Charlemagne

Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, was born in 742 and died in 814. He became King of the Franks (French) in 768, King of Italy in 774, the first Holy Roman Emperor and the first Emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Charlemagne was the leader of many historical and victorious battles which united much of Europe.

1,936 Questions
History of Europe
Middle Ages
Charlemagne

What happened to Charlemagne's empire?

Charlemagne's empire was divided into three kingdoms, in accordance with the will of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's successor. This was formalized and clarified by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The nominal title of emperor lasted for a while, but had little meaning. In the end, the kings stopped acknowledging attachment to the empire, and the last person claiming the throne of the Carolingian Empire, Berengar I, died in 924.

Two of the three kingdoms survived. One became the kingdom of France. In another, Otto I resurrected the title of emperor and so the Holy Roman Empire came into being, which was, in turn, ancestral to Germany.

Please use the links below for more information.

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Charlemagne

Why was Charlemagne crowned emperor of the Romans?

Charlemagne was not crowned emperor of the Romans. He was crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor, which had nothing to do with ancient Rome. The so-called Holy Roman Empire was a Germanic kingdom of the Middle Ages.

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Charlemagne

Why was there a need for order after the death of Charlemagne in 814?

The rulers who followed him could not defend the empire against new waves of invasions.

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Charlemagne

What did Charlemagne do?

Charlemagne extended the borders of the Kingdom of the Franks to the east and south, gaining great tracts of territory. So doing, he turned the Kingdom of the Franks into a great empire, which became ancestral to both France and the Holy Roman Empire. He also promoted literacy and education, was a defender of the Church, and protected the Pope. He reformed the economy of Western Europe by introducing new standards for coinage and seeing to it that they were strictly maintained. His reign was a decisive turning point in the Early Middle Ages.

The reign of Charlemagne can be considered a turning point in medieval history, both politically and culturally, after which conditions improved greatly in many ways.

Charlemagne is considered by many people as an ideal monarch, and the greatest monarch of the Middle Ages, possibly the greatest in European history.

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Charlemagne

What was Charlemagne's most significant accomplishment?

Charlemagne's greatest accomplishment was the creation of the largest empire in Europe since the Roman Empire. This created the basis for the modern nations of Germany and France and united the majority of continental Europe creating the basis for the European Union and spreading the results of Charlemagne's Carolingian Renaissances.

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Charlemagne

What did Charlemagne do for the serfs and the rights of serfs?

Life on a manor is the medieval version of a relationship which occurs, between landlord and peasant, in any society where a leisured class depends directly on agriculture carried out by others. Such landlords may be patricians living in their Roman villas (seen by many historians as the original version of the European manor) or feudal knights ensconced in castles and fortified manor houses (a development dating from Carolingian times).

Records suggest that the work of between fifteen and thirty peasant families is required to support one knight's family (and correspondingly more for a baron holding court in a castle). The relationship between the knight and his peasants is the manorial system.

The knight has force on his side. Even in normal circumstances he may be able to terrify his peasants into subjection. In unruly times - characteristic of much of the Middle Ages - his armour becomes even more significant. The peasants need his protection from marauding enemies. They are less likely than usual to assert themselves.

On the other hand a cooperative labour force is more productive than a resentful one, so the lord of the manor may be inclined to use his natural advantages with moderation. And occasionally, when labour is in short supply - as after the Black Death in the 14th century - the peasants themselves acquire a measure of economic strength.

The resulting balance of power varies greatly in different places and times. There is an important distinction between free peasants (theoretically able to leave a manor at will, though economically often unable to do so) and serfs. Serfs are the descendants either of slaves who have been given a measure of freedom, or of free peasants who have accepted legal restrictions in return for the lord's protection.

Serfs are slaves only in the one crucial sense of being tied to their lord's land. That distinction comes to seem a quibble where serfdom continues into modern times (as in Russia in the 19th century), outlasting the abolition of true slavery.

The system of labour and of rent which develops on a medieval manor is also immensely variable. It is further complicated by the fact that part of any manor (the demesne) is farmed by the lord on his own account, using peasant labour, and part is cultivated by the peasants for their subsistence - paying the lord some form of rent, whether in natural produce, days and weeks of their own labour, or money.

Gradually, as in any long-established social system, the lords devise more and more dues to supplement their revenue. These may be direct taxes (such as 'heriot', the lord's right to the best beast every time the head of a peasant family dies) or fees for the functions of the manorial court.

The manorial court: 9th - 15th century AD

The court is the judicial basis of the manorial system. In the decentralized and unruly regions of medieval Europe, some measure of control is achieved by giving lords legal powers over the peasants on their manors.

A large estate will consist of many manors, acquired not only by feudal grant but also by marriage, purchase and even outright seizure. The lord or his representatives move from one manor to another, holding court and consuming the produce gathered since their last visit. The court dispenses justice for crimes committed on the manor, hears civil disputes between tenants, and collects rents, fines and fees.

Fees are claimed by the lord of the manor on a wide range of events in the life of the community. They may be required for the issue of a legal document, for the buying and selling of property and even - most notoriously - for permission to marry.

These rights over the community last long after the economic basis of the manor has crumbled. They are the final residue of feudalism, and the most resented. Beaumarchais' radical comedy The Marriage of Figaro (staged just four years before the French Revolution) hinges on the question of whether the count will give permission for the wedding - or will attempt to revive a less authentic seigneurial right to the bride's virginity.

This supposed right, known as the jus primae noctis(right of the first night) or droit du seigneur (right of the lord), gives an intriguing glimpse of the nature of the manorial system at the time when feudalism is declining into decay and corruption.

There is no evidence that any lord ever claimed this outrageous prerogative, but there are several cases of people in the late Middle Ages paying money to avoid the exercise of the jus primae noctis. It is an unusually imaginative example of the feudal system of rights and privileges, with their inherent potential for abuse.

Farming the manor: 9th - 18th century AD

The Frankish empire under Charlemagne is the source of feudalism and the manorial system. It also introduces a related revolution in agriculture.

Rotation of crops to conserve the soil has been a standard part of agricultural practice since the Neolithic Revolution. The classic method is the simple two-field system. Of every two fields, one is planted each year (in Europe with wheat, barley or oats). The other is allowed to lie fallow, grazed by the cattle and fertilized by their manure.

The Franks introduce a major improvement, extending the rotation to three fields. One field is now planted in the autumn with winter wheat or rye. One field is planted in the spring with oats, barley or vegetables such as peas and beans. The third field is left fallow.

The new arrangement requires summer rain for the crop planted in the spring, so it is suitable only in the cooler regions of Europe. It seems to have been introduced, perhaps in the late 8th century, between the Loire and the Rhine.

The advantages are considerable. The most obvious is an increase of one third in the crop (previously 50% of the land was producing each year, now the figure is 66%). The work of preparing and harvesting the fields is more efficiently spread out through the year. The ripening of crops in two seasons rather than one reduces the risk of famine from freak weather.

And there is a benefit, in terms of health and variety, in the addition of vegetables to a previously all-grain diet.

Strip-farming and enclosure: 9th - 20th century AD

The fields of a medieval manor are open spaces divided, almost imperceptibly, into long narrow strips. Only the fields being grazed by cattle are fenced. The others are open and are identifiable as separate fields only by the crops which they bear. The unusual detail is that the single crop in each field is separately farmed - in individual strips - by peasant families of the local village.

Some of the strips may also belong to the local lord, farmed for him by the peasants under their feudal obligations. But more often the lord's land is in a self-contained demesne around the manor.

Strip-farming is central to the life of a medieval rural community. It involves an intrinsic element of fairness, for each peasant's strips are widely spread over the entire manor; every family will have the benefit of good land in some areas, while accepting a poor yield elsewhere.

The strips also enforce an element of practical village democracy. The system only works if everyone sows the same crop on their strip of each open field. What to sow and when to harvest it are communal decisions. The field cannot be fenced, or the cattle let into it, until each peasant has reaped his own harvest.

Ploughing too is a communal affair. The heavy wheeled plough needed for northern soils is expensive, as are horses to pull it. So a team of horses and plough works successive strips of an open field for different peasants. The long narrow shape of the strips reflects the difficulty of turning the team at each end.

In addition to the open fields, each village or manor has common land where peasants have a right to graze cattle, collect wood, cut turf and perhaps catch fish.

From about the 13th century there are pressures on this agricultural system for two different reasons. One is the wish to rationalize the use of the land by changing each peasant's rights from scattered strips to a unified plot surrounding a family cottage. There is considerable resistance to this, because it eliminates the old safeguard by which good and poor land was evenly shared out.

The other motive is the greed of lords of the manor, who regularly attempt to enclose the common land and incorporate it in their own demesne.

Enclosure of common land causes particular unrest, not only for the loss of an ancient right but because the poorest peasants (those who lack a share in the open-field system) rely on these pastures and woods for subsistence.

The issue becomes a crisis at different times in different parts of Europe, in some places even in the 20th century. But the trend is everywhere the same - transforming the open fields of the Middle Ages into the fenced, hedged or walled fields of the individual farms which are characteristic of today's landscape.

Landlord, tenant and labourer: from the 13th century AD

The gradual move towards enclosure brings with it a change in the employment system in European agriculture. The feudal relationship of lord and peasant (with payments to the lord made in the form of labour, sometimes commuted for money) gives way to a system of landlord, tenant and labourer which is entirely based on money. The tenant pays money to the landlord for the use of his land; the landlord pays money to the labourer for his work.

In broad terms the free peasants, who have owned a share of the land in the open-field system, become the tenants. The serfs become the labourers.

The new system probably begins during the prosperous 13th century. With the growth in national and international trade, the subsistence farming of the feudal manor is unable to meet the demands of the market. England is one of the first regions to make the change, owing to its prosperous trade with Flanders in wool (by its nature sheep-farming is ill-suited to the open-field system). In the 14th century a different pressure continues the process; shortage of labour after the Black Death leads to an increased use of wages to pay for work done in the fields.

The change gradually introduces the system of land tenure and labour which has prevailed in most of Europe ever since.

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Charlemagne

During the middle ages who was Charlemagne?

Charlemagne (Latin for Charles the Great) was king of much of Europe from 768 until 814. He was one of the greatest of the medieval kings. He conquered much of Western Europe, and created an empire that include nearly all of present day France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland, and large parts of Austria and Italy. This was the largest country in Western Europe in the whole of the Middle Ages. He was crowned Emperor of the West, on Christmas day, 800 AD.

He was a man who wanted to improve his kingdom, and to that end instituted a number of notable changes. One of great importance was seeing to it that the members of the nobility were educated. He had good relations with the Church and protected the pope.

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Ancient History
Roman Empire
Charlemagne

What is a Roman Emperor?

A brief definition of a Roman Emperor can be taken from the link below.

"The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (from about 27 BC onwards). The Romans had no single term for the office: Latin titles such as imperator (from which English Emperor derives), Augustus, Caesar and princeps were all associated with it. In practice, the Emperor was supreme ruler of Rome and supreme commander of the Roman legions."

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Charlemagne

What did Charlemagne contribute in our history?

AnswerHe is credited with halting the Arab advance into Europe. Were it not for that, Europe would have been made of Muslim countries as well as Christian ones. Portugal and Spain may never have existed, meaning the exploration of the New World may not have started for centuries after it did. I guess you could say he contributed everything. AnswerCharlemagne was the greatest mover behind the Carolingian Renaissance, which was very important in shaping the subsequent history of Europe, because it changed the standards of education built schools, and codified the laws. He protected the pope when he was in peril. He built a great empire that was the forerunner of both France and the Holy Roman Empire. Of all of the monarchs of the Middle Ages, he may have been the one who most influenced modern society.
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Charlemagne

What did Charlemagne accomplish?

Charlemagne extended the borders of the Kingdom of the Franks to the east and south, gaining great tracts of territory. So doing, he turned the Kingdom of the Franks into a great empire, which became ancestral to both France and the Holy Roman Empire. He also promoted literacy and education, was a defender of the Church, and protected the Pope. He reformed the economy of Western Europe by introducing new standards for coinage and seeing to it that they were strictly maintained. His reign was a decisive turning point in the Early Middle Ages.

Charlemagne's work long outlasted his life and continues to have effects in modern Europe. The Carolingian Renaissance included a real advance in the arts and education that continued through the Middle Ages. Some of the schools Charlemagne founded are still teaching students. His time was regarded in later times as a cultural high point that served as a model. It is hard to imagine that it had not effect on Alfred the Great and his policies, some of which seem almost copies of Charlemagne's work. Certainly, the continuation of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire, which became modern France and Germany, owe to his efforts.

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Charlemagne

What steps can taken to improve leadership?

This is actually an easy question, the answer is Listen to your people and make a decision based on the group answer. Most the times this works. If you are by yourself, than ask yourself what do you think would benefit your customer. Take yourself out of your shoes.

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Charlemagne

How was Charlemagne important to restoring order in Rome?

Charlemagne was important in many ways, restoring order to western Europe, and many of these were reflected in Rome, as they were in the rest of the area. He reformed the currency, creating stable coinage that was used through much of the West. He united various kingdoms into a new empire, which we call the Carolingian. He was responsible for unifying the Latin language, which had already diverged into several dialects; the unified Latin was used by the Church and in courts and schools for centuries. He founded schools and raised standards of literacy. All these things had their effects on social order.

In Rome specifically, when the Roman nobility took offense at Pope Leo III because the pope was of very humble origin, Charlemagne sent troops into the city and the surrounding territory, to protect the pope and Church officers, and settled a very disturbing situation. It was shortly after this that Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans.

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Charlemagne

What are the accomplishments of Charlemagne?

Charlemagne was the driving force behind the "Carolingian Renaissance". He was a man who was born before his time.

He believed in universal education for all rich or poor, male or female. He helped established village schools for children and poor adults if they wished. He had a tutor for not only his sons, but his daughters, his wives and concubines and his female servants.

He joined together a biggest empire ever seen in that time period. It was included territory not in the Rome Empire than had proceeded it. He controlled almost all of modern Western Europe and part of Spain.

He established a common currency which was one silver penny known as a denarius which served as the currency for the entire empire. So solid was the empire's economy that other countries in Asia and Africa used it as the basis for their own currency much like what the US dollar used to be used for.

He ordered the monks of the church to copy all the known Greek and Roman texts from the "Golden Age" of Antiquity. Without those texts being copied they would have never survived to this day. In addition without those copies they would not have survived and being used as the basis for the 16th century or Italian Renaissance.

He made Latin the common language of the empire but also allowed monks to copy religious texts using the 'vernacular' or common Frankish (that would be modern German) language. This was highly unusual and would not be seen again until the time of Martin Luther and the Reformation.

He concerned himself with corruption in the church and brought back the use of the Rule of Benedict for all monks. This was a very strict guide to how a monk's life and everyday work should be completed. He stopped church officials from profiting from their positions.

He acted as a patron to artists, sculptors, architects,writers and scholars. He gathered around himself at his court in Aachen a large circle of the best scholars of his empire. His accomplishments were many and varied as you can see.

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History, Politics & Society
History of Europe
Charlemagne

Who was crowned first holy Roman Emperor by the pope in 800 AD?

Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800.

But Charlemagne was not crowned as Holy Roman Emperor. Instead he was crowned as Emperor of the Romans. There was much controversy about this because at that time there was a country in the East called the Roman Empire , and the implication was that the pope was making Charlemagne its emperor.

Today, historians call the medieval Roman Empire the Byzantine Empire, a term that was not used during the Middle Ages, to avoid confusing it with the ancient Roman Empire, though the Byzantine Empire was legally a continuation of the Roman Empire.

Charlemagne's empire, which the Franks called the Roman Empire briefly, is now called the Carolingian Empire.

The Carolingian Empire broke up; it was retained, as a legal entity, though it did not function for several decades. Historians now regard Otto I as the first Holy Roman Emperor, though no one seems to have called the empire by that name until the middle of the 12th century.

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Charlemagne

Was Charlemagne educated?

It is recorded that Charlemagne could not write, read.

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History of Europe
History of France
History of Germany
Charlemagne

Who were the missi dominici?

I believe they were sort of special field agents of the Feudal French Army. The name isderived from the latin and means (messengers of the lord) Lord here meaning a noble personage and not God. They were sort of between diplomats and spies in a moremodernusage I hope this proves useful- sort of a medieval CIA!

Answer.

A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "Envoy of the Lord [ruler]', also known as Sendgraf in German, Zendgraaf in Dutch, both meaning 'sent Graf', was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or emperor to supervise the administration, mainly justice, in a part of his dominions, not unlike the original Roman Corrector but on a regular basis, so rather preventively.

Charlemagne made them a regular part of his administration, and a capitulary issued about 802 gives a detailed account of their duties. They were to execute justice, to enforce respect for the royal rights, to control the administration of the counts (then still royal officials), to receive the oath of allegiance, and to supervise the conduct and work of the clergy. They were to call together the officials of the district and explain to them their duties, and to remind the people of their civil and religious obligations. In short they were the direct representatives of the German king or Holy Roman Emperor. The inhabitants of the district they administered had to provide for their subsistence, and at times they led the host to battle.

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Charlemagne

Who was Charlemagne's father?

Pepin was Charlemagne's father
Pepin the Short

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Charlemagne

What was Charlemagne interested in in the roman empire?

I don't really like char so i think the only thing he was interested in was the power and money he had and kept getting.

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Charlemagne

Did Charlemagne invent school?

Yes, but reminder the only reason was because he was the emperor around the 800s

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Charlemagne

What happened to Charlemagne's empire after the death of his son?

the empire was divided among Charlemagne's grandsons

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Charlemagne

Who played the guitar solo on Kid Charlemagne?

I think it was Denny Dias... I'm pretty sure it was Larry Carlton.

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Cat Health
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Charlemagne

What steps can be taken to improve the health of an older cat?

VITAMIN E, at least 400 IU's a day. Next-garlic, if the cat will take it; mix a tiny bit of minced garlic in its wet food. Also, any type of fish liver oil, which they'll usually eat anyway.

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Charlemagne

What did Charlemagne do to improve the learning of his people?

Charlemagne brought scholars to his court and insisted the various members of the royalty and nobility learned to read and write. All his sons and daughters were educated. He also founded schools, at least one or two of which are still operating today. His policy was aimed at having all free people literate.

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Adolf Hitler
Charlemagne

Did Hitler bring Charlemagne's crown to Germany?

no

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Charlemagne

Where is the crown and scepter of Charlemagne?

The Vatican.

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