Bible Statistics and History

The Bible is one of the most read books in the world. It has been published in virtually every language. The history and development of this important document is worthy of study, and questions about it are asked in this category.

27,745 Questions
History of Italy
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

Who was Pontius Pilate?

Pontius Pilate was a Roman citizen, a prelate appointed by the emperor to oversee the province of Judea. He was responsible for releasing Jesus to be crucified. Between the Pilate of the New Testament and the Pilate of history there is nothing in common. The Pilate of the New Testament is subservient to the Jews, acceding to their every wish, even to murdering an innocent prisoner. The Pilate of history is noted for his hatred of the Jews and his cruelties to them. It was these which provoked his recall. Some have noted quite a remarkable difference between what we know of the regular character of Pilate due to a number of merciless actions during his governorship and his being portrayed as weak and vacilating by the gospel writers.

Since the gospels have been found to be accurate in numerous other instances they could be 'given the benefit of the doubt' here even if there were no additional evidence. However it has been discovered that a certain Sejanus who was like a patron or protector of Pilate, was removed from his position in AD31 as he was found to have been plotting against the emperor of the day. This turn of events would have made the political position of Pilate very weak in AD33, the likely time when Jesus was tried. It would have made the leverage used by the Jews when they said 'if you release this man you are not a friend of Caeser,' particularly strong, as Pilate would have been wanting to demonstrate loyalty lest he be implicated with his friend Sejanus. Pilate of course knew that the Jews hated the Romans, but that they had it 'over him' should they report disloyal conduct on his part. His vacilation was no doubt due to being caught between a rock and a hard place. He certainly seemed to believe in Jesus' innocence but reluctantly gave the Jews this favor to save his own neck, at least for a time.

ANSWER

A ruler from the Roman Empire during time of Jesus who held massive amounts of wealth due to the over taxation of the poor.

ANSWER

I personally believe that the Gospels portray Pilate not as "weak and and vacilating" but as cruel, heartless, arrogant, politically-insensitive, and without the slyness and cunning of the various Herods. All this made it easy for the Pharisees, Sadduccees, and Herodians to politically ambush him.

775776777
Quran (Koran)
Bible Statistics and History

How many times lailaha illallah appears in holy quran?

Asalam o alykum, it came two times in HOLY QURAN, sura MUHAMMAD and sura YUNUS, jazak ALLAH.

119120121
Bible Statistics and History
Scattergories and Words Starting with Certain Letters

What are some bible verses that begin with the letter V?

Many.

Here's a few from the King James version

Ecc 1:2 Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.

Joh 10:1 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.

Eze 7:11 Violence is risen up into a rod of wickedness: none of them shall remain, nor of their multitude, nor of any of their's: neither shall there be wailing for them.

Psa 76:11 Vow, and pay unto the LORD your God: let all that be round about him bring presents unto him that ought to be feared.
In the King James version

  • Num 25:17 Vex the Midianites, and smite them:
587588589
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History

Is the name Hector used in the Bible?

Being as the Catholic Ordered KJB is known for having over Thirty-six Thousand words added, removed, or changed to very different words; you would to best to stop using the devil Ordered KJB!

The NIV and NLT Bibles are very correct!

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Bible Statistics and History

Which language was the Gutenberg Bible printed in?

The Gutenberg Bible was printed in Latin.

More Information:

The Gutenberg Bible was an edition of the Latin Vulgate (which means it was printed in Latin) and was printed before the Protestant Reformation, meaning it was printed before English Bibles.

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Bible Statistics and History

Where can you find froward in the bible?

In the King James version

the word - froward - appears 21 times (twice in number 4 below)

  1. Deu 32:20 And he said, I will hide my face from them, I will see what their end shall be: for they are a very froward generation, children in whom is no faith.
  2. 2 Sam 22:27 With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself unsavoury.
  3. Job 5:13 He taketh the wise in their own craftiness: and the counsel of the froward is carried headlong.
  4. Psa 18:26 With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself froward.
  5. Psa 101:4 A froward heart shall depart from me: I will not know a wicked person.
  6. Pro 2:12 To deliver thee from the way of the evil man, from the man that speaketh froward things;
  7. Pro 2:15 Whose ways are crooked, and they froward in their paths:
  8. Pro 3:32 For the froward is abomination to the LORD: but his secret is with the righteous.
  9. Pro 4:24 Put away from thee a froward mouth, and perverse lips put far from thee.
  10. Pro 6:12 A naughty person, a wicked man, walketh with a froward mouth.
  11. Pro 8:8 All the words of my mouth are in righteousness; there is nothing froward or perverse in them.
  12. Pro 8:13 The fear of the LORD is to hate evil: pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, and the froward mouth, do I hate.
  13. Pro 10:31 The mouth of the just bringeth forth wisdom: but the froward tongue shall be cut out.
  14. Pro 11:20 They that are of a froward heart are abomination to the LORD: but such as are upright in their way are his delight.
  15. Pro 16:28 A froward man soweth strife: and a whisperer separateth chief friends.
  16. Pro 16:30 He shutteth his eyes to devise froward things: moving his lips he bringeth evil to pass.
  17. Pro 17:20 He that hath a froward heart findeth no good: and he that hath a perverse tongue falleth into mischief.
  18. Pro 21:8 The way of man is froward and strange: but as for the pure, his work is right.
  19. Pro 22:5 Thorns and snares are in the way of the froward: he that doth keep his soul shall be far from them.
  20. 1 Pet 2:18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

the word - frowardly - appears once

  1. Isa 57:17 For the iniquity of his covetousness was I wroth, and smote him: I hid me, and was wroth, and he went on frowardly in the way of his heart.

the word - frowardness - appears 3 times

  1. Pro 2:14 Who rejoice to do evil, and delight in the frowardness of the wicked;
  2. Pro 6:14 Frowardness is in his heart, he deviseth mischief continually; he soweth discord.
  3. Pro 10:32 The lips of the righteous know what is acceptable: but the mouth of the wicked speaketh frowardness.
487488489
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

Where does the word corban appear in the Bible?

Corban (Qorban-Hebrew)(Korban'-Greek) means an 'offering' or a 'gift dedicated to God', and was used in the Hebrew scriptures at: Leviticus 1:2, 3; 2:1; Numbers 5:15; 6:14, 21, Ezekiel 20:28 and 40:43.

In Jesus time, the word was used in the paralell accounts at: Mark 7:9-13 and Matthew 15:3-6.

A bad practice had developed among the Jews, ignoring the obligation of 'honoring one's parents'(Exodus 20:12)(Deuteronomy 5:16)(Ephesians 6:2), and caring for their needs as they aged.

The religious leaders, had come up with the idea that if a person didn't want to share necessities with his parents, he simply had to say that these necessities were 'corban' or 'offerings dedicated to God' and he wouldn't have to share anything, though he could still use these on himself until his own death. As usual, the religious leaders of the day professed to honor God, but their hearts were far away from Him, consequently, hypocritical teachings such as this, were condemned by Jesus.-(Matthew 15:7-9)

478479480
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

Who is yagus in The Bible?

There is no person of that name in the Bible according to my concordance.

Additional Answer:

Your are probably referring to Simon the Sorcerer or Simon the Magician (in Latin Simon Magus) and he first appears in Acts 8:9-14. It is said by some that it was this Simon who was in Rome and not Simon Peter.

436437438
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History

How many times does the Bible say 'follow me'?

In the King James version

the word - follow - appears 86 times

the phrase - follow me - appears 25 times

  1. Gen 24:5 And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest?
  2. Gen 24:39 And I said unto my master, Peradventure the woman will not follow me.
  3. Jud 8:5 And he said unto the men of Succoth, Give, I pray you, loaves of bread unto the people that follow me; for they be faint, and I am pursuing after Zebah and Zalmunna, kings of Midian.
  4. 1 Kin 20:10 And Benhadad sent unto him, and said, The gods do so unto me, and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall suffice for handfuls for all the people that follow me.
  5. 2 Kin 6:19 And Elisha said unto them, This is not the way, neither is this the city: follow me, and I will bring you to the man whom ye seek. But he led them to Samaria.
  6. Psa 23:6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.
  7. Mat 4:19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.
  8. Mat 8:22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.
  9. Mat 9:9 And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.
  10. Mat 16:24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
  11. Mat 19:21 Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me.
  12. Mar 2:14 And as he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting at the receipt of custom, and said unto him, Follow me. And he arose and followed him.
  13. Mar 8:34 And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
  14. Mar 10:21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me.
  15. Luk 5:27 And after these things he went forth, and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said unto him, Follow me.
  16. Luk 9:23 And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.
  17. Luk 9:59 And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
  18. Luk 18:22 Now when Jesus heard these things, he said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing: sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me.
  19. Joh 1:43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me.
  20. Joh 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
  21. Joh 12:26 If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour.
  22. Joh 13:36 Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.
  23. Joh 21:19 This spake he, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.
  24. Act 12:8 And the angel said unto him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals. And so he did. And he saith unto him, Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me.

and there are also these, which are close

  1. Joh 21:22 Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou me.
  2. Jud 3:28 And he said unto them, Follow after me: for the LORD hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of Jordan toward Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over.

the word - followers - appears 8 times

  1. 1 Cor 4:16 Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me.
  2. 1 Cor 11:1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.

the word - followeth - appears 15 times

  1. Joh 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.

the word - following - appears 43 times

  1. Deu 7:4 For they will turn away thy son from following me, that they may serve other gods: so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and destroy thee suddenly.
  2. 1 Sam 15:11 It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the LORD all night.
  3. 2 Sam 2:22 And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn thee aside from following me: wherefore should I smite thee to the ground? How then should I hold up my face to Joab thy brother?
  4. 1 Kin 9:6 But if ye shall at all turn from following me, ye or your children, and will not keep my commandments and my statutes which I have set before you, but go and serve other gods, and worship them:
385386387
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History

Is the name Scott in the Bible?

No. Scott is not in the NIV Bible.

420421422
Bible Statistics and History

How many times is 'but' used in the Bible?

But is used 3983 times in the NIV Bible.

368369370
Bible Statistics and History
Old Testament

How long had Job suffered?

He suffered for 18 years and he lost everything.

He lost everything except for his wife.

401402403
Bible Statistics and History

How many time the phrase don't be afraid mentioned in the Bible?

The phase 'Fear not' or 'don't be afraid' appears in nearly every book of the Bible from Genesis to Revelation. The first and last passages with 'fear not' are listed below.

The King James Version of the Bible has the exact phase 'Fear not' appearing 63 times, but the phase appears in other forms.
For the full list you need to include such phrases as 'be not afraid', 'Do not be afraid', 'no fear', etc. Likewise, similar phrases: fret not and do not worry. The exact wording will vary slightly depending on the particular translation.

351352353
Bible Statistics and History

How many times is 'walk' mentioned in the Bible?

In the King James version

the word - walk - appears 212 times

the word - walked - appears 122 times

the word - walkedst - appears once

the word - walkest - appears 7 times

the word - walketh - appears 41 times

the word - walking - appears 30 times

367368369
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament
Paul McCartney

What does Paul of the Bible mean I die every day?

This is ok: when he said I die daily he meant he no longer lives for himself but every day he becomes closer to God by doing God's will and not his own.

This is not correct: Paul was also referring to the daily possibility of his martyrdom. 1 Corinthians 15 v31. 2 Corinthians 11 details some of the suffering he endured over a period of time.

This is the real answer:

We are all pieces of divinity playing the game of life. The purpose of any real spiritual path is to become closer to the God from which we came. In order to do this we must let go of the false misconception of ourselves. We must come to terms with things. We must come to the realization that we are not our mind, our body, or some external position. In the process of doing this it is as if the old self is dying. You may continue to exist in a certain body and do certain things, but you become unattached to them, as they are no longer you.

This is a continual process, because to exist in this world you must be something. So no sooner have you shed one identity than you have a new one that is closer to God. Unfortunately it is already obsolete and must be let go. Letting go is the reality of spiritual growth, to continually let go of the identity that binds you to this world. This is much like it feels at the moment of physical death, the realization that the person you were is gone and you must let go and face the unknown future.

On the spiritual journey it is possible to look back a week, a month, or a year and see distinct identities that you were but now no longer are. They have all died, as will the identity you wear today. In a way you do die every day.

Clarification & Commentary: I am thinking of the quote from the cartoon character POGO who said "we have seen the enemy and he is us". Ultimately, we are "all . . . [pieces]. . . of divinity" because we are not merely body and soul, but are also spirit. "God is a spirit" and is likewise referred to in Hebrews 12:9 as "the Father of spirits". The specific aspect of our experience that is to "die daily" is condensed in the term "I" when Paul said in Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me". IMHO, the "I" that Paul referred to may be rationally understood as our acquired ego identity and development; in other words, the person you have become over a lifetime of conditioning, how you were rasied, the language you speak, enculturalization, psychological formation, emotional development, and your volitional self determination; this is what we have the proclivity to cling to. The "I" or self reflects the sum of our behavioral uniqueness; including the cognitive (mental), affective (emotional) and volitional (will) aspects of our overall humanness. So, as you "continually let go of . . . [this very] . . . identity that binds you to this world", it is more and more replaced with the indwelling Christ, our entrance into a relationship to the Spirit of God, producing the spirit of life, spiritual mindedness, the fruit of the spirit, peace, joy, discernment, etc: In terms of our spiritual growth, it's like shifting from 2nd to 3rd gear so your car will run more smoothly at a higher speed. Unfortunately, most people do not make the shift, do not die to self, remain fixated and imprisoned to only what they know and what they can grasp, to a lifestyle of self-absorption and consequently remain both in this world and a self-limiting byproduct of it. Our lives become more of an incidental reflections of our culture bound awareness instead of the growing purity of consciousness toward the new life that Christ can and will produce in us. One reason we voluntarily accept Christ is because this frees us from conformity to the world, and provides a powerful alternative; a new and transformed life.

Footnote: I do not quote scriptures to preach, but as textual references to help authenticate my viewpoint in the ongoing 2000 year old dialogue of Christian faith that has lasted since the beginning of the ancient church.

337338339
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History

Is the name Dominic mentioned in the Bible?

No

365366367
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

What is the chiastic structure in Mark's Gospel?

Mark's Gospel is an excellent example in the use of chiastic structures and parallel structures, demonstrating an impressive literary ability on the part of its author.

A chiastic structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that mirrors the first, with the order reversed. A parallel structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that parallels the first.The purpose of these structures is to link, by association, the two events of each pair in the minds of the readers, in order to create emphasis or develop a theme that would otherwise not be apparent.

This answer will deal with the following examples:

  • Framework structure
    • This is a substantially updated look at the structure of Mark's Gospel as a whole. It also shows how the author uses nested structures to emphasise events in the main structure or subtly change their meaning.
    • An alternative framework structure using a more traditional chiastic structure is also reviewed and compared to the first example.
  • Passion structure
    • Mark divides the last twenty four hours in the life of Jesus into 8 periods of just 3 hours each, bounded by an elegant chiastic structure.
  • Minor structures
    • Two well-known minor chiastic structures are critically examined.


Framework structure

By creating a structure across the entire gospel, the author of Mark's Gospel has created a parallel structure of immense scope and a complexity beyond those found in the writings of less gifted authors. As with conventional chiastic structures, Mark uses one pair of events to define the limits of the structure, but then the second set progresses in the same direction as the first one, in a parallel format. The pairs shown in the framework structure that follows are not exhaustive, but are major pairs of interest. They will be updated from time to time, and this may result in changes in sequence numbering.

Major events of the framework structure (with detailed explanations following):
A . John explains the coming of Jesus (Mark 1:1-8)

B .The baptism of Jesus (1:9)

C . The voice of God from heaven, "Thou art my beloved son" (1:11)

D . The forty days in the wilderness as an allusion to Elijah and Moses (1:13)

E . The people were astonished at what Jesus taught (1:22)

F . Jesus casts out an unclean spirit (1:23-26)

G . Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus (3:6)

H . Demons, whenever they see Jesus, fall down and say that he is the Son of God.

-- Jesus commands that they tell no one of this (3:11-12)

I .. Jesus calls the 12 disciples (3:13-19)

J .. Jesus rejects his own family: he has a new family, his followers (3:31-35)

K . Jesus rebukes the wind (4:36-41)

L . The demoniac, wearing no clothes (5:15), cries out that Jesus not torment him and Jesus sends out the demons (5:1-20)

M . Jesus comes into his own country (6:1)
-- Where he was brought up

N . The people misunderstand Jesus and he can do no mighty work (6:2-6)

O . Jesus sends out the disciples and curses those who will not receive them (6:7-11)
-- in sending the disciples with authority and expecting all to receive them, Jesus is asserting his own authority

P . Herod thinks that Jesus is John the Baptist risen from the dead (6:14)

Q . Herodias and her daughter conspire to kill John the Baptist (6:16-29)

R . Feeding the thousands, and related miracles and discourses (6:33-8:21)

S . Who do people say that I am (8:27)

T . Peter affirms faith in Jesus as the Christ (8:29)

U . Whosoever shall be ashamed of me: of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed (8:38)

V . The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and scribes (8:31a)

W . Be killed and after three days rise again (8:31b)

X . Prophecy of second coming (9:1)- Jesus tells the disciples that some of them would not taste death until they saw the kingdom of God coming with power.

B' .The Transfiguration of Jesus (9:2-3)

C' .The voice of God from heaven, "This is my beloved son" (9:7)

D' . Jesus talks to Elijah and Moses then to the disciples about Elijah (9:4-13)

E' .A great multitude was amazed at Jesus (9:15)

F' .Jesus cast out a dumb spirit (9:17-27)

G' .They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day (9:31)

H' .Jesus clarifies his divine status, saying that he is not God: "Why call me good? There is none good but God" (10:18)

I' . Peter says the disciples have left all and followed Jesus (10:28)

J' . Those who have left their family for Jesus have a new family: all Jesus' followers (10:29-30)

K'. Jesus rebukes the 'sons of thunder', James and John (10:35-45 - cf 3:17)

L' .Blind Bartimaeus cries out for mercy and casts off his clothes, then Jesus heals him (10:46-52)

M' .Jesus comes into Jerusalem (11:1-10)
-- Where he will die

N' .Jesus misunderstands the fig tree that can provide no fruit (11:13-14)

O' .Jesus casts out them that sold and bought in the Temple and curses them for making the Temple a den of thieves (11:15-17)
-- Jesus is asserting his authority

P' .Jesus asks whether the baptism of John is from heaven or of men, and the priests, scribes and elders can not answer (11:30-33)

Q' .Parable of husbandmen who conspire to kill the vineyard owner's son (12:1-9)

X' .Prophecy of second coming (chapter 13)

-- on clouds of glory, within the lifetimes of some of those to whom he was speaking

R' .The Last Supper (14:17-25)

S' .Art thou the Christ, Son of God (14:61)

T' .Peter denies Jesus three times (14:66-72a)

U' .And when he thought thereon, Peter wept (14:72b)

V' .The chief priests, elders and scribes delivered Jesus to Pontius Pilate (15:1)

-- Delivering Jesus is a similar concept to rejecting him.
-- Both parts of the pair involve chief priests, elders and scribes

W' .Jesus dies and on the third day rises again (15:37, 16:6)

A' .The young man explains the departure of Jesus(16:6-8)


Pair A
Note that Mark originally ended at 16:8, with the young man telling the women that Jesus was risen and they fled, telling no one, with no resurrection appearance of Jesus. Verses 16:9-25 form what is now known as the "Long Ending" (there was also, at one stage, a "Short Ending") and were added to the Gospel at a later stage, to provide resurrection appearances and to more or less harmonise it with the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Therefore, verses 16:8-25 do not form part of the chiastic structure of Mark's Gospel, and this chiastic structure encompasses the entire gospel, as defined by pair A.

Pair D
In Mark 1:13, the story of Jesus going into the wilderness, where he was ministered by angels is an allusion to Elijah (1 Kings 19:5-7) who was ministered by an angel and in the wilderness forty days. There is no actual suggestion that Jesus fasted for this time, but those familiar with the story of Elijah are likely to have assumed he did do so, and this is made explicit in Matthew and Luke. This brings into play another allusion, to Moses when (Exodus 34:28) he fasted for 40 days while he wrote the words of the Ten Commandments on tablets. The author of Mark seems to have been adept at hidden messages, and this easily overlooked allusion neatly mirrors the Transfiguration in the second set.

Events E and F
In Mark's Gospel, some events not only form pairs across the chiasm, but also interact with each other. Mark repeatedly sandwiches one narrative that stands on its own within another narrative that would seem entirely coherent without it, in the form A1-B-A2. This is an advanced literary technique known to scholars as Markan intercalation, or simply Markan sandwich, by which Mark could emphasise important theological themes. Here we begin with Jesus teaching in the synagogue and the people were astonished at what Jesus taught (Mark 1:21-21) - this is A1 (but also event E in the framework structure). A man with an unclean spirit was in the synagogue and Jesus drove the spirit out of him - this is event B in the intercalation (also event F in the framework structure). In verse 1:27, we return as A2 to the theme of the people amazed, with parallel usage of "teaching with authority" (KJV translates teaching as its synonym 'doctrine'). The effect of this intercalation is to greatly magnify the amazement of the people compared to verse 22 alone. Sandwiched between the two verses in which the people in the synagogue were amazed, the impact of the miracle of the exorcism is also enhanced. The reader can not fail to be aware that what Jesus taught was almost beyond human understanding.

Pair G
It is impossible for the author of Mark to have known that event G occurred, but it opens an excellent chiastic pair: Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus ... They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day. They will kill Jesus but they will not destroy him.

Pair H
In Mark's Gospel, only outsiders call Jesus the Son of God*. Jesus refers to himself as the Son of Man, while Peter calls him the Christ (anointed one). In 3:11-12, the demons fall down and call Jesus the Son of God, but Jesus is quick to instruct them to tell no one, thus no more than an implied admission. The demons would know Jesus' divine status, but if this was a blasphemy then they were outsiders and brought no disrepute upon the Christian community. In the matching event of the pair (10:18), Jesus once again clarifies his status, saying that he is not God yet not denying that he is the Son of God.
*Verse 1:1 does have the author call Jesus the Son of God. This is not present in some early manuscripts and it is possible that it was not original.

Pair J
Pair J uses the example of Jesus in the first passage to comfort those Christians of the author's own time who had been rejected by their families, or who had left their families to become wandering preachers or commune members. However, in verses 3:31-35, Event J, Mark risks portraying Jesus as callous or out of his mind when he sends his brothers and his mother away, proclaiming that he has a new family. This is negated because the passage is part of a local chiastic structure in which Jesus' friends, the scribes and perhaps his family are concerned about the mental state of Jesus, but Jesus proves that he is not possessed by the devil: JaThe multitude is so thick that they could not so much as eat bread (3:20)JbJesus' friends say he is beside himself (3:21)JcScribes say Jesus is possessed and by the devil casts out devils (3:22)JdHow can Satan cast out Satan? (3:23)JeIf a kingdom be divided the kingdom can not stand (3:24)Je'If a house be divided the house can not stand (3:25)Jd'If Satan is divided he can not winJc'Because they said he has an unclean spirit (3:30)Jb'Jesus' family comes to him. Jesus says his followers are his family (3:31-35)Ja'The multitude is so thick that Jesus enters a boat (4:1)

Pair J also risks portraying Jesus as opposed to the traditional concept of family, by encouraging his followers to leave their families. Right on cue, Jesus is given several opportunities to show his commitment to family:

  • 10:2-9 Pharisees tempt Jesus to say that it is lawful for a man to put away his wife, but Jesus says let no man put them asunder.
  • 10:10-12 The disciples again ask the same thing. Jesus says that if a man puts away his wife to marry another, or if a woman puts away her husband to marry another, then he or she is guilty of adultery.
  • 10:13-16 Jesus shows his love of children. Children must not be cast aside.
  • 10:17-21 Jesus lectures the rich man on moral principles, including adultery and honouring his father and mother. However, Jesus still says that this is consistent with leaving all and following him.
  • 10:28 Peter says the disciples have left all and followed Jesus.
  • 10:29-30 Jesus says those who have left all, home and family, have a new family a hundredfold. This is, of course, event J'

When Jesus says (10:29-30) that those who have left their family for Jesus have a new family, who are all Jesus' followers, we have been fully assured that Jesus is not preaching the destruction of traditional families.

Pair K

Although events K and K' clearly form a pair, the reason for this pair is not immediately apparent. Mark uses the storm in event K to remind readers that James and John are the 'sons of thunder'. In event K', the author then associates the brothers with Castor and Polydeuces, sons of Zeus the thunderer, who were often portrayed as seated on the right hand and left hand of Zeus. By comparing the sons of thunder with the sons of Zeus Mark was, in the minds of first-century readers, comparing Jesus himself with Zeus, whom he will replace.

Pair L
The two stories in this pair share some interesting features:
  • In both cases when we expect to be told the character's name, he is left nameless.
  • The demoniac in the first story calls out to Jesus not to torment him.
    Blind Bartimaeus cries out for mercy, rather like asking not to be tormented, rather than beg to be allowed to see, as we would expect.
  • The demoniac is naked. Bartimaeus casts off his garment (although possibly retaining other clothing).
  • Both stories have close parallels in the Greek classics

In verse 5:9 Jesus asks the demoniac his name, the only occasion in the gospel where he does so, yet we are never told his name. The demons answer, saying, "My name is Legion, for we are many." Bartimaeus is not a personal name, but means 'son of Timaeus', which was repeated in Greek (translated into English).
.
Timaeus is an unlikely name for a Jew, as Timaeus must have been (hence Bartimaeus), but it is a Greek name. Plato wrote an important Dialogue called Timaeus, about nature and creation. Furthermore, Dennis R MacDonald (The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark) provides credible evidence that the story of Legion was inspired by Homer's epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. When we have two gospel stories that form a matching pair in the chiastic structure, have features in common and one appears to be based on the great Greek classics, it seems likely that the second story was also inspired by another of the great Greek classics. There is also a parallel between Bartimaeus and blind Tiresias in the Odyssey. but the main effect of this parallel is to confirm the association to the story of Legion, since both have parallels in the Odyssey.
.
Greeks learnt to read by studying the works of Homer and Plato, so when reading the story of Legion would have noticed parallels to Homer. When they then saw the story of Bartimaeus in a similar context, this would have brought to mind Plato's Timaeus. Having just read the story of James and John seeking to sit on the right hand and left hand of Jesus, as Castor and Polydeuces sat on the right hand and left hand of Zeus, they might well have wondered whether Plato was talking about Jesus.

Pair R
Mark 6:33-8:21 form an integrated set of passages with ten references or allusions to food, including a summary by Jesus of the two feasts in 8:19-21, maintaining a consistent theme of food, plus a minor theme of not understanding:
  • Jesus and the disciples had no leisure so much as to eat , so they went into a desert place
  • Feeding the 5000
  • When Jesus walked on water the disciples were amazed, for they considered not the miracle of the loaves
  • Pharisees complain about the disciples eating with unwashed hands
  • Discourse - what goes into a man goes into his belly and does not defile
  • Greek woman metaphorically begs for crumbs from the table
  • Feeding the 4000
  • Disciples are hungry and have only one loaf of bread
  • Jesus warns the disciples about the leaven of the Pharisees and they reason, "It is because we have no bread," showing they do not understand
  • Summary by Jesus of the two feasts

By verse 8:21, the reader is asking, "Why don't they understand?" Later, at the Last Supper (event L'), the reader understands, but knows that the disciples do not.

Pairs T and U
Events T and U are also part of a local chiastic structure that links verse 8:38 ("Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.") to Peter's affirmation in event T of this structure, then indirectly to events T' and U' (14:66-72a; 72b), where Peter denies Jesus 3 times; "And when he thought thereon, he wept"). This adds emphasis and meaning both to Peter's affirmation and his later denials: a.TPeter affirmsbJesus refers to his death and resurrectioncPeter rebukes Jesusc'Jesus rebukes Peterb'Jesus refers to death, the cross and life after deatha'.U"Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me ..."This is a reversal of Peter's affirmation, just as Peter's denials (T') are a reversal of his affirmation.

Pair X
Pair X (9:1 and ch 13) is of special interest because its members are not in precisely corresponding locations. Verse 9:1, at the very end of the first set is the logical position for the first member, but the corresponding, fuller account in the second set had to be spoken while Jesus was still alive. I believe that the evangelist placed this in its current position, chapter 13, for this reason.

An alternative structure

Others see the framework structure differently.
For completeness I will describe this alternative structure, which has some merit: A Beginning - John points to Jesus (1:4-8)
B Jesus' baptism - The splitting of the heavens, "You are my son," (1:9-11)
C Jesus is tested in the wilderness (1:12-13)
D The parable of the sower (4:1-9)
E Raising of the young girl (5:21-43)
F The death of John the Baptist (6:14-29)
G Stilling of the second storm - exorcism of the deep (6:45-52)
H Peter's confession (8:27-30)
I - Jesus' first passion prediction (8:31-33)
H' Transfiguration (9:2-10)
G' Exorcism of possessed boy (9:14-29)
F' Appearance of the rich (young) man (10:17-22)
E' Raising of the young man (followed Mark 10:34)
D' Parable of the vineyard (12:1-11)
C' Jesus is tested in the temple (12:13-27)
B' Jesus dies, the temple veil is split "Truly this was God's son." (15:33-39)
A' The young man points to Jesus (16:1-8)

There are some grounds for agreeing with this. Here, A and A' correspond to my corresponding passages, while the subsequent pairs follow a more traditional chiastic structure. I find the F/F' and G/G' pair rather strained, suggesting that the author never intended these to be part of his chiastic structure and that they are only so in retrospect. I also believe that B/B' form an uncomfortable pairing because they require the baptism to reflect the death of Jesus.

The strength of the structure that I first described is that the events of the first set seem to introduce the theologically more important events of the second set, thus providing a literary reason for the chiastic structure used. The strength of the second structure I have cited is that in most cases each pair involves a word that could be intended as a flag to link the corresponding halves of the pair.

We should not rule out the possibility that Mark intended both structures concurrently - in this gospel, the evangelist sometimes seems to have been intent on demonstrating his literary skills.

Passion Structure

The author of Mark's Gospel has created another structure with a complexity beyond those found in the writings of less gifted authors. In a challenging feat, Mark divides the last twenty-four hours before the death of Jesus into eight segments of three hours each, separated by events that form a chiastic structure in themselves.

In this, the opening set begins on the evening of the Last Supper and ends with the trial before the high priest and other senior priests and elders. The second set begins with the trial before Pontius Pilate and ends on the evening of the crucifixion.

A.

The celebration of the Passover Feast, which becomes the Last Supper, beginning "when it was evening" (Mark 14:17), or when the sun went down: approximately 6 pm and the beginning of the day of the Passover by Jewish reckoning. Jesus says, "This is my body," a metaphor that will be reflected in his burial.
-- Mark knew that the duration of the Passover meal was three hours and that it concluded with the singing of a hymn.
B
When was about 9 p.m. Mark then has Jesus and the disciples go to the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus went to pray. He suffered alone and in agony, asking God that, if possible, he take this cup (his destiny to be crucified) away from Jesus.
-- Meanwhile his disciples, Peter, James and John, were not able to remain awake.
-- "Could you not watch one hour?" Jesus asked. The process was repeated two more times. The disciples could not watch one, two or three hours. It was now midnight.
C
The betrayal of Jesus, the darkest deed in human history, came next, occurring at the stroke of midnight.

This will be reflected by the darkness at midday.
D
At 3:00 a.m., Jesus was led away for a trial before the high priest and other senior priests and elders.
-- We know the time of the first trial because Peter's threefold denial of Jesus followed, once each hour until the cock crowed, marking the watch between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., known as cockcrow.

E
When it was 6 o'clock, "As soon as it was morning", Jesus was led by the chief priests, scribes and elders for trial by Pontius Pilate.

At the trial, Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to be crucified.

D'
At 9 o'clock: "It was the third hour when they crucified him."

C'

When "the sixth hour had come" (12 noon), darkness covered the whole earth, reflecting the betrayal at 12 midnight.
B'
The three hours of darkness, until 3 p.m. mirror the agony in the Garden of Gethsemene. Jesus last words, "My God. My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" reflect the recognition that his prayer in the Garden has not been answered. At 3 o'clock Jesus cried out and gave up the ghost.
A'
Joseph of Arimathea then asked Pilate for the body of Jesus, so that he could be buried before the Sabbath began at 6 p.m., when the sun went down.

The presence of 8 time periods of three hours means that there must be an odd number of events around them. I believe that Mark intended the trial before Pontius Pilate to be a 'crossover' event (shown as Dx) that is not really in either set, both mirroring the trial before the Sanhedrin (the last event of the first set) but also, by sentencing Jesus to be crucified, mirroring Jesus being crucified (thus the first event of the second set).

Minor Structures

Several minor structures have been found in Mark's Gospel. In some cases the structures are undeniable, but in other cases the challenge is to ensure that the structure is real - did Mark intend a chiastic structure to exist or is it only evident in hindsight.

The story of the fig tree is an example of a well known chiastic structure used by Mark (11:12-21):

A Jesus takes authority over a fig tree by cursing it (11:12-14)
B Jesus takes authority over merchandisers at temple (11:15,16)
C My house will be a house of prayer for all nations (11:17a)
C' You have made my house into a den of robbers (11:17b)
B' Jewish leaders are losing their authority (11:18,19)
A' Disciples recognize Jesus' authority in the withered fig tree (11:20,21)

An example I would question is Mark 1:21-28, with its strained or over-generalised comparison of some pairs:

A. Location They went to Capernaum; and when the sabbath came, he the synagogue and taught. (1:21)

B. Teaching with Authority They were astounded at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. (1:22)

C. Unclean Spirit Just then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit (1:23)

D. Dialog And he cried out, "What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy One of God." (1:24)

D'. Dialog But Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" (1:25)

C'. Unclean Spirit And the unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. (1:26)

B'. Teaching with Authority They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, "What is this? A new teaching-with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him." (1:27)

A'. Location At once his fame began to spread throughout the surrounding region of Galilee. (1:28)

363364365
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History

What are some biblical verses that show purple?

In Biblical times Purple was a symbol of royalty and riches due to the scarcity of its dye.

There is slightly more to the meaning than the simple explanation given above. Look up the insect they used to create the color purple as a die for cloth.

Judges 8:26

The weight of the gold rings he asked for came to seventeen hundred shekels, not counting the ornaments, the pendants and the purple garments worn by the kings of Midian or the chains that were on their camels' necks.

Proverbs 31:22

She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple.

Mark 15:20

And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him out to crucify him

Mark 15:17

They put a purple robe on him, then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on him.

Acts 16:14

One of those listening was a woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth from the city of Thyatira, who was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart to respond to Paul's message.

Revelation 17:4

The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries.

Purple in KJV biblical text

New Testament = 9 times Mark, Luke, John, Acts and Revelation

Old Testament = 39 times

Get a Strongs Concordance on line and look up the occurrences and actual meanings however, don't simply assume purple is a direct translation from Hebrew, Chaldee or Greek to English.

363364365
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

What are the biblical verses with the word redeemed?

There are 136 times redeem to redeemer to redeemed is used in the NIV bible.

359360361
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

What is a summary of Matthew Chapter 10 in the Bible?

Matthew 10:1-42 describes Jesus as he was training his twelve apostles to do the preaching work and warning them of the persecution that would follow.

(Matthew 10:7-8)The Apostles were given special healing powers to prove that God's spirit was now with THEM and no longer with the Jews.

Jesus gave specific instructions on how to preach and what to expect when others realized they were taking a stand for the truth and objected.(Matthew 10:16-39)

Background Info: The Jewish nation had been God's chosen people for over a thousand years. They'd had miraculous signs of his presence at their temple for centuries, but now, with the arrival of the foretold Messiah, Jesus, God was no longer using the Jewish Nation. With the fulfillment of messianic prophecy, God was operating through this new little group of Christians, founded by his son. God's people would no longer have a physical Law Code(given to Israel), but would have the law of love 'written on their hearts'.

The Apostles were to preach to the Jews about Jesus(Matthew 10:5-6) They were to preach that 'the Kingdom of God was near' in the fact that Jesus was the Messiah (the King of God's Kingdom) and was there with them. The Jews were given the first option to accept the foretold Messiah. (Matthew 10:40)

350351352
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament
Old Testament

How many verses mention praise and worship in the Bible?

261 verses mention praise, and 188 verses mention worship, but in only 3 verses are they mentioned together in the Bible

329330331
Bible Statistics and History
Creation
Human Origins
Adam and Eve

When did people come onto earth?

The Bible states that it was about six thousand years ago that GOD made us and all! Only a couple of days after GOD made Earth, did GOD add us onto Earth!

307308309
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
Religious Literature

Who wrote Vulgate Bible?

Vulgate is a Latin translation of the Bible by Saint Jerome.

347348349
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

Where in the Bible does the word Shekinah appear?

The word 'Shekinah' (Shechinah), which means "that which dwells", is not found in the Bible, but it's description is. Exodus 25:21-22 and Leviticus 16:2 describe a luminous cloud above and between the two cherubs on the Ark of the Covenant. It would have been the only light in the "Most Holy" compartment of the tabernacle, especially benefiting the high priest when he entered the chamber on Atonement Day.

The word, Shekinah is, however, found in the Targumim (the Aramaic paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures Exodus 25:8; 29:45, 46; Numbers 5:3; 35:34) where the Hebrew word "dwell" or "tabernacle" is represented by " Shekinah".

335336337
The Bible
Bible Statistics and History
New Testament

How many times evangelist appears in the Bible?

In the NIV Bible evangelist(s) is in three times. Eph. 4:11, Ac.21:8, & 2Ti. 4:5

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