The Catholic Church and the Latin language helped united western Europe after the Roman Empire collapsed.
Though some people have misconception that Sikhism is a blend of Hinduism and Islam - it is not true. Sikhism is an entirely different religion found by Guru Nanak.
Louis XIV was an absolute monarch, while William of Orange was a constitutional monarch.
APEX: people could worship as they pleased but non-muslims had to pay higher taxes
It allowed critics of the Catholic Church to make copies of their writings more easily.
Both men believed that the Catholic Church should end the sale of indulgences.
John of Leyden believed only adults should be baptized, while Zwingli believed in baptizing infants.
They led people to believe that the Catholic Church was too concerned with material wealth.
Compared with Shia Muslims, Sunni Muslims grant less authority to descendants of Muhammad.
They viewed it as a threat to their authority.
There are several ways that the Caliph, and the Sunni Religious Order he led in the Ottoman Empire, as well as the Islamic Law helped the Ottoman Sultans and the other secular authorities maintain power.
Geographic Organization: One of the key ways that the mosques served the Ottoman Empire was by keeping parish records of the Ottoman subjects. This allowed the sultan to know how many births and deaths there were in every village in the empire as well as know how many able-bodied men could be summoned as footsoldiers should the need arise. Since the mosques were managed by the government's religious ministry, these records were directly accessible to the sultan. Additionally, since most Imams could read, even though the population in general could not, the mosque could become a place where imperial proclamations could be read out to the population after the khobta or sermon. This allowed for easy dissemination of information from the government to the general population.
Military Assistance: In many parts of the Ottoman military, there were Sufi Mystics who served as patriotic military chaplains. They would provide zeal and patriotism to rally the Ottoman soldiers to the defense of the Empire for religious motives and take care of the soldiers' spiritual concerns. In this way, they helped to motivate the armies.
Dispute Resolution: Al-Qanun (the Religious Law) and the Qadis (Religious Legal Scholars / Judges) served to provide legal and equitable remedies to the people. Al-Qanun was enforceable from religious courts to all secular domains, so the disputes resolved in the religious courts and overseen by the Caliph had actual effect and restored domestic tranquility. Additionally, by allowing the Qadis to oversee the allocation of justice, the sultan was freer to allocate funds to imperial construction products or military endeavors, allowing the Ottomans to more effectively police their territory and expand it.
Cultural Unity: The dominance of Sunni Islam in all parts of the Ottoman Empire helped solidify a unified culture, especially in places like the Arab World, where most of the population resented Turkish control over Non-Turks. The loyalty to the Caliph in all parts of the Sunni Islamic World gave implicit legitimacy to the Ottoman Empire even from those Sunni Muslims who otherwise would consider rebelling and restoring local Non-Turkish power.
Sultan's Impunity: With the Caliph established as the supreme moral authority, the sultan was not required to be as moral as he would otherwise be required. This allowed the sultan to be crueler to his prisoners and enemies and to violate standards of decency (such as drinking alcohol or having a harem of over four women) without being impeached for it. In many cases, the sultan used direct force to compel obedience and not needing to save face afterwards permitted this to continue. Conversely, the Caliph would have to live a life of piety.
Martin Luther's translation of the Bible could be produced cheaply and quickly.
The invention of the printing press
A state requires all medical school graduates to pass a standardized test before becoming doctors.
John of Leyden
James I believed he had absolute power, while William of Orange agreed to restrictions on his power.
It led people to identify themselves by nationality.
The Ottoman Empire was controlled by Sunni Muslims, while the Safavid Empire was ruled by Shia Muslims.
Protestants opposed the sale of indulgences, while Catholics did not.
It forced kingdoms to establish clear boundaries.
A man who chooses to be baptized as an adult
APEX: recognizing the roman emperors authority
We don't have your statements so I can't answer your question.