Confederate States of America

Also known as the Confederacy, the Confederate States of America existed from 1861 to 1865 and consisted of 11 Southern states which seceded from the United States.

5,716 Questions
History, Politics & Society
US Civil War
Confederate States of America

What advantages did the South and North have in the US Civil War?

The South had two major disadvantages in the US Civil War. One was that their troop strength could never match that of the Union's , The North had over 23 million people compared to 11 million in the South. Also, the North's manufacturing capability could not be matched by the cropland economy of the South. These Confederate disadvantages were the advantages of the North.

Coins and Paper Money
Confederate States of America

How much is a 1864 50 dollar confederate currency worth?

Below is a price guide based on condition

Good (Heavily Circulated. Possible tears, stains, holes. WORST CONDITION)= $45-55

Very Good- Fine (A well circulated note. Showing much folding and wrinkling. Minor stains but no major defects) = $55-$80

Very Fine-Extremely Fine (Some Circulation. Minor creases and folds. Somewhat clean and Chrisp)- $80-$120

Almost Uncirculated- (The note displays no evidence of being passed through general circulation. Could have ONE very minor fold in the corner or a slight mark. More than one impairment and it is not considered AU) = $120-$160

Uncirculated- Perfect- This is the highest grade. A note that has not been handled or passed through general circulation. Displays no folds, marks or pinholes. Generally this is the largest gap in value because uncirculated through perfect notes are always more difficult to obtain) = $160- $350 (Notes Grade as GEM or PERFECT are very rare and would bring considerably more)

Any apparent Confederate paper money should be checked by an expert to make sure it's not a copy. Until the Hobby Protection Act required the word COPY to appear on reproductions, enormous numbers of replicas were printed. Many were sold as souvenirs; in the 1920s one firm gave away high-quality photocopies as promotional items.

History of the United States
South Carolina
Confederate States of America

What was the first state to secede from the union?

South CarolinaThe only state that declared their secession in 1860 was South Carolina on 20 December 1860. Six other states declared secession between then and Lincoln's inauguration on 4 March 1861. When the Civil War began at Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861 four additional states opted to secede.

South Carolina, was the first state to secede from the Union, on December 20, 1860.

followed by:

Mississippi on January 9, 1861

Florida on January 10, 1861

Alabama on January 11, 1861

Georgia on January 19, 1861

Louisiana on January 26, 1861

Texas on February 1, 1861

(Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as President on March 4, 1861)

(Hostilities began at Fort Sumter, S.C., on April 12, 1861)

Virginia on April 17, 1861

Arkansas on May 6,1861

North Carolina on May 20, 1861

Tennessee on June 11, 1861

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

Is Tennessee a Confederate or Union state?

Tennessee was Confederate state. However the people of the state were divided and many joined the Union army. Its capital, Nashville, fell early to the Union advance but many big and important battles were fought in the state.

Many of the Union supporters in Tennessee were located in the eastern part of the state.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

What outcome did Davis and Lee expect from a Confederate invasion of the North?

The first time (September 1862), they were hoping to boost Confederate credibility in order to win military aid from the British, with the French likely to follow suit.

The second time (June-July 1863), it was simply to go on the offensive and win the war in the East.

Additionally, although France and England were already aiding the South, a plan of intervention to stop the war, if initiated by these powers would help gain Confederate independence.

Georgia (US State)
Amusement Parks
Confederate States of America

Whose faces are carved in Stone Mountain in Georgia?

The figures carved into Stone Mountain are the Confederate heroes, Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

What was the Union's capital during the Civil War?

Washington DC

Coins and Paper Money
US Banknotes
Confederate States of America

What is the value of an 1861 20 dollar bill?

It's very unlikely that the bill is real. The only Federal $20 bills with that date were Demand Notes and they are considered to be extremely rare. There are oceans of replica $20 Confederate bills on the market; some are very difficult to distinguish from the real thing.

If you don't see the word COPY or REPLICA worked into the design anywhere you should have the bill authenticated by a currency expert but be prepared to find out it isn't genuine.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

How many states did the Confederacy control during Civil War?


The 11 states which were full-fledged members of the Confederacy were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.

The famous "Stars and Bars" flag of the CSA had 13 stars, because both Missouri and Kentucky had "governments in exile" in Richmond. Some Confederate flags even feature 15 stars, for all Southern states, including Maryland and Delaware. The Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) and the Arizona Territory were also held by Confederate forces at various points in the war.

US Civil War
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis

Who was the President of the Confederate States?

Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 - December 6, 1889) was the only president of the Confederate States of America. He was appointed provisional president on February 9, 1861, and elected to the presidency on November 6, 1861. He did not serve out his full 6-year term because the government was disbanded on May 5, 1865.

Before the Civil War, Davis served in the Mississippi Legislature, the US House and US Senate. He fought in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) as a colonel of a volunteer regiment. From 1853 to 1857, he was the US Secretary of War in the cabinet of President Franklin Pierce. The party he was from was the Democratic Party, which generally supported slavery at that time.
Jefferson Davis - a retired soldier who appeared to be a good figurehead of the Confederacy, embodying all the feudal virtues of the benevolent slave-owner.

In fact, he failed on all counts - a bad chooser and user of Generals, a poor Cabinet leader, and a reluctant public speaker when rousing appearances in public were most needed.
Jefferson Davis - not a success, and no match for Lincoln.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

Where was the first capital of the Confederate States of America located in Alabama?

The first Capitol was in Montgomery,Alabama. When Virginia seceded the Capitol was moved to Richmond by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and remained there through the rest of the war.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

Why did Britain and France decide not to support the Confederacy during the war?

Both Britain and France were already indirectly supporting the Confederate cause by freely supplying arms, materials and even ship building.... as they both were also selling same to the Union to the first and highest bidders. Many of the European countries found this to be a profitable enterprise making money off our regional conflict.

The overhead issue was more so of official political recognition of the Confederate States as an independent sovereign nation, which it claimed to be. The US Federal government lobbied aggressively against this because they referred to the Confederacy as an internal rebellion or insurrection of states within the Union and refused to recognize the Confederate government as an independent entity of any sorts. Europe, then, would be supporting an insurrection inside of another country or that of another sovereign nation.

Several European countries including these two pondered that question. Most were just sitting idle awaiting the outcome or some assurance that the Confederacy would become a nation. One of the primary reasons for the Confederate offensive actions in 1862 and 1863 that if successful would show they could.

The Federal government also placed a great deal of political pressure on these European governments not to do so.. The Trent Affair was about as close as it could get to gain Britain's attention when the US seized and held a British flagged ship in its blockade of the southern ports. Britain didn't like that too much and even went as far as sending Canadian and British troops to the Northern US border... The US now possibly causing a war with Britain and being invaded via Canada, released the British vessel. Otherwise most of Europe decided not to formally decline to assist the Confederacy, they just sat quietly idle to wait it out; in no hurry to give consent to a formal political recognition of the Confederacy.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

Could the South have won the US Civil War?

The following is a far reaching and nuanced discussion of particulars, that includes economic, political and military considerations. Numerous theories have been advanced on this subject for just shy of 150 years, often focused on the centrality of either the impossibility of Southern victory due to the industrial disparities of the belligerents (the view of the "Lost Cause" movement of pro-Confederates) or the possibility of Southern victory had Southern generals (Lee in particular) been able to competently respond to the revolutionary (and controversial) adoption of "Total War" by the North during the latter succesful stages of the War instead of continuing to rely on obsolete Napoleanic tactics (the post WW1 British analysis).

The argument as such, is here explored, but not resolved.

The South could have won the civil war in many ways and at various points, even late into the war. There were several major reasons the South did NOT win the war, which included:

1.) Insufficient supplies (gear, weapons, food, horses, etc.)

2.) Insufficient troop numbers (not so bad in the beginning, but desertion and lack of fresh manpower meant the South could not replace losses and every battle won or lost, brought them closer to the end)

3.) Politics and bad General Officers (General Braxton Bragg probably the best example. Jefferson Davis is ultimately to blame here)

Nevertheless, the South could have won. Here are some of the many ways:

A.) Following up early victories (like Shiloh) and breaking the will of the north early on while the South was fresh, relatively well supplied and had high morale. The South had a limited amount of time before the above factors would wear her down.

B.) Lee had a golden opportunity at Gettysburg and threw it all away. The death of Stonewall Jackson was the single biggest blow. Even so, had southern commanders been more aggressive on Day's 1 and 2, the tactical positions would not have gone to the Union and Lee would have pushed them right off the field. Still... Picketts charge was a foolish decision and completely unnecessary. Lee should have simply picked up and move around the union troops and either picked another field or marched on Washington itself. Lee might have ended the war with such a seige without having to take Washington. As it was, those in D.C. acted like the rebs were outside the gates and were in a panic. Even if the only thing Lee did was march through the north, he would have been using Northern supplies and making the northern armies follow him around, while instilling dread throughout the north. Had he followed Sherman's "Total War" principle in the north, Lee would be as infamous as hitler, but the South would be its own country.

C.) As General Longstreet later put it, "We should have freed the slaves first and then fired on Fort Sumpter". If the South had freed the slaves at any point prior to Lincolns emancipation, the south would have had an infinitely better shot at European assistance.

D.) A few more early victories. The south was making a serious bid for English and French assistance and they darn near had it. Both were looking for just a little bit more proof that the south had a real chance and French and English support would have ended the naval blockade as well as the supply shortage. They just wanted to be sure they were backing the eventual winner. The loss at Gettysburg and ultimately, the emancipation ended this as a real possibility.

E.) Stopping Sherman before he reached Atlanta. Despite fighting a losing war, the south was wearing down the will of northern civilians. The south had far more victories than they were expected to have, the casualty tolls were far higher and Lee continued to outmanuever the Northern commanders until late in the war. After years of fighting, Lincoln was himself sure of defeat absent a miracle. Had Jefferson Davis and a few southern generals gotten their act together and fought with this goal in mind, they may have pushed Sherman back to almost pre-war borders. With Lincoln's defeat to a candidate running on a platform of ending the war, a ceasefire and peace agreement would likely happen in early 1865. Any effective break in hostilities would mean a win for the South and possibly a new chance of European support if the war continued.

Yes. Although the South was so much weaker than the North that they never could have waged an offensive campaign that ended the North's ability to make war, they could have done well enough on the battlefield as to convince Northern voters that winning was not worth the price in blood and treasure and thus Lincoln could have been defeated in 1864 and replaced with somebody committed to making peace on the basis of Southern independence. It is my opinion that the South's best opportunity to achieve this was at the battle of Shiloh, in April of 1862. At Shiloh the Confederates came very near to defeating, and forcing the surrender of, a union army under the command of U.S. Grant, with William Sherman under him. If that had happened, then the victories won by Grant and Sherman in the west in 1862 and 1863 would not have happened. It would have taken time for the North to put a new army into place. It would have been commanded by less talented officers than Grant and Sherman. It's first mission would have been to drive the Confederates back because they probably would have followed up that victory with an offensive into Ohio. Thus, with the North on the defensive in the West in 1862, not regaining the offensive until late that year or sometime in 1863, and Grant not in command, there is no way at all that Vicksburg could be captured in 1863. If Vicksburg does not fall in July of 1863, then the Union offensive from the west into the heart of the Confederacy can not occur in 1864. Even as Sherman was advancing in the Summer of 1864 many voices in the North were proclaiming the war lost and it looked as though Lincoln would lose the election. It was only Sherman's capture of Atlanta in early September that secured Lincoln's political fortune. If the South had won at Shiloh, there is absolutely no way that Atlanta could have fallen in 1864, the North would have been lucky to take Vicksburg that year without Grant. Study his Vicksburg campaign of 1863, it is sheer genius and nobody else had any idea how to take the city. So, although there are other scenarios, the South's best chance was at Shiloh.

The strategy was tried and failed with both Southern invasions being blunted at Antietam and Gettysburg. The Civil War was NOT a war that favored the attacker. Unlike George Washington, who realized that it was futile to fight the English on their terms, and that his sole objective was to keep his Army intact, the Confederacy failed to realize this concept and permitted the Army of Northern Virginia to be pinned up around Richmond and Petersburg. All the South needed to do was to keep on fighting until the North got tired of fighting.

Possibly, if certain Southern mistakes had been avoided. Lee's invasion of the North in 1863 leading to defeat at Gettysburg may have been a mistake, though if his subordinates had performed better on the second day, it might have been a Southern victory, which would've been hard for the North to swallow. But Lee's invasion of the North in 1862, leading to defeat at Antietam, was almost certainly a mistake, as the Southern troops were not in shape to fight or do damage in the North, and they were facing a scared Northern general (McClellan) who wouldn't have invaded them again. As bloody as Antietam was, the North could afford to lose the troops more than the South. If the South did not fight there, the Emancipation Proclamation wouldn't have happened when it did, and the Northern War effort would have looked more hopeless. Another factor is the Army of Tennessee. Another contributor here said that Shiloh was the key; if the South could've won that, they could've prevented Sherman's taking of Atlanta, and thereby prevented Lincoln's election. Maybe, but if the Army of Tennessee had performed better after Shiloh, Atlanta might not have been taken either. The main commander of the Army of the Tennessee in late 1862 and 1863, Bragg, was someone who alienated his staff, and divided his army. He got lucky at Chickamauga, but didn't exploit it fully. And there is no way he should have lost Chattanooga; Thomas's charge at Missionary ridge was far more suicidal than Pickett's charge at Gettysburg (if Pickett's charge was suicidal) yet it succeeded. The explanation for this has to be Bragg. And Jeff Davis knew that he was a problem, but did not remove him until it was too late.

You can't, however, forget the reason that Lee went on the Northern campaign in the first place, and that was to obtain shoes. On of the sole (no pun intended) resons that Lee decided to make a run into the North and chose Gettysburg was because there was a shoe factory in the vicinity that could provide his army with a much needed resource. Supply lines were cut and the only place to get these resources was in the North, and that greatly affected Lee's decision.

Yes. If the South had had more soldiers and supplies, they probably could have won the war. Anybody has a chance of winning a war. Am I ever glad they didn't win, though!

Of course, anyone has a remote chance of winning a conflict or an encounter. However, the actual war, strategies, and maneuvers aside, there are other factors to consider, some of which may have been mentioned before.

Others have mentioned that this war was not one that favored the aggressor. At the time, all the South actually had to do was to repel the North enough and with enough casualties (in terms of men and money) to hold their own, shoes or no shoes. If the North finally decided not to pursue occupying the South militarily, the South would have succeeded in their objective to leave the Union.

Timing is an issue in the Civil War as well. The Industrial Revolution had just really gotten underway in Europe and America in the 1850's. Before then, it is likely that had the Civil War broken out, the South may have been outnumbered but it would not have been handily outstripped supply-wise by the North. Man for man, early in the war, the South showed that through their knowledge of the terrain and the fact that they were fighting on "home turf" the southern soldiers were more competent than their northern counterparts. Had the secessions and the war effort begun earlier in the 1850s it is likely that the South would have had a better chance of success than it did when the war actually started.

But even if the war had begun earlier, it is possible that the North could have held on until its industrial might began pulling its own weight and then really begin pounding the South militarily. It is difficult to gauge if the people of the North would have been willing to fight a war for nearly a decade if only to keep the United States united (mind you, if the war had begun sooner Abraham Lincoln, a firm believer in the "united" part of United States and a strong exerciser of federal power, may not have been in office), even if eventual victory was guaranteed.

One must also not forget that the basic premise of the South's secession from the Union was that individual states could be sovereign entities, that states had rights that extended to dissolution of the union between them and the federal government. While the conclusion of the Civil War and the history of the United States thereafter thoroughly buried that idea, it must be considered in the context of the times. Because each state in the Confederacy operated on this basic premise, each Confederate state therefore also believed (and this was shown to be the case during the war), in much like today's libertarian spirit, that it had rights that superceded the Confederacy's dominance of (what amounted to in their minds as) an alliance between states. In fact, Texas was known to have held back from sending troops to the east, where most of the major battles between North and South were fought, and the Confederate government (much like the new American government under the Articles of Confederation which preceded the Constitution) had difficulty maintaining internal order and cooperation among the Confederate states (i.e. in raising armies and taxing the people). So even if the war had begun sooner, the basic ideas upon which the Confederacy was based (slavery only became a major issue in the actual war after the Emancipation Proclamation, which, in a rather brilliant political move, added a moral component to the war and permanently placed the South on the side of the "wrongdoer" that required chastisement, which ultimately came in excess in the form of the Reconstruction) also served to weaken it in times of war.

And while it may seem that everyone in the South desired a separate and new nation under rules of state confederation, one must keep in mind the fact that while many men from border states (Kentucky and Virginia, for example) joined the southern cause, just as many (if not more) joined the northern cause of a United States of America (in fact, that was a major reason why West Virginia became its own state, separated from the rest of Virginia). Not to mention that a large proportion of the South's actual population was tied up in slavery (only near the end of the war did the South actually consider using its resident slave population as miliary fodder), some of which actually defected to the Union and fought against the South (and the vast majority of which, if not neutral to the Confederate cause, certainly did not favor it). It must be remembered that not everyone in the South was for the the sovereignty of the South free of the Union. And while the opposite might be true for some in the North, the South needed numbers, and every Southerner who did not believe in a separate Confederacy was a Southerner who would not defend it, and one less Southerner who would fight the Union armies.

And lest one slight the actual war actions, while it is generally accepted that the Southern commanders were among the best in their field (and in the field), the Northern commanders, while at first new to the fight, eventually began improving (as did the men in their armies), and began to compare favorably against their Southern counterparts. With all the materials, men, logistical support (while the South actually did have supplies even into the end of the war, its transport and communications systems needed to distribute these supplies effectively was systematically destroyed by ingenious Northern commanders) and other numbers at their disposal, these Northern commanders and their armies, once up to snuff, would have been difficult, if not impossible, to defeat, as was shown at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Sharpsburg (MD), and Perryville (KY), all of which occurred even before the Union armies reached true maturity and their real potential.

After operation Anaconda was completed trade in and out of the south had dropped down to 10% at that point the Union could have down a defenisive war but Lincoln fearing that the next person in line would notice what the war was doing and stop wanted to annilate the CSA and after Getteysburg seeing that he had a good postition took charge making the march to the sea(bringing trade down to 5%) and other just general victories wanted to maintain his advantage but cutting off the CSA from everything and thus achvieing a win because it made Lee go North to Appotomax where the Union army at this point outnumbered the CSA 3 to 1 so nowing that life wasnt a factor Grant would break stalemates without worry and letting him win by dogging Lee every he went.

The union soldiers never were the equal of their southern counterparts. General Sherman said so after the war, saying he could conquer the world with Northern artillery and Southern infantry. The real truth is, the south lost the war because of the sheer weight of numbers. At Sharpsburg, the Union had a three to one advantage, yet Lee fought McClellen to a draw, boldly holding his lines, awaiting an attack which never came. He then withdrew the next day. He had signal victories at Fredricksburg, and Chancellorsville, again greatly outnumbered.

The South could have easily won the war. Lee had way more experience. I was just that the didn't have enough supplies. If they had more and had it come down to a single battle between Lee and Grant, Lee would have won. Also if the South had not fired upon Fort Sumter and instead built up there navy and food supplies the war would have gone to the South. And another thing for all you people out there that think General Robert E. Lee was a bad man and owned slaves, you are wrong. He owned 0 slaves and he was a respectable man. The only reason he didn't fight for the North was because he had true loality to his state. I don't think anyone today has anywhere close to that amount of loality. If you do I would like to meet you. Lee was Lincoln's first choice for the North. Had he fought for the North the war would not have lasted very long. I hope this has cleared up anything for you people out there.

Get Educated.

A.) Following up early victories (like Shiloh) and breaking the will of the north early on while the South was fresh, relatively well supplied and had high morale. The South had a limited amount of time before the above factors would wear her down.

The South had several opportunities to win the war. One of the best was in the fall of 1862, when Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia north into Maryland. The Confederates were fresh off of two decisive victories over Union armies in Virginia that summer. Their numbers were diminished and their supplies were low, but they were facing Union forces under George McClellan, a timid and inept battlefield commander. Lee figured correctly that McClellan would not attack him, so he divided his forces and sent Stonewall Jackson to capture the Union arsenal at Harper's Ferry. Jackson took the arsenal and 12,000 Union prisoners, but meanwhile McClellan had a stroke of rare fortune. One of his cavalry scouts found a copy of Lee's orders, which revealed that the Rebel forces were divided. Emboldened by this knowledge, McClellan attacked Lee at Antietam Creek, before Lee could fully reunite his army. The Confederates barely escaped from that battle with their army intact. If McClellan had been a better commander, they would have been destroyed.

If McClellan had not found the orders, it is very unlikely he would have attacked Lee. Although he outnumbered Lee nearly 2-1, he was convinced the opposite was true. His leadership in Virginia and at Antietam had been marked by extreme caution, and he led several chances for victory slip away because he saw threats where none existed. Had he not found the orders, McClellan would have waited while Lee reconcentrated his forces in the vicinity of Hagerstown, MD. Lee would then have marched north toward Harrisburg or York, PA. McClellan would have followed cautiously, and would finally have been drawn into battle to prevent the Confederates from isolating Washington and possible capturing Baltimore or Philadelphia. Lee would have fought this battle on ground of his own choosing, and it almost certainly would have been another CSA victory. The Union army would still exist, but it would be bloodied and utterly demoralized. Lee would not be strong enough to take Washington, but he could lay siege to it and keep his army in Maryland until the Congressional elections that fall. Lincoln's Republicans would have been turned out of office in droves, and a Congress dominated by peace Democrats would have forced Lincoln to accept the mediation offers that the British and French would have surely proposed. The South would have won its independence.

I have also always wondered what would have happened if southerners had voted in the presidential election of 1863. McClellan ran on the platform of ending the war, and he gained more popular votes than Lincoln, but the electoral college went with Lincoln. The North still considered southern states part of the Union and could not have denied them the vote without also recognizing the legitimacy of secession. It would have violated their principles of southerners to consider themselves part of the Union and vote, but as a strategic move, it might have been brilliant. Once Lincoln is out and McClellan is in, then they continue fighting (the North considered them part of the Union at that point, and they could have continued fighting while recognizing the Union's perspective) until they negotiated a peace with McClellan. And the Confederacy

would have gained legitimacy and won.

The best opportunity for the Confederacy to win the Civil War was in July 1862 on the sixth day of the Seven Days Battles. During this engagement which was fought near Glendale, Virginia, Lee had an excellent opportunity to completely encircle and destroy the retreating Union Army of the Potomac. At this point McClellan had already withdrawn from the battlefield ahead of his army without naming a second-in-command or providing his corps commanders with specific routes of withdrawal. This meant that each of the army's five corps were essentially operating independently while their retreat was bottlenecked due to inadequate roadwork.

Had Lee's battle plan been executed more efficiently, the Confederate's would have prevented the Army of the Potomac's escape and likely destroyed it altogether. More specifically, Stonewall Jackson was uncharacteristically hesitant as his divisions failed to attack the Union rear guard in support of the main offensive, which enabled the Union to prevent their line from being split in two.

It is very likely that the destruction of the Army of the Potomac would have encouraged Great Britain and France to intercede of behalf of the Confederacy. The summer of 1862 was the closest that the European powers came to officially recognizing the CSA, as their economies were feeling the burden of the cotton shortage. In fact, Lee's subsequent invasion of Maryland in September was partly motivated by the British government's desire to see the Confederate army follow up the Peninsula Campaign with a major victory.

If in the aftermath of a devastating loss at Glendale, the governments of Britain and France had offered to broker a peace agreement with the condition that the CSA remain independent; it is likely that Lincoln would have reluctantly agreed. The implied threat of British and French intervention would have been impossible for the Union to ignore.

The first answer above hits on some very important points, but I'd like to emphasize them a bit more and expand on that, as these are the keys to a Southern victory. If you look at what modern historians are writing about the subject, the unanimous answer is that the South could not have won a military victory, even if the outcome of several of the existing battles had changed significantly. One must remember that for the better part of the Civil War, particularly in the Eastern Theater, the South won a substantial majority of battles (that is, for the years 1861-1863, the South's win-loss record is roughly 2:1 vs that of the Union).

Geography was against the South - it was simply never going to be able to make that "knock-out" blow that would win it a military victory; Washington DC was too heavily defended for even a siege to be successful, and logistical lines were too long for the Southern armies to attack any of the significant Union cities - even Philadelphia was out of reach, let alone make it to New York or Cleveland or Chicago (Boston being completely out of the question). It never had the industrial base to produce sufficient war material to supply its existing armies (depending heavily on captured Union supplies), and didn't have the manpower to feed the meatgrinder tactics that made the ultimate Union general (Grant) so successful. No matter the outcome on the battlefield, the South wasn't ever going to be either outlast or destroy the Union from a military standpoint.

The South did have two possibilities in winning, one that it didn't effectively capitalize on, and one that it couldn't possibly take. The best way for a Southern win was to attack the Union public's morale - that is, get the Union public to give up, and force the government to negotiate with the rebels. Most of the South's leadership vaguely understood this concept, but failed to really push for the next logical step: use the Southern armies to attack the Northern public morale, not the Union armies. What the South needed to do was an equivalent of Sherman's March to the Sea - it needed to do a scorched-earth campaign through central PA and OH. The point would not have been to destroy actual material things (though that would have to happen), but to shock the Union public to its core, and force an outcry for a settlement. That is, the South had to make it appear to the North that a Northern victory would be so hideously expensive that they would decline to pay the cost for victory. No historical documents have indicated that there was a serious and concentrated effort to affect this policy; half-hearted attempts were occasionally made along these lines, but no one in the South seems to have grasped that this strategy was the South's only real hope of winning.

The South's second best avenue to victory was the one it was institutionally incapable of making: freeing its slave population. This move would at once both remove a major Union diplomatic advantage, and give the South a huge extra pool of manpower to draw on. A slavery-free South would have been so much more capable of getting European support (which was effectively required to get desperately needed war material), and remove a major Union psychological advantage - after all, if the Union was no longer fighting to free the slaves, a huge section of its population were much more lukewarm (or completely indifferent) to the concept of "maintaining the Union", and Union morale would have plummeted (probably leading to the aforementioned diplomatic negotiation, which is a Southern win). But, abolishing slavery effectively destroys Southern culture. They were trapped in a dilemma. To paraphrase a Vietnam-era aphorism: They had to destroy the South to save the South.

To add to the free-for-all, there is only one way that the South could have won. It could have adopted a Fabian Policy, similar to that which Washington adopted in the early yars of the Revolutuion. The point is not to win, but to prevent the enemy from achieving a decisive victory. If instead of fighting set battles, they had conducted widespread guerilla campaigns, picking off stray units, harrassing the enemy, encouaging the Union to overstretch its supply lines and then severing those supply lines and defeating the Federal forces in detail, after they were cut off from supplies and reinforcements, seeking pitched battles only when the odds favored Confederate victory. Unfortunately, such a policy demands steady supplies of materiel, and the mobility to strike when required and disburse to prevent destruction and capture. Could the Confederates keep up such a strategy, the North may have grown tired of the war and been willing to vote Lincoln out and sue for peace. It worked for Washington, early on until he received support from France, and it worked for Ho Chi Minh. Minh dragged he war beyond America's tolerance, and we pulled out.

I would take an opposing view. Jefferson Davis thought that preventing the North from occupying the South would force them to accept the seccession of the Southern States.

Had he used the intial advantage the South had in quality of troops and pressed home an immediate attack on Washington he could have forced the North to submit. Containment wasn't the answer because time would always be on the side of the North in terms of military power.

Had Gettysberg been a decisive Southern victory, there may have been a swelling of the anti-war movement in the North but then if Napoleon had won at Waterloo he may have have remained Emporor of France for the rest of his life.

US Civil War
History of the United States
Confederate States of America

Which major river split the confederacy in two parts?


US Civil War
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis

What are facts about Jefferson Davis?

Jefferson Davis was the President of The Confederate States of America;

Jefferson Davis married the Great- Great Granddaughter of George Washington, who was also Zachary Taylor's daughter;

Additional facts are:

1. Jefferson Davis graduated from West Point and served in the US army.

2. He served in the Mexican War;

3. He was a senator from Mississippi before the Civil War;

4. He was the Secretary of War for the US;

5. He was a wealthy slave owner in Mississippi.

US Civil War
South Carolina
Confederate States of America

Where did the battle of Fort Sumter take place?

Fort Sumter is on an island in Charleston Harbor (Charleston, South Carolina), where the US Civil War is said to have begun.
When the South Carolina legislature voted to secede from the US, the US Army refused to turn over the fort. As Union reinforcements sailed for the fort, Confederate forces bombarded it on April 12, 1861. It was surrendered the next day - the only casualties suffered were during a cannon salute to their flag by the departing Union troops. But the seizure of the fort resulted in subsequent military actions by the North against the "rebellious states" of the South.

History of the United States
US Civil War Generals
Confederate States of America

When did John Hunt Morgan die?

John Hunt Morgan died on September 4, 1864 at the age of 39. (He was a general in the confederate army.)

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

What would the South be like today if they had won the US Civil War?

If the Confederacy had won their independence from the US, today it would strongly resemble a miniature USA. The main reason for that is that the South was populated by intelligent Americans.

Due to the pressures of needing a free market economy to thrive, they would have taken the advice of Adam Smith and invested their funds not in slavery but instead in the industrial revolution.

With that said, slavery would have been abolished. Remember, "the South today" is the question. If Brazil managed to abolish slavery in 1878, the CSA would have done that much earlier inasmuch as capitalism is not a working system with slave labor.

No doubt, many freed slaves would wish to immigrate to the USA. There they would be minority citizens much in the same way they are today in the USA. In the USA they would have to fight for their civil rights and in the CSA the remaining freed slaves would also have had to fight for their civil rights.

As the US has Puerto Rico, the CSA would have Cuba. No doubt about that.

In time the CSA and the USA would be trading partners as the USA and Canada are today.

In world wars, the CSA and the USA would be allies with Western nations.

As for economics, the CSA would be a mirror of the USA only on a smaller scale.

As far as high technology, the South would have an edge over the world in submarines. Their defense system along with the USA and Canada would be dependent on each other.

Their edge in oil production would have saved them billions, as Texas would have been their Saudi Arabia.

History, Politics & Society
History of the United States
Politics and Government
Confederate States of America

What were the first seven states to secede the Union?

1. South Carolina

2. Mississippi

3. Florida

4. Alabama

5. Georgia

6. Louisiana

7. Texas

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

What states joined the Confederate States of America?

The Confederacy consisted of 11 states that formally seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. Seven states had seceded by February 1861:

* South Carolina (December 20, 1860)

* Mississippi (January 9, 1861)

* Florida (January 10, 1861)

* Alabama (January 11, 1861)

* Georgia (January 19, 1861)

* Louisiana (January 26, 1861)

* Texas (February 1, 1861)

After Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to enforce federal laws, and to serve for only 90 days after four more states seceded:

* Virginia (April 17, 1861) * there was also a rump Union government of Virginia

* Arkansas (May 6, 1861)

* North Carolina (May 20, 1861)

* Tennessee (June 8, 1861)

The state of Virginia changed its status from neutral to a Confederate state, and Richmond became the capital of the Confederacy.

The first capital was Montgomery, Alabama


Kentucky and Missouri had rival governments. The Confederacy claimed them but the Federal Government never regarded them as seceded.


The CSA also claimed control over the following states and territories without official secession (border states often had separate Union and Confederate governments) :

Arizona (Confederate territory)


Indian territories (Oklahoma)


New Mexico (territory)

The 11 Confederate states of America are Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

What were the 11 states that joined the Confederacy?

In order by date, it was:

South Carolina










North Carolina

US Civil War
Confederate States of America

What was the capital of the Confederacy?

Montgomery, AL was the first capital of the Confederate States of America (February to May 1861).

Richmond, VA was chosen as the new capital, partly as a means of convincing the state of Virginia to join the CSA. It served as the capital from May 29, 1861 to April 2, 1865, when it was captured by Union forces.

Danville, VA was the unofficial capital from April 3 to April 10, 1865, as Confederate leaders fled from Richmond. After Robert E. Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, no effective government existed.

US Civil War
History of the United States
Central America
Confederate States of America

What is the capital city of the east central states was also a capital of the confederate states of America?

The Capitol of the Confederate States of America was Richmond,Virginia(after a brief period when it was Montgomery,Alabama). Richmond is the State Capitol of Virginia.

Confederate States of America

What is the value of a confederate 500 dollar bill?

The vast majority of "Confederate" bills are actually replicas made for sale in gift shops at Civil War sites, or for inclusion in souvenir sets.

Starting during the 1970s all replica bills were required by law to have the word COPY on them, but millions were printed before that time. Most were printed on artificially aged paper using photoreproductions of genuine bills so they can be hard to tell from the real thing unless you look closely at the signatures - the ink is flat and on the surface of a replica, while it is a slightly different color and more deeply impressed on a genuine note.

The Related Link has a list of serial and plate numbers found on the more common copies; you can compare those to the numbers on your bill. If they don't match you should seek out a dealer or appraiser who specializes in Confederate currency and have the bill examined in person.

US Civil War
History of the United States
Confederate States of America

What was northern territory during the US Civil War?

the union(yankees) were the northern territory. answered by eragon56 the northern territory was the union, they were the group trying to acheive emancipation. at this point they were not truly the united states, but a division of. due the temporary loss of the south Answer During the Mexican War, the question arose about accepting California as a new state. Would it be a slave state or a free state? Who would decide? The Southern states felt that if the US Congress decided, then they would lose their political control. This caused much discussion and debate that lead to a break down of relations that resulted in the Civil War.


Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.