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Lack of food and Bad leadership.

The Russian Revolution was caused by several major factors:

1. The partial industrialization of Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which created an urban working class in places like St. Petersburg and Moscow that could organize against its exploitation through unions and workers councils(known as 'the soviets'). This enabled the workers to work together much more effectively against their bosses then the scattered, isolated, and thus largely de-politicized peasantry. The cities were also connected via trade and communication to the outside world, where intellectuals and workers alike had access to revolutionary ideas from Western Europe such as Marxism.

2. The desperate poverty and gross inequality that marked Russian society created a deep well of discontent. The czar and the aristocracy, as well as Russia's capitalist class, lived in opulent luxury in palaces such as the Hermitage while most Russians lived in medieval conditions. In the countryside, most farmers still used wooden plow. Hundreds of thousands died from epidemics on a regular basis. 1/3 of all Russian babies died before their first birthday.

3. The entry of Russia into World War I brought all the class tensions of Russian society to a boiling point, especially when Russia's badly equipped and led army suffered a series of disastrous defeats. Food riots broke out in Russia's major cities and the countryside. The army and navy began to mutiny against a government they had no desire to fight and die for.

4. The czar of Russia, Nicholas II, was a weak and indecisive leader. He went back and forth between making concessions to his people and then opting for repressive measures. Therefore, he both allowed breathing space for a revolutionary movement to develop while creating fresh grievances that strengthened the political forces against him. Most importantly though, he was attempting to reform a corrupt, repressive, outdated system that could not be reformed at all.

5. Although many different groups were opposed to the czar, the Russian revolution was successful because the group that ended up leading it, the Bolsheviks, were dedicated, well-organized, and well-led.

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โˆ™ 2010-03-14 22:05:43
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Q: What are the causes of the Russian Revolution?
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List four causes of the Russian revolution?

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