Georgia (US State)

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The State of Georgia (/ˈdʒɔɹdʒə/ (help·info)) is a state

in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies

that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. It

was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to be established, in 1733.

It was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution,

on January 2, 1788. It seceded from the Union on January 21, 1861

and was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the

last state to be readmitted to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia

is the ninth-largest state in the nation by population, with an

estimated 9,544,750 residents as of July 1, 2007.[3] It is also the

third-fastest-growing state in terms of numeric gain and fifth in

terms of percent gain, adding 202,670 residents at a rate of 2.2

percent. From 2006 to 2007, Georgia had 18 counties among the

nation's 100 fastest-growing counties, the most of any state.

Georgia is also known as the Peach State and the Empire

State of the South. Atlanta is the most populous city, and the

capital.

Georgia is bordered on the south by Florida; on the east by the

Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina; on the west by Alabama and by

Florida in the extreme southwest; and on the north by Tennessee and

North Carolina. The northern part of the state is in the Blue Ridge

Mountains, a mountain range in the vast mountain system of the

Appalachians. The central Piedmont extends from the foothills to

the fall line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the

continental coastal plain of the southern part of the state. The

highest point in Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 4,784 feet (1,458 m);

the lowest point is sea level.

With an area of 59,424 square miles (153,909 km²), Georgia is

ranked 24th in size among the 50 U.S. states. Georgia is the

largest state east of the Mississippi River in terms of land

area, although it is the fourth largest (after Michigan,

Florida, and Wisconsin) in total area, a term which includes

expanses of water claimed as state territory.[4]

"Geography" id="Geography">Geography

Main article: Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)

"Boundaries" id="Boundaries">Boundaries

Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with

South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin

at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca rivers. It then

continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Michael

River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in

the 1787 Treaty of Mexico, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court in

the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases in 1922 and 1989.

The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun

County, at latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges

slightly south (possibly due to later resurveying with better

accuracy). This originally was the Georgia and North Carolina

border all the way back to the Mississippi River, until Tennessee

was divided from North Carolina, and Alabama and Mississippi (the

Yazoo Lands) were taken from Georgia.

The state's western border then departs in another straight line

south-southeastward, at a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet

the westernmost point of the Chattahoochee River near West Point,

Georgia. It continues down to the point where it ends at the Flint

River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola

River), and goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a

straight line to the origin of the Saint Mary's River, which then

forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.

It should be noted that the water boundaries are still set to be

the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been

inundated by man made lakes, including the

Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole.

In 2008, Georgia state legislators had claimed that the state's

border with Tennessee had been erroneously placed one mile (1.6 km)

further south than intended in an 1818 survey, and proposed that

the border should be corrected. This would allow Georgia, in the

midst of a significant drought, to access water from the Tennessee

River.[5]

"Geology_and_terrain" id="Geology_and_terrain">Geology and

terrain

Map of elevations in Georgia

Main article: Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)

Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For

instance the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner

of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other

sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone,

barite, ocher and small amounts of coal.

"Flora_and_fauna" id="Flora_and_fauna">Flora and fauna

Main article: Ecology of Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia has a diverse mix of flora and fauna. The State of

Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants.

Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks,

maples, sweetgum and scaly-bark and white hickories, as well as

many others. Yellow jasmine, flowering quince, and mountain laurel

make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.

Regarding fauna, white-tailed (Virginia) deer can be found in

approximately 50 counties. The mockingbird and brown thrasher are

just two of the 160 bird species that can be found in the state.

The eastern diamondback, copperhead, and cottonmouth as well as

salamanders, frogs, alligators and toads are among 79 species of

reptile and 63 amphibians that make Georgia their home. The most

popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and catfish,

all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for

restocking. Dolphins, porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters, and blue

crabs are found off the Georgia coast.[6]

"Climate" id="Climate">Climate

Main article: Climate of Georgia (U.S. state)Map of Georgia

The majority of Georgia is primarily a humid subtropical climate

tempered somewhat by occasional polar air masses in the winter. Hot

and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations.

The entire state, including the north Georgia mountains, receives

moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143

mm) in central Georgia[7] to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm)

around the Northeast part of the state.[8] The degree to which the

weather of a certain area of Georgia is subtropical depends not

just on the latitude, but also on how close it is to the Atlantic

Ocean or Gulf of Mexico and the altitude. This is especially true

in the mountainous areas in the northern part of the state, which

are further away from ocean waters and can be up to 4500 feet (1350

m) or higher above sea level.

The areas near the Florida/Georgia border, extending from the

entire Georgia coastline west to the Florida panhandle, experiences

the most subtropical weather, similar to that of Florida: hot,

humid summers with frequent afternoon thunderstorms and mild,

somewhat drier winters. These areas experience snow much less

frequently than other parts of Georgia. The Georgia Piedmont area

is somewhat cooler in winter than the coastal areas. The southern

areas of the Piedmont may receive snow every other year, while

areas close to the foothills get snow several times a year. This

part of Georgia is especially vulnerable to ice storms. The

mountains of Georgia have the coolest climate and most frequent

snowfall in the state. In spite of having moderate weather compared

to many other states, Georgia has occasional extreme weather. The

highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C),[9] while the

lowest ever recorded is -17 °F (-27.2 °C).[10] Georgia is one of

the leading states in incidents of tornadoes. The areas closest to

the Florida border get the same small F0 and F1 tornadoes

associated with summer afternoon thunderstorms. However, it is very

uncommon for tornadoes to become severe (over F3). A tornado hit

downtown Atlanta on Friday, 14 March 2008 causing moderate to

severe damage due to all the broken glass on the skyscrapers. The

SEC basketball tournament and a few conventions were ongoing at the

time of impact and some injuries occurred due to the amount of

people downtown. As it is on the Atlantic coast, Georgia is also

vulnerable to hurricanes, although the Georgia coastline only

rarely experiences a direct hurricane strike. More common are

hurricanes which strike the Florida panhandle, weaken over land,

and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the Georgia

interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia

coastline, brushing the coast on their recurvature on the way up to

hit The Carolinas.

In 2006 and 2007, however, Georgia has had severe droughts.

Temperatures over 100 degrees have been recorded.

Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major

Georgia cities

She is my best friend XD

Presidential elections

resultsCityJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecAthens51/11

33/1 56/13

35/2 65/18

42/6 73/23

49/9 80/27

58/14 87/31

65/18 90/32

69/21 88/31

68/20 82/28

63/17 73/23

51/11 63/17

42/6 54/12

35/2Atlanta52/11

34/1 57/14

36/2 65/18

44/7 73/23

50/10 80/27

60/16 86/30

67/19 89/32

71/22 88/31

70/21 82/28

64/18 73/23

53/12 63/17

44/7 55/13

36/2Augusta56/13

33/1 61/16

36/4 69/21

42/6 77/25

48/9 84/29

57/14 90/32

65/18 92/33

70/21 90/32

68/20 85/29

62/17 76/24

50/10 68/20

41/5 59/15

35/2Columbus57/14

37/3 62/17

39/4 69/21

46/8 76/24

52/11 83/28

61/16 90/32

69/21 92/33

72/22 91/32

72/22 86/30

66/19 77/25

54/12 68/20

46/8 59/15

39/4Macon57/14

34/1 61/16

37/3 68/20

44/7 76/24

50/10 83/28

59/15 90/32

67/19 92/33

70/21 90/32

70/21 85/29

64/18 77/25

51/11 68/20

42/6 59/15

36/2Savannah60/16

38/3 64/18

41/5 71/22

48/9 78/26

53/12 84/29

61/16 90/32

68/20 92/33

72/22 90/32

71/22 86/30

67/19 78/26

56/13 70/21

47/8 63/17

40/4 Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on

top of lows.[11]

"Protected_lands" id="Protected_lands">Protected lands

Main article: Protected areas of Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is home to 63 parks, 48 of which are state parks and 15

that are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves,

under the supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural

Resources.[12] Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the

National Park Service and include the Andersonville National

Historic Site in Andersonville; Appalachian National Scenic Trail;

Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area near Atlanta;

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort

Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore near Saint Marys;

Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons Island; Fort Pulaski

National Monument in Savannah; Jimmy Carter National Historic Site

near Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near

Kennesaw; Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site in Atlanta;

Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon; Trail of Tears National

Historic Trail.[13]

"History" id="History">History

Main article: History of Georgia (U.S. state)

"Early_history" id="Early_history">Early history

The local moundbuilder culture, described by Hernando de Soto in

1540, completely disappeared by 1560. Early on, in the course of

European exploration of the area, a number of Spanish explorers

visited the inland region of Georgia.

The conflict between Spain and England over control of Georgia

began in earnest in about 1670, when the English founded the

Carolina colony in present-day South Carolina. Nearly a century

earlier, the Spanish of Spanish Florida had established the

missionary provinces of Guale and Mocama on the coast and Sea

Islands of present-day Georgia. After decades of fighting, the

Carolinians and allied Indians permanently destroyed the Spanish

mission system during the invasions of 1702 and 1704. After 1704,

Spanish control was limited to St. Augustine and Pensacola, both in

nowadays Florida. The Florida peninsula was subjected to raids as

far as the Florida Keys. The coast of Georgia was occupied by now

British-allied Indians such as the Yamasee until the Yamasee War of

1715-1717, after which the region was depopulated, opening up the

possibility of a new British colony. In 1724, it was first

suggested the British colony there be called Province of Georgia in

honor of King George II.

British interest in establishing a colony below South Carolina

came from varied sources. Spanish Florida was a threat to South

Carolina and a haven for runaway slaves. The French in the 1720s

established a fort near present-day Montgomery, Alabama, also a

threat to British interests in the region. Traders from Charleston,

South Carolina, had established trading posts as far west as the

Ocmulgee River, near present-day Macon, Georgia. The British

trading network kept the Creek Indians allied with them; the French

move threatened to wrest these Indians' trade away from the

British. These strategic interests made the British government

interested in establishing a new colony that would reinforce the

British influence in the border country that had been open to

Spanish and French penetration.

Meanwhile, many members of the British Parliament had become

concerned about the plight of England's debtors. A parliamentary

committee investigated and reported on conditions in Britain's

debtor prisons. A group of philanthropists organized themselves to

establish a colony where the "worthy poor" of England could

reestablish themselves as productive citizens. This goal was seen

as both philanthropic, helping these distressed people, and

patriotic, simultaneously relieving Britain of the burden of the

imprisoned debtors and augmenting Britain's vital mercantile empire

by planting new, industrious subjects to strengthen her trade. This

goal went unfulfilled as Georgia was ultimately not settled by

debtors or convicts.

In 1732, a group of these philanthropists were granted a royal

charter as the Trustees of the Province of Georgia. They carefully

selected the first group of colonists to send to the new colony. On

12 February 1733, 113 settlers aboard the Anne landed at

what was to become the city of Savannah. This day is now known as

Georgia Day, which is not a public holiday but is observed in

schools and by some local civic groups. James Edward Oglethorpe,

one of the trustees of the colony, traveled with the first group of

colonists, laid out the design of the town of Savannah, and acted

as governor of the colony, although technically under the trustees

there was no "governor." Oglethorpe acted as the only trustee

present in the colony. When he returned to Britain, a series of

disputes ended his tenure governing the colony; Georgia was then

led by a series of presidents named by the trustees.

At the time Georgia was founded in 1732, the number of

non-English immigrants to the colonies was at an all time high.

Although religious toleration was not valued in itself, the

pragmatic need to attract settlers led to broad religious freedoms.

South Carolina wanted German Lutherans, Scottish Presbyterians,

Moravians, French Huguenots and Jews, whom they valued as a counter

to the French and Spanish Catholic and absolutist presence to the

south. When the Moravians turned out to be pacifists who refused to

serve in the colonial defense, they were expelled in 1738.

Catholics were denied the right to own property. Jewish immigrants

fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, which was being carried out by the

Spanish colonies in the New World, were allowed in after some

debate, owing to the leadership of James Oglethorpe. In 1733, over

forty Jews fleeing persecution arrived in Savannah, the largest

such group to enter an American colony up to that time. Among them

was Dr. Samuel Nunez, who was the first doctor in Georgia. He

immediately showed his value as a citizen by playing an invaluable

role in curbing an epidemic that had already killed scores of

settlers, and was credited with saving the colony by General

Oglethorpe.[14]

In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had

helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the

crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by

the British king.[15] However, even after Georgia eventually became

a royal colony (1752), there were so many dissenters (Protestants

of minority denominations, that is, non-Anglican) that the

establishment of the Church of England was successfully resisted

until 1752. These dissenting churches were the mainstay of the

Revolutionary movement, culminating in the War for Independence

from Britain, through the patriotic and anti-authoritarian sermons

of their ministers, and the use of the churches to organize

rebellion. Whereas the Anglican Church tended to preach stability

and loyalty to the Crown, other Protestant sects preached heavily

from the Old Testament and emphasized freedom and equality of all

men before God, as well as the moral responsibility to rebel

against tyrants.[16]

Georgia was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against

British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776

Declaration of Independence, despite a large population of people

loyal to the crown. Since Georgia was a relatively new colony at

the time compared to the other twelve colonies, Georgia was not as

active in the war. Also, the Georgian militia was not fully

developed, which led to the capture of Savannah by British forces

in December of 1778. American forces under the command of General

Benjamin Lincoln combined with French forces under the command of

Charles Henri Comte d'Estaing to lay siege to Savannah in 1779. The

attempt was incredibly unsuccessful, and Savannah remained in

British hands until the end of the war. During the war, nearly

one-third of the slaves, more than 5,000 enslaved African

Americans, exercised their desire for independence by escaping and

joining British forces, where they were promised freedom. Some went

to Great Britain or the Caribbean; others were resettled in Canada

provinces.[17] Other estimates show an even greater impact from the

war, when slaves escaped during the disruption. "The sharp decline

between 1770 and 1790 in the proportion of the population made up

of blacks (almost all of whom were slaves) [went] from 45.2 percent

to 36.1 percent in Georgia."[18]

Following the war, Georgia became the fourth state of the United

States of America after ratifying the United States Constitution on

2 January 1788. Georgia established its first state constitution in

1777. The state established new constitutions in 1788, 1799, 1861,

1865, 1868, 1877, 1945, 1976, and 1983, for a total of 10 - more

constitutions than any other state, except for Louisiana, which has

had 11.

"Confederate_history" id="Confederate_history">Confederate

history

Main article: Georgia (U.S. state) in the American Civil War

On January 18, 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a

major theater of the American Civil War. Major battles took place

at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a

large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed

during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. This

event served as the historical background for the 1936 novel

Gone with the Wind and the 1939 film of the same name. On

July 15, 1870, following Reconstruction, Georgia became the last

former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.

"Capitals" id="Capitals">Capitals

Georgia has had five official state capitals: colonial Savannah,

which later alternated with Augusta; then for a decade at

Louisville (pronounced Lewis-ville); and from 1806 through 1868,

including during the American Civil War, at Milledgeville. In 1868,

the capital was moved to the new city of Atlanta - one with a

better access by railroad - and it became the fifth capital city of

the state. It remains so to the present. The state legislature also

met at some other temporary sites, including Macon, especially

during the turmoil of the War.

"Cities" id="Cities">Cities

Downtown Atlanta, Georgia

Macon, Georgia

Augusta, Georgia

Savannah, Georgia

See also: Georgia census statistical areas

The largest city, Atlanta, is located in north-central Georgia,

atop a ridge southeast of the Chattahoochee River. The Atlanta

metropolitan area has a population of 5,278,904 (2007 census

estimate), though the city proper has around 519,000 people.

The state of Georgia has twenty metropolitan and micropolitan

areas with populations above fifty-thousand. In descending order,

they are Atlanta, Augusta, Savannah, Columbus, Macon, Athens,

Gainesville, Albany, Dalton, Warner Robins, Valdosta, Brunswick,

Rome, Hinesville, LaGrange, Statesboro, Dublin, Milledgeville,

Waycross, and Calhoun.[19]

"Ten_largest_cities" id="Ten_largest_cities">Ten largest

cities

  • Atlanta: 519,145 people
  • Augusta: 195,182 people
  • Columbus: 188,660 people
  • Savannah: 128,500 people
  • Athens: 111,580 people
  • Macon: 97,606 people
  • Roswell: 87,334 people
  • Sandy Springs: 85,771 people
  • Albany: 76,939 people
  • Johns Creek: 62,049 people

"Demographics" id="Demographics">Demographics

Historical populationsCensusPop.

1790 82,548

-1800 162,686

97.1% 1810 251,407

54.5% 1820 340,989

35.6% 1830 516,823

51.6% 1840 691,392

33.8% 1850 906,185

31.1% 1860 1,057,286

16.7% 1870 1,184,109

12% 1880 1,542,181

30.2% 1890 1,837,353

19.1% 1900 2,216,331

20.6% 1910 2,609,121

17.7% 1920 2,895,832

11% 1930 2,908,506

0.4% 1940 3,123,723

7.4% 1950 3,444,578

10.3% 1960 3,943,116

14.5% 1970 4,589,575

16.4% 1980 5,463,105

19% 1990 6,478,216

18.6% 2000 8,186,453

26.4% Est. 2007 9,544,750

16.6%

In 2006, Georgia had an estimated population of 9,363,941 which

was an increase of 231,388 from the previous year, and an increase

of 1,177,125 since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the

last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475

deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into

the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a

net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country

produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

As of 2006, Georgia is the 9th most populous state. Its

population has grown 44.5% (2,885,725) since 1990, making it one of

the fastest-growing states in the country. Beginning with the

1990s, Georgia took over as the fastest-growing state in the South

with a 26% population increase during the decade, surpassing its

neighbor Florida which had held the title for every decade in the

20th century prior to the 90s. More than half of the state's

population lives in the Atlanta metro area. Nineteen Georgia

counties were among the 100 fastest growing counties from 2004 to

2005.[20] The center of population of Georgia is located in Butts

County, in the city of Jackson.[21]Georgia population density

map.

"Race,_language,_and_age" id="Race,_language,_and_age">Race,

language, and age

Demographics of Georgia (csv)By raceWhiteBlackAIAN*AsianNHPI*2000

(total population)68.34% 29.38% 0.66% 2.46% 0.12%2000 (Hispanic

only)4.82% 0.39% 0.10% 0.05% 0.03%2005 (total population)67.00%

30.29% 0.67% 3.01% 0.14%2005 (Hispanic only)6.57% 0.43% 0.12% 0.07%

0.04%Growth 2000-05 (total population)8.65% 14.23% 11.72% 36.02%

25.41%Growth 2000-05 (non-Hispanic only)5.43% 14.12% 7.43% 35.82%

21.99%Growth 2000-05 (Hispanic only)50.99% 22.30% 36.34% 45.53%

36.55% * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native

Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

According to the U.S. census, Georgia's population is as

follows: 62.01% White, 29.91% Black, 2.78% Asian American, 1.24%

multiracial, 0.23% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 0.05% Native

Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and 3.77% of some other race.[22]

Additionally, 7.64% are of Hispanic or Latino descent (of any

race).[23]

As of 2005, 90% of Georgia residents age 5 and older speak only

English at home and 5.6% speak Spanish. French is the third most

spoken language at 0.9%, followed by German at 0.8% and Vietnamese

at 0.6%. As of 2004, 7.7% of its population was reported as under 5

years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of

2004, females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and

African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.

Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of

African Americans who, prior to the Civil War, were almost

exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands

of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from

1914-1970 reduced the African American population. This population

has since increased, with some African Americans returning to the

state for new job opportunities.[24] Today, African Americans

remain the most populous race in many rural counties in middle,

east-central, southwestern, and Low Country Georgia, as well as in

the city of Atlanta and its southern suburbs. According to census

estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the

percent of the total population that is African American (after

Mississippi and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population

after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest

numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with

84,000.[25]

As of 2005, approximately 2.7% of Georgia's population was Asian

American. Georgia is the nation's third-fastest growing area for

Asians, behind only Nevada and North Carolina. Asian buying power

in the state was $8.1 billion this year, up from $1.1 billion in

1990, according to statistics from the University of Georgia's

Selig Center for Economic Growth.[26]

White Georgians, like other Southerners, usually describe their

ancestry on the census questionnaire as "American", "United

States", or simply "Southern".[citation needed] The colonial

settlement of large numbers of Scots-Irish Americans in the

mountains and Piedmont, and coastal settlement by English Americans

and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture

in food, language and music.

The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the

18th century repeatedly from rice growing regions of West

"inlink_gtb" href="http://africa.answers.com" title=

"Africa">Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee

language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans.

They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food,

religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas.

In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an

integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country.[27]

"Religion" id="Religion">Religion

Like most other Southern states, Georgia is largely Protestant

Christian. The religious affiliations of the people of Georgia are

as follows:[28]

  • Protestant: 70%

    • Baptist: 24%
    • Methodist: 12%
    • Presbyterian: 3%
    • Pentecostal: 3%

  • Roman Catholic: 22%
  • Other: 3%

    • Non-religious: 13%

Georgia shares its Protestant heritage with much of the

Southeastern United States. However, the number of Roman Catholics

is growing in the state because of the influx of Northeasterners

resettling in the Atlanta metro area and also because of large

Hispanic immigration into the state.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were

the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,719,484; the United

Methodist Church with 570,674; and the Roman Catholic Church with

374,185.[29]

Georgia's Jewish community dates to the settlement of 42 mostly

Sephardic Portuguese Jews in Savannah in 1733. Atlanta also has a

large and established Jewish community.

"Economy" id="Economy">Economy

Savannah's River Street is a popular destination among tourists

visiting coastal Georgia.

Map showing land use in Georgia

Georgia's 2006 total gross state product was $380 billion.[30]

Its per capita personal income for 2005 put it 10th in the

nation at $40,155[citation needed]. If Georgia were a

stand-alone country, it would be the 28th largest economy in the

world.[31]

There are 15 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies

with headquarters in Georgia, including such names as Home Depot,

UPS, Coca Cola, Delta Air Lines, AFLAC, Southern Company, and

SunTrust Banks. Georgia has over 1,700 internationally

headquartered facilities representing 43 countries, employing more

than 112,000 Georgians with an estimated capital investment of

$22.7 billion.

"Agriculture_and_industry" id=

"Agriculture_and_industry">Agriculture and industry

Georgia's agricultural outputs are poultry and eggs, pecans,

peaches, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass,

tobacco, and vegetables. Its industrial outputs are textiles and

apparel, transportation equipment, cigarettes, food processing,

paper products, chemical products, electric equipment. Tourism also

makes an important contribution to the economy. Georgia is home to

the Granite Capital of the World (Elberton). Atlanta has been the

site of enormous growth in real estate, service, and communications

industries.

Atlanta has a very large effect on the state of Georgia and the

Southeastern United States. The city is an ever growing addition to

communications, industry, transportation, tourism, and government.

Food is also a major industry in Georgia.

Industry in Georgia is now quite diverse. Major products in the

mineral and timber industry include a variety of pines, clays,

stones, and sands. Textile industry is located around the cities of

Rome, Columbus, Augusta, and Macon. Atlanta is a leading center of

tourism, transportation, communications, government, and industry.

Some industries there include automobile and aircraft

manufacturing, food and chemical processing, printing, publishing,

and large corporations. Some of the corporations headquartered in

Atlanta are: Arby's, Chick-fil-A, The Coca-Cola Company, Georgia

Pacific, Hooters, ING Americas, Cox, and Delta Air Lines. Major

corporations in other parts of the state include: Aflac, CareSouth,

Home Depot, Newell Rubbermaid, Primerica Financial Services, United

Parcel Service, Waffle House and Zaxby's.

Several United States military installations are located in

Georgia including Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval

Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Moody Air Force Base,

Robins Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Atlanta, Fort McPherson,

Fort Gillem, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany

Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and

Coast Guard Station Brunswick. However, due to the latest round of

BRAC cuts, Forts Gillem and McPherson will be closing and NAS

Atlanta will be transferred to the Georgia National Guard.

"Energy_use_and_production" id="Energy_use_and_production">Energy

use and production

Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the

highest in the United States, with coal being the primary

electrical generation of fuel. However, the state also has two

nuclear power plants which contribute less than one fourth of

Georgia's electricity generation. The statistics are 75% coal, 16%

nuclear, 7% oil and natural gas, and 1% hydroelectric/other. The

leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because

Georgia "is a leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper

products industry".[32]

"State_taxes" id="State_taxes">State taxes

Georgia's personal income tax ranges from 1% to 6% within six tax

brackets. There is a 4% state sales tax, which is not applied to

prescription drugs, certain medical devices, and groceries. Each

county may add up to a 2% SPLOST. Counties participating in MARTA

have another 1%; MARTA is the only major metropolitan rapid transit

authority in the U.S. not to receive state funding. The city of

Atlanta (in two counties, roughly 90% in Fulton and 10% in Dekalb)

has the only city sales tax (1%, total 8%) for fixing its aging

sewers. Local taxes are almost always charged on groceries but

never prescriptions. Up to 1% of a SPLOST can go to homestead

exemptions (the HOST). All taxes are collected by the Georgia

Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to

any agreements that each county has with its cities.

"Culture" id="Culture">Culture

Main article: Culture of Georgia (U.S. state)

"Fine_and_performing_arts" id="Fine_and_performing_arts">Fine and

performing arts

Georgia's major fine art museums include the Georgia Museum of Art,

the High Museum of Art, the Michael C. Carlos Museum, the Morris

Museum of Art and the Oglethorpe University Museum of Art.[33] The

Atlanta Opera is a full time company that brings opera to Georgia

stages.[34] The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is the most widely

recognized orchestra and largest arts organization in the

southeastern United States.[35] Moreover, almost all of the

universities, colleges, and junior colleges in Atlanta provide some

musical instruction.[36] Georgia is also home to many

"underground"[clarification needed] art galleries which also

serve as performance venues catering to the more unconventional art

crowd. One of the most well known and longest running is the

Eyedrum Gallery in Atlanta, a large non-profit art and performance

space run by volunteers.[citation needed]

"Literature" id="Literature">Literature

Georgia literature is distinct among the literature of other places

in the world in its historical and geographical context and the

values it imparts. Dramas such as the play (on which a successful

movie was also based) Driving Miss Daisy are one example of

Georgia's literary culture. The most popular and famous novel has

probably been Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind, also

the basis of a wildly successful movie. Other authors who

challenged popular ideas were Carson McCullers and Flannery

O'Connor. Contemporary authors such as Alice Walker have also used

Georgia's complex past as subjects for fiction, as in her The

Color Purple.

Georgia's poets, such as James Dickey and Sidney Lanier, and

nonfiction writers like humorist Lewis Grizzard also have a place

in the state's literary life.[37]

"Entertainment" id="Entertainment">Entertainment

"Music" id="Music">Music

Main article: Music of Georgia (U.S. state)

Music in Georgia ranges from folk music to rhythm and blues,

rock and roll, country music and hip hop. The Georgia Music Hall of

Fame, located in Macon is the state's museum of music. Georgia's

folk musical traditions include important contributions to the

Piedmont blues, shape note singing and African American music.

The Sacred Harp, compiled and produced by Georgians Benjamin

Franklin White and Elisha J. King, was published in 1844. The

Sacred Harp system use notes expressed with shapes to make

it easy for people to learn to sight-read music and performed

complex pieces without a lot of training.[38]

The city of Athens, Georgia, home to the University of Georgia

has been a fertile field for alternative rock bands since the late

1970s. Notable bands from Athens include R.E.M.,[39] The Black

Crowes, The B-52s, Widespread Panic, Drive-By Truckers, as well as

bands from the Elephant 6 Recording Company most notably Neutral

Milk Hotel.

Rock bands such as Norma Jean, The Chariot, With Blood Comes

Cleansing, Counting Crows, Underoath, The Knife Trade, and Mastodon

all hail from Georgia.

Rhythm and Blues is another important musical genre in Georgia.

Ray Charles was born in Albany, Georgia. Augusta native James Brown

and Macon native Little Richard, two important figures in R&B

history, started performing in Georgia clubs on the chitlin'

circuit, fused gospel music with blues and boogie-woogie to lay the

foundations for R&B and soul music, and rank among the most

iconic musicians of the 20th century. In the 1960s, Atlanta native

Gladys Knight proved one of the most popular Motown recording

artists, while Otis Redding, born in the small town of Dawson but

raised in Macon, defined the grittier Southern soul sound of

Memphis-based Stax Records.[40] Opera singer Jessye Norman is

native to Augusta.[41]

Collective Soul, a hard rock band known for their song "Shine",

are from Stockbridge, Georgia.

Atlanta has become a central player in hip hop as the home of

artists Outkast. Ludacris, T.I., and Young Jeezy and producers

Jermaine Dupri and Jazzy Pha. Atlanta is also home to multiple

R&B and neo soul artists including India Arie, Ciara, Bobby

Brown, and Usher.

"Film" id="Film">Film

Hundreds of feature films have been located in Georgia. By 2007

more than $4 billion had been generated for the state's economy by

the film and television industry since the 1970s.[42] Such films

include Deliverance; Smokey and the Bandit; Diary

of a Mad Black Woman; Driving Miss Daisy and Midnight

in the Garden of Good and Evil, with settings ranging from

Appalachia to the manicured squares of Savannah.[42] Due to the

success of Deliverance, as governor Jimmy Carter established

a state film commission, now known as the Georgia Film, Video and

Music Office, in 1973 to market Georgia as a shooting location for

future projects. The commission had recruited more than 550 major

projects to the state by 2007.[42] Actress Julia Roberts is one of

the most well-known natives of Georgia. Additionally, the first

African American owned and operated film studio was opened in

Atlanta on October 4, 2008 by Tyler Perry. The Tyler Perry Studios

has truly brought the film industry fully into Atlanta.

"Popular_culture" id="Popular_culture">Popular culture

Stereotypical Georgian traits include manners known as "Southern

hospitality", a strong sense of community and shared culture, and a

distinctive Southern dialect. Georgia's Southern heritage makes

turkey and dressing a traditional holiday dish during both

Thanksgiving and Christmas. Movies like Gone with the Wind

and the book If I Ever Get Back to Georgia, I'm Gonna Nail My

Feet to the Ground by Lewis Grizzard highlight Georgia culture,

speech and mannerisms.

Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12,

1912 when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl

Scout troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia.

"Health_care_and_education" id="Health_care_and_education">Health

care and education

Georgia Tech's Tech Tower

Anderson Hall at Savannah College of Art and Design

"Health_care" id="Health_care">Health care

See also: List of hospitals in Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgians can find medical and dental care "via 151 general

hospitals, more than 15,000 doctors and nearly 6,000 dentists."[43]

The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who

engage in regular exercise.[44]

"Education" id="Education">Education

See also: List of colleges and universities in Georgia (U.S.

state), List of schools in Georgia (U.S. state), and List of school

districts in Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required

to administer a standardized, multiple-choice End of Course Test,

or EOCT, in each of eight core subjects including Algebra I,

Geometry, U.S. History, Economics, Biology, Physical Science, Ninth

Grade Literature and Composition, and American Literature and

Composition. The official purpose of the tests is to assess

"specific content knowledge and skills." Although a minimum test

score is not required for the student to receive credit in the

course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score

comprises 15% of a student's grade in the course.[45]

High school students must also receive passing scores on four

Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) and the Georgia High

School Writing Assessment in order to receive a diploma. Subjects

assessed include Mathematics, Science, Language Arts, and Social

Studies. These tests are initially offered during students'

eleventh-grade year, allowing for multiple opportunities to pass

the tests before graduation at the end of twelfth grade.[46]

Georgia is home to almost 70 public colleges, universities, and

technical colleges in addition to over 45 private institutes of

higher learning.

The HOPE Scholarship, funded by the state lottery, is available

to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school with a

3.0 or higher grade point average and who attend a public college

or university in the state. The scholarship covers the cost of

tuition and provides a stipend for books for up to 120 credit

hours. If the student does not maintain a 3.0 average while in

college they may lose the scholarship in which case they will have

the chance to get it back by bringing their grade point average

above a 3.0 within a period of 30 credit hours. This scholarship

has had a significant impact on the state university system,

increasing competition for admission and increasing the quality of

education.

"Transportation" id="Transportation">Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Georgia (U.S. state)

Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department

of Transportation, a part of the executive branch of the state

government. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I-75 and I-85.

On March 18, 1998, the Georgia House of Representatives passed a

resolution naming the portion of Interstate Highway 75, which runs

from the Chattahoochee River northward to the Tennessee state line

the Larry McDonald Memorial Highway.

[edit] Other important interstate highways are I-95, I-20, I-16,

I-59 and I-24. I-285 is Atlanta, Georgia's perimeter route and

I-575 connects with counties in north Georgia on I-75.[47] Major

freight railroads in Georgia include CSX and Norfolk Southern.

Passenger service in Georgia is available on two Amtrak routes: the

Crescent, which runs from New York to Washington, D.C., through

north Georgia and Atlanta to New Orleans and the other runs from

New York to the Georgia coast and from there to Florida.[48]

"Interstate_highways" id="Interstate_highways">Interstate

highways

  • Interstate 16, Interstate 516
  • Interstate 20, Interstate 520
  • Interstate 59 (three exits only), Interstate 24
  • Interstate 75, Interstate 475,
  • Interstate 575, Interstate 675
  • Interstate 85, Interstate 185, Interstate 985
  • Interstate 95
  • Interstate 285 (the perimeter around Atlanta)
  • Interstate 3 (proposed)
  • Interstate 14 (proposed)

"United_States_highways" id="United_States_highways">United States

highways

North-south routes East-west routes

  • U.S. Route 1
  • U.S. Route 301
  • U.S. Route 11
  • U.S. Route 411
  • U.S. Route 17
  • U.S. Route 19
  • U.S. Route 319
  • U.S. Route 221
  • U.S. Route 23
  • U.S. Route 123
  • U.S. Route 25
  • U.S. Route 27
  • U.S. Route 29
  • U.S. Route 129
  • U.S. Route 41
  • U.S. Route 341
  • U.S. Route 441

  • U.S. Route 76
  • U.S. Route 78
  • U.S. Route 278
  • U.S. Route 378
  • U.S. Route 80
  • U.S. Route 280
  • U.S. Route 82
  • U.S. Route 84

"Airports" id="Airports">Airports

HJAIA's 398-foot-tall control tower

Georgia's principal airport is Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta

International Airport (ATL), the world's busiest passenger

airport.[49] Georgia has one hundred seven public-use airports,

nine of which are commercial-aviation airports and ninety-eight

which are general-aviation airports. Two of the state's important

airports are Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport, which

serves over 1,700,000 passengers each year and DeKalb Peachtree

Airport in Chamblee, Georgia.[50]

"Law_and_Government" id="Law_and_Government">Law and

Government

Main article: Government of Georgia (U.S. state)

"State_government" id="State_government">State government

The Georgia State Capitol Building in Atlanta with the distinctive

gold dome.

The capital of Georgia is Atlanta. As with all other U.S. States

and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the

separation of legislative, executive and judicial power.[51]

Executive authority in the state rests with the governor, currently

Sonny Perdue (until 2011) (Republican). Perdue is the first

Republican governor since Reconstruction.[52] (See List of

governors of Georgia). Both the governor and lieutenant governor

are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office.

Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States,

most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet

are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the

governor.

Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed

of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor

presides over the Senate, while the House of Representatives

selects their own Speaker. The Georgia Constitution mandates a

maximum of 56 senators, elected from single-member districts, and a

minimum of 180 representatives, apportioned among representative

districts (which sometimes results in more than one representative

per district); there are currently 56 senators and 180

representatives. The term of office for senators and

representatives is two years.[53]

State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and

Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority.[54] In addition,

there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical

jurisdiction, including State Courts, Superior Courts, Magistrate

Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges

of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in

non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller

courts are elected by the state's citizens who live within that

court's jurisdiction to four-year terms.

See also: List of governors of Georgia and Georgia elected

officials

"Local_government" id="Local_government">Local government

Georgia has 159 counties, the most of any state except Texas (with

254).[55] Before 1932, there were 161, with Milton and Campbell

being merged into Fulton at the end of 1931. Counties have been

named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history.

Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch,

usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has

executive authority in the county.[56] Several counties have a Sole

Commissioner government, with legislative and executive authority

vested in a single person. Georgia is the only state with Sole

Commissioner counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties

and cities with "home rule" authority, and so the county

commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within

their county as a municipality would.Further information: list

of Georgia counties

Besides the counties, Georgia only defines cities as local units

of government. Every incorporated town, no matter how small, is

legally a city. Georgia does not provide for townships or

independent cities (though there is a movement in the Legislature

to provide for townships) but does allow consolidated city-county

governments by local referendum. So far, only Columbus, Augusta,

Athens, and Cusseta have done this. Conyers is studying possibly

becoming consolidated with Rockdale County. Recently, Savannah has

consolidated its police department with the county police

department and is currently studying possible consolidation with

Chatham County.

There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the

Atlanta Regional Commission and Georgia Regional Transportation

Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all

major land development projects in metro Atlanta.

"Politics" id="Politics">Politics

YearRepublicanDemocratic2008 52.22% 2,048,744 47.01%

1,844,137 2004 57.97% 1,914,254 41.37%

1,366,149 2000 54.67% 1,419,720 42.98%

1,116,230 1996 47.01% 1,080,843 45.84%

1,053,849 1992 42.88% 995,252 43.47%

1,008,966 1988 59.75% 1,081,331 39.50%

714,792 1984 60.17% 1,068,722 39.79%

706,628 1980 40.95% 654,168 55.76%

890,733 1976 32.96% 483,743 66.74%

979,409 1972 75.04% 881,496 24.65%

289,529 1968* 30.40% 380,111 26.75% 334,440

1964 54.12% 616,584 41.15% 522,557 1960 37.43%

274,472 62.54% 458,638 *State won by George

Wallace

of the American Independent Party,

at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes

Until recently, Georgia's state government had the longest

unbroken record of single-party dominance of any state in the

Union. This record was established partly by disfranchisement of

most blacks and many poor whites in the early 20th century, lasting

into the 1960s.

After Reconstruction, white Democrats regained power, especially

by legal disfranchisement of most African Americans and many poor

whites through erection of barriers to voter registration. In 1900,

shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional

amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47% of the state's

population.[57] A "clean" franchise was linked by Progressives to

electoral reform.[58] White, one-party rule was solidified. To

escape the oppression, tens of thousands of black Georgians left

the state, going north in the Great Migration for jobs, better

education for their children and the chance to vote.

For over 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians only elected

white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority

of seats in the General Assembly. Most of the Democrats elected

throughout these years were Southern Democrats or Dixiecrats who

were very conservative by national standards. This continued after

the segregationist period, which ended legally in the 1960s.

According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's

population that was African American had decreased to 28%.[59]

After civil rights legislation under President Johnson secured

voting and civil rights in the mid-1960s, most African Americans in

the South joined the Democratic Party.

During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in

civil rights, governance, and economic growth focused on Atlanta.

It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South." This characterization

was solidified with the election of former Georgia Governor Jimmy

Carter in 1976 to the U.S. Presidency.

The political dominance of Democrats ended in 2003, when

then-Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a

state legislator and former Democrat himself. It was regarded as a

stunning upset. While Democrats retained control of the State

House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats

switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election.

Republicans now control all three partisan elements of the state

government.

In recent years, many conservative Democrats, including former

U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, have decided to support

Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide

support for such measures as restrictions on abortion. Even before

2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans

in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for

president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son

Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas

governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally,

Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban

(especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the

state.[60] Many of these areas were represented by conservative

Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century.

Democrats do best in the areas where black voters are most

numerous,[61] mostly in the cities (especially Atlanta) and the

rural Black Belt region that travels through the central and

southwestern portion of the state.Georgia is often described as

"The Red state with the blue dot in the middle", referring to

Atlanta, Athens, and Decatur, where there are dense concentrations

of liberals.

As of the 2001[update] reapportionment, the state has 13 seats

in the U.S. House of Representatives, which are currently held by 7

Republicans and 6 Democrats.

In the recent events, senatorial candidate Jim Martin (D) ran

against the current senator Saxby Chambliss (R). Chambliss failed

to acquire the necessary 50% of votes because of a third party. The

runoff election is set for December 2, 2008.See also: United

States presidential election, 2004, in Georgia

"Media" id="Media">Media

"Television" id="Television">Television

See also: List of television stations in Georgia

Georgia is home to Ted Turner, who founded TBS, TNT, TCM,

Cartoon Network, CNN and Headline News, among others. The CNN

Center, which houses the news channel's world headquarters, is

located in downtown Atlanta, facing Marietta Street, while the home

offices of the Turner Entertainment networks are located in

midtown, near the Georgia Tech campus, on Techwood Drive. A third

Turner building is on Williams Street, directly across Interstate

75 and Interstate 85 from the Techwood Drive campus and is the home

of Adult Swim and Williams Street Studios.

The Weather Channel's headquarters are located in the Smyrna

area of metropolitan Atlanta in Cobb County.

WSB-TV was the state's first television station, and the

southeastern United States' second. WSB-TV signed on Channel 8 in

1948, and moved to its present day location on Channel 2 in

1952.

Georgia Public Broadcasting (GPB) operates nine major

educational television stations across the state as Georgia Public

Broadcasting Television.[62]

"Movies" id="Movies">Movies

Atlanta is home to Tyler Perry Studios and Rainforest Films. Tyler

Perry has produced several films including Diary of a Mad Black

Woman, Madea's Family Reunion, Why Did I Get

Married?, and Meet the Browns.

Atlanta is often referred to as "Black Hollywood" because of the

number of films with African American cast marketed to African

Americans produced in the city.[citation needed]

"Radio" id="Radio">Radio

See also: List of radio stations in Georgia

WSB-AM in Atlanta was the first radio station in the

southeastern United States, signing on in 1922. The station

currently broadcasts a news/talk format. WSB-FM signed on in 1948

on 104.5 FM, and moved to 98.5 FM in 1952. The station broadcasts

today, still with the WSB-FM callsign, but is known as

"B98.5FM".

Georgia Public Radio has been in service since 1984 and, with

the exception of Atlanta, it broadcasts daily on several FM (and

one AM) stations across the state. 1984.[63][64] Georgia Public

Radio reaches nearly all of Georgia (with the exception of the

Atlanta area, which is served by WABE), as well as portions of

Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

"Newspapers_and_periodicals" id=

"Newspapers_and_periodicals">Newspapers and periodicals

See also: List of newspapers in Georgia (U.S. state)

There are several major newspapers in Georgia. Among them are

the Atlanta Journal Constitution and the Augusta Chronicle. Other

media publications in the state include business magazines; Atlanta

is also home to Upscale an African American entertainment and

lifestlyle magazine;entertainment media such as Southern Voice; and

various sports magazines.[65]

"Sports_and_recreation" id="Sports_and_recreation">Sports and

recreation

Main article: Sports in Georgia (U.S. state)See also:

Tour de Georgia and The Masters Tournament

Sports in Georgia include professional teams in all major

sports, Olympic Games contenders and medalists, collegiate teams in

major and small-school conferences and associations, and active

amateur teams and individual sports. The State of Georgia has a

team in eight major professional leagues (MLB, NFL, NBA, NHL, ABA,

AFL, IL, and ECHL). Georgia has an abundance of outdoor

recreational activities. Outdoor activities include, but are not

limited to, hiking along the Appalachian Trail; Civil War Heritage

Trails; rock climbing and whitewater paddling.[66][67][68][69]

Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing. Less rustic

activities are trips to Callaway Gardens; circuses; Rattlesnake

Roundups; and Zoo Atlanta.[70][71][72][73]

"State_facts_and_symbols" id="State_facts_and_symbols">State facts

and symbols

[show]Georgia State SymbolsAnimate insignia

Amphibian

American Green Tree Frog

Bird

Brown Thrasher

Butterfly

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

Fish

Largemouth bass

Flower

Cherokee Rose

Insect

European honey bee

Mammal

Right whale

Reptile

Gopher tortoise

Tree

Live oak

Inanimate insignia

Dance

Square Dance

Food

Grits, Peach, Vidalia Sweet Onion

Fossil

Shark Tooth

Gemstone

Quartz

Mineral

Staurolite

Shell

Knobbed Whelk

Soil

Tifton

Song(s)

Georgia on My Mind

Tartan

Georgia state tartan

Route marker(s)

State Quarter

Released in 1999

Lists of U.S. state insignia

Georgia's nicknames include Peach State and Empire

State of the South. The state song, "Georgia On My Mind" by

Hoagy Carmichael, was originally written about a woman of that

name, but after Georgia native Ray Charles sang it, the state

legislature voted it the state song on 24 April 1979. Ray Charles

sang it on the legislative floor when the bill was passed. This act

was significant in that it symbolized to many the move away from

segregation and racism. The state commemorative quarter was

released on 19 July 1999.[74] The first houses in Georgia to be

designated historic state landmarks are the Owens Thomas House and

the Sorrel Weed House, in the Savannah historic district. The state

'possum is Pogo Possum.[75]


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