation with the purpose of seizing its land and resources.
Well, the first reason was because Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. Kuwait is a tiny but wealthy neighbor of Iraq in the gulf. Iraq invaded them in order to plunder its wealth and because of its westernized culture, and the fact that they had no real way of defending themselves against such a powerful adversary.
Operation Desert Storm, also known as the "100 Hour War" was to eject Iraqi forces from the nation of Kuwait. Which was done between (approximately) 15 January to February 26 of 1991. The dictionary defines a military campaign as a military operation with a specific objective and lasting normally only one season in the field. This definition applies to Operation Desert Storm; which also had a US Postage Stamp designating Operation Desert Storm in about 1992. Military service personnel were awarded campaign ribbons for service in SOUTHWEST ASIA for this particular military campaign.
Iraq invaded Kuwait. As Kuwait is a big oil supplier to the West, the powers that be in the West decided to do something about it.
Saddam Hussein the dictator of Iraq ordered his military into Kuwait because he wanted to make the Kuwaitis pay for the Iran-Iraq War.
This was to protect the Kuwait people from the Iraqis when they tried to steal their oil. Saddam Hussein was greedy.
Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, attacked Kuwait. Kuwait was (still is) an oil-rich nation, and of great interest to the United States. At the time, the United States was actually justified in intervening in this event, because one of our major national interests was at stake. This was a clear-cut aggressive act by Iraq that warranted action.
In 1991, the United States led the coalition in a war against Iraq.
Iraq was told to leave the country of Kuwait. They refused. The US/Coalition removed them by force, during Operation Desert Storm (Jan-Feb 1991).
In 1990 Iraq moved into the country of Kuwait. The US told them to leave Kuwait. In 1990 the US commenced the buildup of military forces to remove Irag from Kuwait, under In Feb 1991, Iraq retreated from Kuwait; Desert Storm was successfully completed.
Iraq, without justification or excuse, invaded and conquered Kuwait in order to gain control of its oil wealth and, quite possibly, as a prelude to doing the same thing to Saudi Arabia. The United States, with modest help from allies and other Arab states assembled a large army and forced Iraq out.
- The gulf war was caused in the most part by Saddam Hussein's need for oil. He had amassed a huge debt with western Europe during the Iran-Iraq war and needed some way of re-paying that money. Hussein had also caught Kuwait exceeding quota's set out by OPEC which drove the price of oil down and making Iraq lose money. Iraq did also not have direct access to the Persian Gulf which would help in the exporting and importing of goods.
- Saddam considered Kuwait as being a rogue providence. He also disliked Kuwait due to the fact it is mainly Shi'ite. From everything I have read, Saddam apparently brought it up to one of his closest allies, the French, and received little to no resistance on the thought of an invasion. During this period, the Iraq government was the top buyer of French military goods and the French had the majority of oil contracts in the country. Saddam was on the verge of canceling the Russian contracts and awarding them to the French. Saddam also accused the Kuwait government of stealing oil from the oil rich Basra area. Apparently their rigs were very close to the borders and Saddam felt that the oil was coming from Iraq's reserves.
- America's involvement in the war was started by Kuwait asking for help getting invaders out of their country. The Gulf War, aka Desert Storm, was the result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
There were no innocent parties in that war. The whole thing started when Kuwait used a "slant drill"--a machine that can drill an oil well at an angle--to tap the al-Rumaila oilfield. There was historical enmity as well--Iraq had borrowed $14 billion from Kuwait to pay for the Iran-Iraq War. They were going to attempt to pay the debt by forcing the price of oil up, but Kuwait dumped a LOT of oil on the market, causing the price to go down. On July 25, 1990, US Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie told Saddam Hussein, "we have no opinion on Arab-Arab issues, such as your border disagreement with Kuwait." Saddam translated that to mean, "we don't care what you do" and, on August 2, annexed Kuwait into Iraq.
Minor Correction Desert Storm is often thought to be another name for the Gulf War, but it is not. It was the second phase of the Coalition strategy to oust Iraq from Kuwait. The first phase was to defend Saudi Arabia, and it was called Operation Desert Shield which lasted for months. Desert Storm began when the first bombs were dropped on Baghdad, and bombings continued daily for more months. After Coalition forces crossed the Saudi-Iraqi border, Basra was quickly captured and Operation Desert Storm was concluded after a few days.
And another thing..... The causes of the Gulf War can be traced back to World War 1, and the betrayal of the Arabs by the British and French. For siding with the Allies against the Ottoman Empire, Prince Faisal was allowed to have Iraq, but Kuwait which had previously been part of this land was not included.