Jerusalem

The capital of Israel, Jerusalem is situated in the Judean Mountains between the northern edge of the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is a holy city to the three major religions –Christianity, Islam and Judaism. The city has a population of 780,200 as of 2009.

Asked in Jerusalem, Israel, Palestinian Territories

What country is Jerusalem in?

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Jerusalem is located in Israel, which is in the Middle East. The State of Palestine claims East Jerusalem, which includes a number of modern Arab neighborhoods and the Old City. There is much discussion concerning Jerusalem's proper legal nature and ownership: Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israel annexed East Jerusalem and considers it a part of Israel, although the international community has rejected the annexation as illegal and considers East Jerusalem occupied territory. The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital and most foreign embassies are located in Tel Aviv and its suburbs. Palestinians want East Jerusalem to be the capital of a future Palestinian state. Israel, however, considers the entire city to be a part of Israel following its annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980. In Israel.
Asked in Judaism, Jerusalem

What is the sacred city of judaism?

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The holy land for Judaism is Israel, and the holy city is Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the center of Judaism. It is important to Jews because it was the site of the Akeidah (Binding of Isaac, in Genesis ch.22) and was later the seat of the Davidic Kings, when King David, Israel's greatest king, founded the dynasty that ruled Judah for much of its history, making Jerusalem the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel during his reign and that of his son, King Solomon. (See: Jewish history timeline) Most importantly, it was the location of the First and Second Temples, where offerings were made to God and where His presence dwelt in the Holy of Holies (1 Kings ch.8) and was manifested in a number of miracles (Mishna, Avot ch.5). Jerusalem is called the holy city by the prophets (Isaiah 52:1). It was where Jews would go three times a year to celebrate the holiest festivals (Deuteronomy ch.16). Even after the destruction of the Temple, the Temple Mount and adjacent Western ("Wailing") Wall, which still stands, is the holiest site in Judaism. It is hoped and prophesied (Ezekiel ch.40-44) that one day a third temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem and that the Messiah will come to it. Jerusalem has become representative of the connection with the Divine. Jerusalem is also seen as the source of Divine Law, as demonstrated in many Jewish prayers: "Ki miTziyon tetze Torah udvar Hashem miYerushalayim - From Zion comes the Torah and the Word of God from Jerusalem" (Isaiah 2:3). Jerusalem is also representative of the Redemption of the Jewish people from their physical and spiritual exile, because this exile causes the melancholy that the Jewish people experience by being apart from God's presence. The Redemption, which Jews believe will be brought by the Messiah, will result in the Jewish people returning to Jerusalem. According to ancient Hebrew tradition, Jerusalem is the site where God took the very earth from which Adam, the first man, was formed (midrash Rabbah 14:8). Read Genesis carefully; Adam was not created in the garden of Eden; he was taken there. Jerusalem, because it is the first place on Earth where the spirit of God dwelt, is considered a direct link to God. Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion and Jerusalem has been its only holy site for over 3000 years. King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by invading Babylonians, and rebuilt at the same site (known as the Temple Mount) about 2500 years ago. It was then destroyed again when the Romans conquered Judea about 2000 years ago, killing a million Jews. All Jews who value their heritage feel ties to Jerusalem and the holy land, where so many of their people struggled for the freedom to practice Judaism. At the same time, Jews believe that all people should be welcome there, regardless of faith. Jerusalem is the eternal Jewish city, and a symbol of a future time of peace. Jerusalem is also the focal point of prayer of the Jews. When they pray, wherever they are, they face towards Jerusalem (Talmud, Berakhot 30a), with love and longing. The sentiment is aptly expressed in Psalm 137: "By the waters of Babylon, there we sat and wept as we remembered Zion....If I forget you, Jerusalem, let my right hand forget its wisdom." For thousands of years we remembered our exile and prayed for its end. Now at least we can do so from "up close." See also: Destruction and Diaspora
Asked in Judaism, Jerusalem

What is the holy city for Jews?

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Jerusalem. (And within Jerusalem, the holiest site for Jews is the Western Wall in the Old City.) Jerusalem is the center of Judaism. It is important to Jews because it was chosen by God (Zechariah 3:2). It was the site of the Akeidah (Binding of Isaac, in Genesis ch.22) and was later the seat of the Davidic Kings, when King David, Israel's greatest king, founded the dynasty that ruled Judah for much of its history, making Jerusalem the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel during his reign and that of his son, King Solomon. Most importantly, it was the location of the First and Second Temples, where offerings were made to God and where His presence dwelt in the Holy of Holies (1 Kings ch.8).
Asked in Jerusalem, Airports, Tel Aviv, Calgary

What is the closest 4 Star Hotel to Ben Gurion Airport?

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the best choice and the closest new hotel next to ben gurion airport is called sadot hotel: I think the quickest to get to would be the Sheraton City Tower in Ramat Gan probably about a 20 minute cab ride in the best case. It may not be as physically close as the David Intercontinental on the beach in Tel Aviv, but much faster to get in and out of as it is right off the highway. During rush hour, you can actually walk to the train station, and from there it is 12 minutes by train right to the terminal.
Asked in Islam, Jerusalem, Israel, Palestinian Territories

Who owns the Dome of the Rock?

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Israel conquered it in 1967, but handed it over to the Waqf, or Muslim trust, for administration. The Dome of the Rock was built by the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik and completed in 691 AD. The Dome is mainly perceived in the Islamic world as the commemoration of the night journey of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH (al-Isra') from Makkah (or Mecca) to Al-Qods (or Jerusalem) and his ascension to the Heavens (al-mi`raj).
Asked in Islam, Jerusalem, Palestinian Territories

What religion is the Dome of Rock associated with?

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The Dome of the Rock Shrine is specifically associated with Islam and recalls Muhammad's ascension to heaven. The structure has no connection to either Judaism and Christianity. Those two religions actually revere the ground upon which the Shrine stands because it was the location of the Jewish Great Temples in Ancient Israel.
Asked in Jerusalem, Israel, Palestinian Territories

What country is Jerusalem the capital of?

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Jerusalem is the de jure capital of Israel according to Israeli Law and general functioning. According to international groups, only West Jerusalem is the official capital, but given the politics concerning the recognition of a unified Jerusalem. Palestine has also declared East Jerusalem to be the de jure capital of Palestine, but as Palestne does not control any part of Jerusalem, Ramallah and Gaza City serve as de facto capitals of Palestine.
Asked in Islam, Jerusalem

Is the Dome of the Rock radioactive?

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I doubt it, except for normal background radiation for a stone structure.
Asked in Meteorology and Weather, Jerusalem

What is the weather like in Israel in November?

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Weather in Israel in November In November the weather in Israel can alternate daily. It is still before the rainy cold months, but after the unbearable hot summer. It also depends where in Israel you are; the north will be colder, especially at night. It's the type of time where you don't need a heavy coat but some sort of outer layer is needed. Israel has perfect weather in April!!
Asked in Ancient History, Jerusalem, New Testament, Jesus Christ

How old was Joseph when Jesus was born?

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This is totally unknown. There is no historical record of Joseph, Mary, nor Jesus -- no birth certificates, no census records, no birth record, no marriage records, nothing. The only written record of any of these characters is the Christian bible, and the records in there were not contemporary -- they were all written anyplace from 60 to 200 years AFTER the supposed birth of Christ, making their authenticity suspect and of no historical value. With no records, it is impossible to say how old Joseph was.Some say he was 50 through 70. Mary gave birth to Jesus at the age of 12 to 16. In the bible it says he is very old. [Better Answer] Of course you cannot take the technology of today and plan it 2000 years ago - and say - if they did not have our technolody of today - then they knew nothing!! Kinda foolish - don't you think? Exact ages are not known and probably never will be. But generally - although it is never mentioned in the Bible, Joseph was 50 to 55 years old when Jesus was born and PROBABLY died when Jesus was about 12 - 14 years old. We know he was at Jesus birth and we know he was no longer alive at the Temple when Jesus spoke - as Mary is said to be all alone. [Update] "they were all written anyplace from 60 to 200 years AFTER the supposed birth of Christ, making their authenticity suspect and of no historical value" - is absolutely incorrect. The written records, as accepted by the science of textual criticism allow for the historicity of the Greek records concerning Jesus. There is historical event regarding events before our common era, where the records date to the time of the event. At all. None. The earliest copies we have of Caesars Gallic wars (composed between 58 and 50 BC) there are only several extant manuscripts, and the earliest in 900 years after the events of Caesar. Of Tacitus "Histories" (Of about 100 A.D.) - only four manuscripts have survived, they being approximately 900 years after 100 A.D. The History of Thucydides (460 to 400 BC) - only eight manuscripts have survived, and they are about 1,300 years later. In terms of historical records, considering there are thousands of manuscripts that have survived to the present day, from 40 years to 150 years after the originals were written, no scholar of note or with an understanding of the science of Textual Criticism denies the historical record of Jesus. As to the original question - there are no records that indicate Joseph age.
Asked in Jerusalem, Vaccinations

Are vaccinations needed to travel to Jerusalem?

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The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends for travel to Israel that you make sure you are up to date on the standard vaccinations, and also recommends vaccination for Hepatitis A & B. See the related link for more information.
Asked in Jerusalem, Road Distance

What is the distance between Nazareth and Jerusalem?

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That's about 65 miles (103 kilometers). There are approximately 63.43 miles Nazareth and Jerusalem. The estimated driving time is 1 hour and 37 minutes, depending on traffic.
Asked in Judaism, Jerusalem, Western Wall (Wailing Wall)

Why is Jerusalem sacred?

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The holy land for Judaism is Israel, and the holy city is Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the center of Judaism. It is important to Jews because it was the site of the Akeidah (Binding of Isaac, in Genesis ch.22) and was later the seat of the Davidic Kings, when King David, Israel's greatest king, founded the dynasty that ruled Judah for much of its history, making Jerusalem the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel during his reign and that of his son, King Solomon. (See: Jewish history timeline) Most importantly, it was the location of the First and Second Temples, where offerings were made to God and where His presence dwelt in the Holy of Holies (1 Kings ch.8) and was manifested in a number of miracles (Mishna, Avot ch.5). Jerusalem is called the holy city by the prophets (Isaiah 52:1). It was where Jews would go three times a year to celebrate the holiest festivals (Deuteronomy ch.16). Even after the destruction of the Temple, the Temple Mount and adjacent Western ("Wailing") Wall, which still stands, is the holiest site in Judaism. It is hoped and prophesied (Ezekiel ch.40-44) that one day a third temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem and that the Messiah will come to it. Jerusalem has become representative of the connection with the Divine. Jerusalem is also seen as the source of Divine Law, as demonstrated in many Jewish prayers: "Ki miTziyon tetze Torah udvar Hashem miYerushalayim - From Zion comes the Torah and the Word of God from Jerusalem" (Isaiah 2:3). Jerusalem is also representative of the Redemption of the Jewish people from their physical and spiritual exile, because this exile causes the melancholy that the Jewish people experience by being apart from God's presence. The Redemption, which Jews believe will be brought by the Messiah, will result in the Jewish people returning to Jerusalem. According to ancient Hebrew tradition, Jerusalem is the site where God took the very earth from which Adam, the first man, was formed (midrash Rabbah 14:8). Read Genesis carefully; Adam was not created in the garden of Eden; he was taken there. Jerusalem, because it is the first place on Earth where the spirit of God dwelt, is considered a direct link to God. Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion and Jerusalem has been its only holy site for over 3000 years. King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by invading Babylonians, and rebuilt at the same site (known as the Temple Mount) about 2500 years ago. It was then destroyed again when the Romans conquered Judea about 2000 years ago, killing a million Jews. All Jews who value their heritage feel ties to Jerusalem and the holy land, where so many of their people struggled for the freedom to practice Judaism. At the same time, Jews believe that all people should be welcome there, regardless of faith. Jerusalem is the eternal Jewish city, and a symbol of a future time of peace. Jerusalem is also the focal point of prayer of the Jews. When they pray, wherever they are, they face towards Jerusalem (Talmud, Berakhot 30a), with love and longing. The sentiment is aptly expressed in Psalm 137: "By the waters of Babylon, there we sat and wept as we remembered Zion....If I forget you, Jerusalem, let my right hand forget its wisdom." For thousands of years we remembered our exile and prayed for its end. Now at least we can do so from "up close." See also: Destruction and Diaspora
Asked in Religion & Spirituality, Judaism, Jerusalem

The rules for clothing in Jerusalem?

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This reply is based on the assumption that you're talking about current-day Jerusalem. Israel is a very casual and relaxed country. As long as you're dressed appropriately when visiting sites and areas that require modesty, there should be no problems. However, if you're visiting the Western Wall, men are asked to wear a cap (any cap) or kippa; and these are available for free. Overall, there aren't a lot of specifics on what to wear when enjoying the towns.
Asked in Jerusalem, Sharks, Explorers and Expeditions, Western Australia

What did Dirk Hartog leave behind at Hartog bay A.K.A Shark bay and why?

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He left a pewter dish, now called the Hartog Plate, that he nailed to a tree. It was the oldest known European artifact in Australia (1616), and was returned to the Netherlands by a later expedition. The first landing by Dutch explorers had been by Willem Janszoon in 1606.
Asked in Chicago, Jerusalem, Time Zones, Driving Times

How many hours is it from Chicago to israel?

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15 hours from Newyork to Tel Aviv is 12 hours so from Chicago is some thing like 14-15 hours
Asked in Jerusalem, Israel

What continent is the dome of the rock on?

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The "Dome of the Rock" and the rest of the Al Aksa Mosque are located on the Temple Mount, in the 'old city' portion of Jerusalem, in Israel, on the continent of Asia.
Asked in Christianity, Islam, Jerusalem

Why was Jerusalem just as important to Muslims as it was to Christians?

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Answer 1 Jerusalem is important in the history of Muslims because when the Muslims reached the Jerusalem they ruled over there .The principle of Islam is not to make the restrictions for the believers of others to follow the Islam forcefully. Islam is the religion of peace .in Islam it is forbidden to destroy the holly places of other religions. islam allows the non believers to worship their own believes. and in the Jerusalem there came the ruler AL Hakeem who ruled against the Islamic laws .he ordered to destroys the holly places of christens .in his age the crusaders then enter the Jerusalem to defend their holly places. and try to conquer the Jerusalem. that's why Muslims have importance or the Jerusalem in their history. Answer 2 More to the point, it is impossible to weigh the particular value of any one holy site to its adherents as more important than another site in a different religion. The presence of Muslim and Christian holy sites in Jerusalem makes it equally holy for both.
Asked in Jerusalem, Countries, States, and Cities, New Testament

What country is Bethlehem in?

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It's located within the Palestinian Authority in Israel. The Palestinian Authority is in charge in Bethlehem, but pending final status, it's located in Israel. If you mean Bethlehem it is in Palestine city in central West Bank
Asked in Jerusalem, Letters Notes and Memos, Proper Addressing

What is the address of the Prouty Mansion in Spencer MA?

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Bit of a trick question in that there were two Prouty Mansions, one on Cherry Street which is still standing but a larger one that was build on 27 High Street in the late 1800's - it stood side by side with an identical mirror image mansion owned by another prominent Spencer family, the Hammonds. However the High Street Prouty Mansion burned down I believe in the early 1920s, leaving the Hammond mansion still standing at 25 High Street and which is often mistakenly believed to be the Prouty Masion. I know - I grew up there :)
Asked in Distances and Travel Times, Jerusalem, Israel, Red Sea

What is the distance between the red sea and Jerusalem?

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It depends on how you define the "Red Sea". In the common-use of the term, the Red Sea is also used for the Gulf of Aqaba, which is a smaller inlet to the Red Sea. If the Gulf of Aqaba is counted as part of the Red Sea, the distance is 155 miles or 249 kilometers. If the Red Sea is only the sea-proper, then the distance expands to 264 miles or 424 kilometers, at the Straits of Tiran.
Asked in Jerusalem, Languages and Cultures, Israel, English to Hebrew

What languages are spoken in Jerusalem Israel?

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Hebrew (among Jewish Israelis), Arabic (among Arab Israelis and Palestinians), Yiddish (in Hasidic Communities), and English (for tourists). Note that most Arabic-speakers also understand and use Hebrew in earning a livelihood among other Israelis. In Jerusalem, many languages can be heard. From most to least common, there are: Hebrew, Palestinian/Jordanian Arabic, English, Yiddish, Russian, French, foreign Arabic dialects, Spanish, etc. The residents of Jerusalem speak many languages. Some of them are: Hebrew, Arabic, English, Yiddish, French and Spanish. Being a center for new immigrants, you can probably find speakers of many other languages in Jerusalem. Hebrew is the primary language. Arabic is spoken by the large muslim minority, and English is the most common foreign language spoken in Jerusalem. mainly Hebrew, but there is a fair amount of Arabic spoken too
Asked in Islam, Jerusalem

Why is the Dome of the Rock important to Muslims?

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The Dome of the Rock, being among a complex of buildings on the Temple Mount (the other principal building being the Al-Aqsa Mosque), is one of the holiest sites in Islam, following Mecca and Medina. Its significance stems from the religious beliefs regarding the rock at its heart. According to Islamic tradition, the rock is the spot from where Muhammad ascended to Heaven accompanied by the angel Gabriel. It is reported that The last holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (May peace and blessings of Allah Karim be upon him) started his heavenly journey (Ma'raaj) from the Dome of the Rock. That is why it is important for the Muslims. Once that secret is known, a whole new understanding of early Islam in its relation to Christianity comes on the scene that greatly enhances our comprehension of the theological history of the period. It reveals religious attitudes that existed between early Muslims, Jews and Christians. There is a linguistic key that has great relevance in knowing why the Dome of the Rock was constructed and it provides the true meaning for its existence. Once this is realized, it will help divert Muslim attention away from their present attitude of reverent holiness toward the Dome and it will redirect their attention to the Al Aqsa Mosque located to the south, and it will further emphasize the importance of Mecca in the eyes of all Muslims. This new information will also aid Christians to know that the Dome of the Rock was actually built by Abd al-Malik in 692 A.D. as a rebuilt Christian Church that once stood in its place. The Rock that sanctified the shrine was first an important Christian holy place and NOT an early Jewish sacred spot (nor was it the site of the former Temples). The first inscription on the outside is meant for all Muslims and the inner inscription is written for Christians ALONE. Jews are not even considered in the context of the inner (or even the outer) inscription. The analysis of these two inscriptions shows that Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock t o satisfy Christian religious matters and it shows that the Dome of the Rock HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH JEWISH MATTERS WHATEVER! The historical evidence shows conclusively that no Jewish person was ever interested in any religious or national manner to the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock until the time of the First Crusade. The area was NEVER considered a sacred spot of Jews until the time of Benjamin of Tudela in the twelfth century (check other articles on the ASK Web Page on the Internet for proof of this). The site of the Dome of the Rock was ONLY of Christian significance BEFORE the time of Omar and Abd al-Malik. It only became important to Muslims in the eighth century to the eleventh, and only important to Jews in the twelfth century. In actual fact, Omar (the Second Caliph and the first Muslim leader to enter Jerusalem) and Abd al-Malik about 50 years later actually honored the real site of the Jewish Temple that were shown to them on the southeast ridge and over the Gihon Spring (that is the very thing that Omar came to Jerusalem to accomplish) but these early Muslim leaders did NOT show the same type of reverence to the Rock now under the Dome of the Rock. The Dome was built by Muslims to wean Christians from the site, NOT to make it a more sanctified spot in Islam nor did the building of the Dome of the Rock have anything to do with Jewish religious matters or aspirations. Indeed, the "rock" underneath the Dome of the Rock was specifically and significantly of Christian importance and that the Jews up to the time of the Crusades showed no interest whatever in this former Christian spot that Abd al-Malik rebuilt as a Christian type of building (with its characteristic Byzantine dome) in order to wean Christians (who comprised at least 90% of the population of Jerusalem in the seventh century) from New Testament teachings and to win them over to the doctrines then being taught by Islam in and through the Koran. Now for a question: What was happening at the time the Dome was built that inspired this display of theological symbolism in the erection of certain buildings in Jerusalem and also in Mecca? The answer has relevance in knowing prophecy for us today. One of the most volatile geopolitical hot spots on earth today revolves around the national or religious possession of this natural outcropping of an oblong rock located in the City of Jerusalem. That spot is the Rock that is presently situated under the building now known as the Dome of the Rock. The building itself is without doubt the most beautiful piece of architecture in the City of Jerusalem and it represents the centerpiece of religious importance in the Holy City for both Muslims and Jews. But strange as it may seem, history shows that Christians also have a stake in its symbolic relevance. Little do Christians know, but that "Rock" was at first considered by both Muslims and Jews (in the early days of Islam) as being a Christian holy place and NOT one that Muslims or Jews thought as having high religious value. That's right! The spot is actually of Christian importance. The real story behind the significance of the site of the Dome of the Rock will cause Muslims and Jews to reevaluate its meaning in relation to their own belief systems that they have erroneously accepted over the centuries since the beginning of Islam. The proper identity of the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock will truly be a revelation to all modern religious groups when they discover the truth of its biblical relevance. They will be amazed when they realize that the area was NOT the site of the former Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod. It was a "Rock" purely of Christian importance and it was formerly recognized by Christians until the seventh century (and even historically until the time of the Crusades) as a most prominent Christian site that was singled out in the Gospel of John as a "Rock" that dealt directly with the mission of Christ Jesus to this earth. The early Christians, Jews and Muslims knew this. The reason the Dome was built by Abd al-Malik in 692 A.D. was to direct Christians away from that "Rock" and to orient them toward the newly constructed Al Aqsa Mosque (which they reckoned to be the re-christened Muslim Temple of Solomon) that was located near the south wall of the Haram esh-Sharif. This in turn was intended to further lead Christians directly toward the City of Mecca where Allah (the Arabic for "God") now had symbolic residence. To understand why the Dome of the Rock was built by Abd al-Malik, we first have to understand how Muslims looked (and still look) upon the significance of their central shrine in Mecca that is shaped as a cube (as was the Holy of Holies in Solomon's Temple). That holy building of the Muslims contains the black meteorite stone that the ancient Arabs used to worship in their pagan days but which Muhammad placed in the southeast corner of his building called the Ka'aba toward which all Muslims must pray five times a day (and, if possible, visit on pilgrimage at least once). Wherever Muslims find themselves in the world, they must direct their prayers toward the Ka'aba in Mecca. When they go on their pilgrimage, they gather at the southeast angle of the cube-style sanctuary. Though the ground level design is a perfect square, the building is angled so that the corner where the meteorite stone is located is just south of east (at about 100 degrees in direction). The required circumambulation (walking or trotting around) the building begins opposite this stone with the people at first facing north toward the region of the heavens to which all biblical peoples believed God dwelt in His heavenly abode (Psalm 75:6). The Muslim ritual at the Ka'aba has profound astronomical (that is, astrological) significance and it is designed to mimic the motions of the inner and outer planets within our solar system. The Temple at Jerusalem had a similar astronomical basis but with an entirely different liturgical motif. There was in both sanctuaries deep symbolism involved and what was ritualistically accomplished was of religious value. What did Muslim pilgrims perform at the Ka'aba in Mecca? In the monumental work by Sir Richard Francis Burton in the last century (who was the first Christian or European to clandestinely enter the sacred area of Mecca and describe it in detail), we are informed of the liturgical factors that Muslims were expected to perform when they made their pilgrimage to Mecca. They were to assemble at the southeast corner of the Ka'aba and face northward. Each person's left shoulder was always to be toward the building housing the meteorite stone (idol) as they circle the structure in a counterclockwise fashion (this is the same manner the Jews entered the Temple and exited it). They are required to circle the building seven times (the first three with a slow pace "like walking in sand" and the last four with a faster pace). This represents the movements of the heavenly bodies. The three outer planets as viewed from the earth (Saturn, Jupiter and Mars) move slowly in the heavens relative to the fixed stars, while the inner celestial bodies (Sun, Mercury, Venus and Moon) appear to move faster. In early astrological view, the earth was believed to be the center of the universe with Saturn being the furthest planet away from earth, with Jupiter nearer and Mars nearer still. Then came the Sun, Mercury, Venus and the nearest of all was the Moon. Thus, the first circuit of the Ka'aba was in honor of Saturn, the second Jupiter and on through to the seventh, the Moon. The last circuit symbolically confirmed the pilgrims as being true Muslims and their astronomical symbol became the Moon (the Moon was singled out in the seventh circuit of the Ka'aba). At the end of the seventh circling (and after having recited certain prescribed prayers at various points in their seven circlings), the Muslim pilgrims found themselves back at the place they started opposite the black stone and again facing north to where God was actually thought to have His residence in heaven. There was much mimicking by early Muslims of the Temple rituals performed in Jerusalem by the Jews as demanded in the Scriptures and in Jewish tradition. Muhammad kept the same themes in his ritualistic interpretations. This is important to know in viewing the architectural design of the Dome of the Rock and the ritual focus intended by Abd al-Malik. The "Rock" at the Dome of the Rock Was of Christian Value, NOT Jewish or Muslim The "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock is the most conspicuous natural feature within the whole of the Haram esh-Sharif. For anyone to build a magnificent shrine over it shows that the "Rock" must have had great significance. And it did. The first Christian pilgrim that has left us a record of his journey to Jerusalem was the Bordeaux Pilgrim who in 333 A.D. mentioned that the most significant building east of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (then being built) was the Roman Praetorium where Pilate sentenced Jesus. This structure had its walls centered directly within the Tyropoeon Valley. This was NOT the site of the Temple in the eyes of the Bordeaux Pilgrim. He had already described the Temple site (and several other buildings around it) a few paragraphs before. But only later (after concluding his account of the Temple and its associated buildings) did the Bordeaux Pilgrim mention the imposing structure to the east of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre with its walls within the valley which he called the Praetorium where Pilate judged Jesus (see John Wilkinson's excellent translation of the Bordeaux Pilgrim in his book Egeria's Travels, p.158). Clearly, the Pilgrim was describing the Haram esh-Sharif as being the Praetorium. He was looking mainly toward the southwest angle of the Haram and northward toward the spot where the "Wailing Wall" of the Jews is presently located. The Pilgrim said this "walled area" contained the residence of Pilate. It was the Roman Praetorium that also went by the name of "Fort Antonia." In Roman usage, the Praetorium was the headquarters of a military unit and could refer to the whole camp or to the commander's tent. There was associated with the military fort a prominent "Rock" The apostle John was well aware of its significance in Christian history. Within this walled enclosure of the Praetorium was the "Rock" called in John's Gospel (John 19:13) "the Pavement-Stone" (in Greek, lithostrotos and in Hebrew Gabbatha). This particular "Rock" within the Praetorium area had a "Pavement" or flagstones around it. The "Rock" was associated with the Praetorium and was part of Fort Antonia, the permanent Roman Camp that was located in Jerusalem in the time of Pilate and Jesus. And what did Josephus say (he was the Jewish historian of the first century and an eyewitness to the early Praetorium of the Romans called Fort Antonia)? He stated that the central feature of Fort Antonia was a major rock. He said: "The tower of Antonia�was built upon [around] a rock fifty cubits high and on all sides precipitous�the rock was covered from its base upwards with smooth flagstones" (Jewish War, V.v,8 para.238). Before construction of the fortress, the "Rock" was 50 cubits high (75 feet), but Herod later built a platform around it (when it became the north/south center of the walled fortress) and this made it not as high and it became accessible for judicial purposes. That "Rock" around which Fort Antonia was built (and mentioned by Josephus) was the chief geographical feature of the site. It was near this "Rock" that Pilate had his residence at the time of Jesus' trial. Later Christians believed that some indentions in that "Rock" must have come from the footprints of Jesus as he stood before Pilate and God supposedly allowed his feet to sink into the "Rock." Though these indentions were not the actual footprints of Jesus (a great deal of Christian folklore became associated with the "Rock"), early Christians came to believe they were the literal outlines of Jesus' feet. It is easy to explain how this conclusion came to be associated with the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock. The so-called footprints came into vogue when later Christians noticed in the New Testament that a "Judgment Seat" was placed by Pilate on the "Rock" (called in Greek a bematos). That word comes from the root word bema that literally means footprint, or by common usage a footstool where a king or a ruler in judgment would place his feet when he sat on a throne in order to sentence people in any official judicial event. Indeed, even the throne of God was reckoned in the Bible as a spot where God placed His feet below the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple when He sat or stood to make His divine judgments (Psalms 99:5; 132:7; Lamentations 2:1). Each military governor of the Romans carried his official bema or bematos with him in order to make his judgments on behalf of the emperor, and Julius Caesar carried one with him everywhere he went in order to render official judgments (see "Praetorium," Hasting's Bible Dictionary). Later Christians simply confused the literal meaning of bema [footprint] and the indentions they saw in the natural outcropping of rock became "Jesus' footprints." Though this was error, the reckoning became an indelible identifying mark associated with the "Rock" where Pilate made his judgment against Jesus. This "Rock" (called "the Pavement" by the apostle John) was well known in the time of Constantine. The records show that Helena, the mother of Constantine, ordered that a small Christian Church with the name "St.Cyrus and St.John" be built over that "Rock" (see Life of Constantine in Wilkinson's Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades, p. 204). This small church was later enlarged probably in the fifth century to become a major church in Jerusalem called "The Church of the Holy Wisdom." This church is described very well (and accurately) in a sixth century work written by the Piacenza Pilgrim. He said (with words in brackets mine): "We also prayed at the Praetorium, where the Lord's case was heard: what is there now is the basilica of Saint Sophia [the Holy Wisdom Church], which is in front [north] of the Temple of Solomon [located] below the street [east and downslope] which runs down to the spring of Siloam outside of Solomon's porch [the eastern wall of Solomon's Temple]. In this basilica is the seat where Pilate sat to hear the Lord's case, and there is also the oblong stone [I emphasize this point about the "oblong stone" to help identify the spot] which used to be in the center of the Praetorium [the Praetorium tent was moveable]. The accused person whose case was being heard was made to mount this stone so that everyone could hear and see him. The Lord mounted it when he was heard by Pilate, and his footprints [italicized for emphasis] are still on it. He had a well-shaped foot, small and delicate." This Church of the Holy Wisdom (which the Pilgrim had just described) was built over "the oblong stone" which the people thought had the footprints of Jesus embedded in it. Just as Josephus stated that the "Rock" was the most prominent part of Fort Antonia [the Praetorium area], so this "oblong stone" was the central feature of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (that was destroyed by the Persians and Jewish soldiers in 614 A.D.). This is the same "Rock" that is now under the Dome of the Rock in the Haram esh-Sharif. The fact that later Christians thought the footprints of Jesus were embedded in this "Rock," is a key for identification. There are historical references both Christian and Muslim that attest that the "Rock" over which the Dome of the Rock now stands was the same "Rock or Stone" that had the footprints of Jesus inlayed as foot-like depressions sunk into the "Rock." Indeed, even as late as the period of the Crusades we read that the court recorder of Saladin (the Muslim who reconquered Jerusalem from the Crusaders in 1187 A.D.) made mention that Jesus' footprints had been embedded in the "Rock" underneath the Dome of the Rock (see article "Saladin" in Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam). There are several other Muslim references to these footprints of Jesus in the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock that I have present in a more extended context in my new book "The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot." In fact, in the book I will show in a future article that those footprints of Jesus were sawed away from the "Rock" and placed in a location within the Haram esh-Sharif about 200 yards north of the Dome of the Rock. This later fact is a most interesting and important aspect of the story. In short, there can be no doubt of the identification. The "Rock" of the Dome of the Rock (which is clearly oblong in shape) and the "oblong stone" within the Church of the Holy Wisdom were one and the same "Rock/Stone." Sophronius, the Archbishop of Jerusalem in the time of Omar when the Muslims first conquered Jerusalem, called the Church of the Holy Wisdom (when it was yet standing before its destruction in 614 A.D.) as "the House and the Stone" (Sophronius, Antacroeontica as translated by John Wilkinson in Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades, p.91). This fact shows that Sophronius saw great significance in the "Rock/ Stone." That "Rock" that later became the spot for the Dome of the Rock to Sophronius was the very stone called "the Pavement" mentioned in John 19:13 (rendered in Greek as the Lithostrotos, and in Hebrew Gabbatha). Why the Dome of the Rock Was Built by Abd al-Malik in 692 A.D. During the first hundred years of Muslim rule in Jerusalem (since more than 90% of the population was Christian) was one of conciliation and ecumenism between Muslims and Christians and between Muslims and Jews. This does not mean that the Muslims wanted to embrace some of the teachings of Christianity. The Muslims abhorred what they believed to be outright idolatry among Christians with their statues, pictures and pagan practices within the Christian community, but they still thought in this early period that they could wean Christians away from their religious beliefs unto the new Islam that God had now revealed to the world by Muhammad. This was the central reason why Abd al-Malik first devised and designed the building called the Dome of the Rock to be built over the Christian spot where once the Church of the Holy Wisdom had stood. His attempt was ecumenical in its spiritual intent, but still to show the superiority of Islam over what Abd al-Malik believed to be a decadent type of Christianity. The fact is, the Dome of the Rock was built exclusively to vie with (and to appeal to) Christians in Jerusalem to accept the new truth of Islam which was (in the Muslim view) a major advance in proper religious interpretation that the "Peoples of the Book" (the Christians and Jews) ought to have enough sense to accept. And though Jews were also accounted as being "People of the Book," the construction of the Dome of the Rock was NOT intended in any manner to influence Jews. After all, Jews would NOT have reckoned as important a "Rock" that was exclusively a Christian religious site because it was identified with "the Pavement" recorded in the Gospel of John (John 19:13). In a word, Abd al-Malik and the early Muslims felt they could effectively (in an intellectual and philosophical way) convince Christians that Islam was correct by constructing the Dome of the Rock and to include within it a message from Islam that would glorify Muslim theology. So, Abd al-Malik set out in 692 A.D. to woo the Christians to Islam. What he did was to rebuild in the exact spot and in the precise form "The Church of the Holy Wisdom" that had been destroyed by the Persians and Jews in 614 A.D. (and he desired it to have as much architectural grandeur as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre). He then built what looked like a grand Byzantine "Church" directly over the very "Rock" that Christians believed contained the footprints of Jesus. Abd al-Malik did not design the Dome of the Rock as a Muslim type of building. He wanted it to appear as a rebuilt Church of the Holy Wisdom (the reason for this I will explain in my new book on the Temples). The Muslim Caliph designed the building to be like a "Church," but one that contained the new and advanced teaching of Islam. Within this new (or renewed) "Church," Abd al-Malik placed two inscriptions in Arabic. One was to Muslims in general (the outer inscription), and the other was exclusively for Christians (the inner inscription next to the "Rock" itself). That inner inscription specifically mentions Jesus and the supposed errors of some Christian doctrines. Abd al-Malik was appealing exclusively to Christians by emphasizing this Christian holy spot through Muslim eyes, NOT to Jews who did not yet accept Jesus as the Messiah as did Muslims and Christians. And in attempting to wean the Christians from their former beliefs unto the new Islam, Abd al-Malik used every architectural artifice and symbolic nuance he knew in a brilliant maneuver to woo the Christians of Jerusalem to accept Islam in a non-offensive way. He did so with a deliberate and steadfast allegiance to Muhammad that made Islam the dominant religion for all mankind, including those who then accepted Christianity. One must carefully notice every architectural device used by Abd al-Malik to see what his intentions were and they must be minutely observed with utmost precision to the dotting of an "I" to the crossing of a "T." Every detail of the architecture that the Caliph designed was meant to systematically lead Christians (NOT Jews, in this case) to the advanced teachings of Islam as he believed them to be. And what a master he was in his endeavor! Though he built the Dome of the Rock as a facsimile of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (there was NOT the slightest intention on the part of Abd al-Malik to give heed to ANY JEWISH PERSON OR EDIFICE WHATEVER in the architectural design of the Dome of the Rock), he changed the entrance to the octagonal building from its original design with its entrance on the west. Abd al-Malik deliberately altered the entrance to Dome of the Rock to be from the south. This is most UN-Muslim! The ideal for those north of Mecca is (like the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem) to enter from the north and pray toward the qibla (the direction to Mecca) in the south. Not so the Dome of the Rock! Abd al-Malik designed it to be entered from the south with one's back to Mecca (at the start of the liturgical theme)! Why do we know this? Because the two inscriptions in Arabic (containing vital information from cardinal verses in the Koran and also a religious commentary by Abd al-Malik himself as the successor of Muhammad) are a direct appeal to Muslims in general (the outer inscription) and then to Christians exclusively (the inner inscription that is written closer to the "Rock"). A significant feature of the inner inscription is the fact that it can only be read with one's back to the "Rock." This was intended to give a negative emotional reaction to the reader of the inscription that the architecture was designed to evoke. The inner inscription was not designed to be read by Jews who did not believe in Jesus in the first place (like the Muslims and Christians). The writings on the cornice were to give definite and decisive positive and negative psychological impressions through liturgical and ritualistic themes that Abd al-Malik designed into the architecture. Again (and it is important to note) the Caliph did NOT address any Jews nor did he show the slightest interest in Jewish matters or religious beliefs when he designed the Dome of the Rock. He built the Dome of the Rock to appeal strictly to Christians, NOT Jews! [To read what the two inscriptions state in English, read the excellent translations with outstanding pictures and explanatory text in Professor Oleg Grabar's book titled The Shape of the Holy.] A Historical Review of What Happened Surrounding the Site of the "Rock." In 638 A.D., when Omar (the Second Caliph) went to Jerusalem, he asked Sophronius the archbishop to show him where King David had prayed before the building of the Temple. Omar said he wished to pray in the same spot. Sophronius showed him, first, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which Omar rejected. Then Sophronius took the Caliph to the traditional Zion on the southwest hill. Omar rejected that spot too. Then, when Omar stated that he wished to build a shrine at the place where David prayed, Sophronius then took him to the place over and near the Gihon Spring where the Jews had attempted to rebuild the Temple in the time of Constantine (as permitted in the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D. and with construction continuing to 325 A.D.) and also in the time of Julian the Apostate (362 A.D.). At that former Temple site over the Gihon Spring, Omar was impressed. He dug through the filth and found a stone that he removed and took it through the South Gate of the Haram esh-Sharif. There he placed it near the qibla [the site toward which Muslim pray as they bow toward Mecca] on the elevated platform directly abutting the southern wall. He called the place the Al Aqsa (and a Mosque was soon built there). But one of Omar's generals named Ka'ab (a recent convert from Judaism who had extensive Christian indoctrination) found the place of the "Rock" where the former Church of the Holy Wisdom once stood. He told Omar that it would be better to place the qibla NORTH of this "Rock" and NOT down at the southern end of the Haram. Omar rejected this suggestion of Ka'ab and chided the general for making such a suggestion. That would have given much prestige to that "Rock" in the north, and Omar steadfastly refused. He turned his back on that "Rock" where the Christian church once stood, and went back south to the qibla of the Al Aqsa area. The truth is, Omar (in his role as the Second Caliph and the divine successor of Muhammad in Muslim theology) totally rejected that northern "Rock." And later, Abd al-Malik wanted to show a further rejection by building the Dome over that northern "Rock" some fifty years afterwards. Let me explain how this rejection is designed into the Dome. The original entrance designed by Abd al-Malik was from the southern most octant of the octagonal design. Once a person entered the Dome, he was directed to read the start of the first inscription that was located at the top of the cornice on the far right side of the southern octant. Since Arabic (like Hebrew) is written from right to left, the first inscription contained no message for Christians and it was meant for Muslims in general. To read the whole inscription one must start with one's back to Mecca (this is important to note), but then circle around the whole of the Dome clockwise (just the opposite from what Muslims do in circling the Ka'aba at Mecca) until one comes to the exact spot where one commenced his reading (when one returns to this southern point the person can conveniently turn his back to the "Rock" and pray directly toward Mecca in the south). The design of the outer message is to circle the "Rock" in the wrong direction (which gives a negative impression to any early Muslim, Jew or Christian). But the complete encirclement requires one to return to the south once again and the person is forced to face Mecca when one leaves the Dome with one's back to the "Rock" as Omar insisted one must do (and Abd al-Malik designed this symbolic stance - with one's back to the "Rock" - into the liturgy associated with the architecture of the Dome of the Rock). The inner inscription is different. One must go further into the Dome to the other side of the same cornice and look upward at the same southern octant, but to its far-left side if one is facing the "Rock" (indeed, one must look at its far left side only when facing the "Rock" itself, but inside the inner area of the Dome one must look southerly and also upwards at the start of the inscription which will be seen on one's upper right side - this requires a person to have his back to the "Rock" and looking toward Mecca). To read the inner inscription one must crane the neck upward to see the start of the inscription that is circling and facing the "Rock." One then begins to read the inscription in Arabic devoted strictly to Christians (NOT to Jews) because the whole emphasis of the message is about the importance of Jesus in Muslim theology. One must read this inscription which completely encircles the Dome (like the outer one in the opposite direction), but one must do so in a counterclockwise manner as one does at Mecca (a positive sign) but this time with one's back to the "Rock" (another positive sign from a Muslim point of view, and a negative one as Christians would view it). Now note this important point. All the time a Christian is reading the teaching from Abd al-Malik in the inner inscription, he has to do so with his back deliberately turned away from the "Rock" and with his head craned upward in the most uncomfortable position that one can imagine. The whole anatomical awkwardness forced upon the human observer is a deliberate attempt to show disdain for the symbolic meaning that Christians had placed on the "Rock." The original symbolism for Christians was different. The Christian entered the Domed Church from the west and looked eastward toward the Mount of Olives. Once the circuit of the "Rock" was made, the Christian could again look through the "Rock" eastward toward Olivet in symbolic anticipation for the Second Advent (Christ is to come back from the east - as the sun in its circuit of the earth). However, Abd al-Malik designed the Dome of the Rock to be entered from the southern octant. But even if a Christian entered from the south (as designed by Abd al-Malik), though his circuit around the "Rock" would be all negative to Christianity because his or her back would always be away from the "Rock" (while reading the inner inscription), the Christian upon completing the circuit could simply refuse to face Mecca when his circuit ended in the south. He could then turn directly northward and pray through the "Rock" (which symbolized the rule of Christ in his or her life) and direct his ultimate attention to the north quarter of the sky where all people knew God the Father had His residence. If Abd al-Malik saw a Christian do this after the circuit deposited the person in the south, then Abd al-Malik knew that the person would never be a Muslim and the Christian would be accepted as a "Person of the Book" (the Holy Scriptures) but inferior to Muslims. Thus, the person would then pay the poll tax to the Muslims and carry on with his own beliefs. Still, when one completed the circuit by reading either the outer or the inner inscription in order to exit the Dome of the Rock as intended by Abd al-Malik, the person is forced to face directly toward Mecca. But there is one other thing. The person is also facing directly toward the Al Aqsa Mosque established by Omar the Second Caliph, and directly through the former site of the Holy of Holies of Solomon's Temple (because the Muslims knew then where Solomon's Temple was formerly located over the Gihon Spring). The prayer of the Muslim would transverse Solomon's Temple and focus onward to the Ka'aba in Mecca. Every device imaginable was used by Abd al-Malik in his building of the Dome of the Rock to direct people (both Muslims and Christians) AWAY FROM any significance of the "Rock" (just as Omar had demanded when he was first in Jerusalem). This is because it was well known in the seventh century that the "Rock" was actually a Christian holy spot. What is most important for us of modern times to realize is the fact that the site of the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock is purely and simply a Christian holy place (before the time of Omar and Abd al-Malik), and it did not become a Muslim holy site until many folklore traditions about the "Night Journey" of Muhammad began to be associated with the "Rock" from the eighth century on to the time of the Crusades. I explain in my book "The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot" how the many Muslim mythic accounts (which were outright fables and lies that even Muslim historians admit to be so) erroneously got attached to the "Rock" under the Dome of the Rock. As for the Jews, NO JEW showed any interest whatever in the "Rock" and the Dome of the Rock until the time of the First Crusade. This is a fact! For more information see further articles on this subject on our ASK Web Site. So, the Dome of the Rock was built over a prime Christian holy place (where the Church of the Holy Wisdom was once situated). Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock with the intended purpose of getting Christians to forget the "Rock" on which Jesus was judged at the time of Pilate. Abd al-Malik wanted Christians to abandon the Christian significance to the "Rock" by having them turn their "backs" on it and he wanted Christians to convert to Islam and then to focus on the Ka'aba stone where Muslims supposed Abraham erected at Mecca in Arabia for the true worship of God. My book "The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot" provides more details to this important historical fact.
Asked in Judaism, Jerusalem, New Testament

How is Jerusalem linked to Judaism?

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Jerusalem is the holiest city in Jewish history and tradition. It is the place where God rests, the place where Jews built/will build the Temple. See the Jewish Bible (the Torah) for hundreds of mentions of Jerusalem and its significance. Answer 2 Jerusalem is the center of Judaism. It is important to Jews because it was chosen by God (Zechariah 3:2). It was the site of the Akeidah (Binding of Isaac, in Genesis ch.22) and was later the seat of the Davidic Kings, when King David, Israel's greatest king, founded the dynasty that ruled Judah for much of its history, making Jerusalem the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel during his reign and that of his son, King Solomon. Most importantly, it was the location of the First and Second Temples, where offerings were made to God and where His presence dwelt in the Holy of Holies (1 Kings ch.8).