Mary I of Scotland

This category is for questions about Mary Queen of Scots, the cousin of Elizabeth I (not be confused with Queen Mary I of England, half sister). She reigned from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

Asked in Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

What decryption method was used to decode Mary Queen of Scots treasonous cipher?

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Mary used a substitution cipher, to decode Mary Queen of Scots cipher Frequency analysis was used. That means looking for letters (or symbols) that have the same number of appearances in the cypher text as common letters in the language the plain text message is thought to be in. E is very common in english, so are the other vowels, you make some educated guesses and start to fill in words which gets you the meaning of more symbols and so on. Treasonous is simply a matter of opinion. (She was quite possibly set up!)
Asked in History of Scotland, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

How long was Mary queen of Scots in prison in England for?

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Mary Queen of Scots was held in house arrest for the final 19 years of her life under the pretense of protection with the reality that many people(not necessarily her 'captor' Queen Elizabeth I of England) thought she was plotting to take the English Crown.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

Why did Mary queen of Scots run away from Scotland?

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when Mary left Scotland and went to France with her husband she came back and found that Scotland was a protestant country and did not want her as a queen anymore so she came to England to find help from her cousin Elizabeth.
Asked in Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

Who played Mary queen of Scots?

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Actress Katharine Hepburn played the role in the mid-thirties. the downbeat nature of the film- which did not essentially alter history- was a draw-back in the dire depression time it was made. A much more recent actress played the role Glenda Jackson, who also did Elizabeth I- versatile gal. The actresses Florence Eldridge and one other- can"t recall the name may have played the tragic Queen Mary in the interwar period- best job was by Katharine Hepburn and the critics liked it- but thought the tragic plot was badly timed- for l935.
Asked in History of England, History of Scotland, Mary I of Scotland

How was Mary Queen of Scots related to Elizabeth I?

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Elizabeth I of England was the daughter of Henry VIII, son of Henry VII. Mary I of Scotland was the grand-daughter of Queen Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII, who was married off to the King of Scotland. So, Elizabeth and Mary were second cousins. This was why Elizabeth was so worried about all the trouble Mary was causing in Scotland, because Mary had a valid claim to the English throne. Mary was also a passionate Catholic, as opposed to the moderately Protestant Elizabeth.
Asked in Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

Why was queen Elizabehtan afraid of Mary queen of Scots?

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Mary was more talented than Elizabeth and Mary had strong relationship with people powerful people in France and Spain also Mary was consider to be more prettier than Elizabeth.
Asked in Monarchy, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

If Mary's mother is Fred's father's sister what relation is Fred to marys father?

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Answer 1: Fred would be cousins with Mary's Father. Answer 2: Since Mary's Mom is Fred's Aunt, her husband would be his Uncle.
Asked in History of England, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I?

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This is an interesting question with many possible answers, which are presented below: England would have gone back to the Roman church. Another take Not only would England have reverted to Catholicism, I believe that there would have been a civil war in Britain 30 odd years earlier. The assassination of one's monarch and the usurping that would follow (remember, Mary had no real claim to the throne that could match Elisabeth's) would cause you to feel very angry, and there would have been uproar from the Protestants. This could have caused a religious civil war. Mary's son, James, was a protestant, and he became King anyway, but England would certainly have been in a sorry state after a religious conflict. See what is happening in Northern Ireland today. Also, after being severely weakened by this war, Spain may have attempted a new armada and invaded Britain. It would be hard to defend if the British were squabbling amongst themselves. If Spain had conquered Britain (although I like to think they might have left the Catholic Scotland alone, as they had a history of friendship), the map of the world would be very different today, with no history of the British Empire. Spain could have become the dominant power in the world. This is all speculation, of course. It might have never happened, but it could have happened.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

How was Queen Mary during her Childhood?

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She was a happy girl who had the upbringing of a queen consort rather than a queen in her own right. This would later have a bad effect on her adult reign.
Asked in Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

How many times did it take to chop of Mary queen of Scots head?

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It took 3 blows of the axe before her head came off because the first 2 hit her shoulders. The embaressed executioner lifted up her head but he lifted it by her wig so it rolled all the way down the hall she was executed in and her mouth was twitching as it rolled.
Asked in Monarchy, Mary I of Scotland

Why did Mary Tudor become so unpopular?

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Not so much her catholocism. This was widely known before she became queen and she still received popular support against the Protestant Coup intended to put Jane Grey on the throne. The worst thing she did was marrying Philips II. The English were weary of foreign influence anyway, but she gave the Spaniards too much influence. This marriage also caused England to be dragged into a war with France, which made England lose Calais. The prosecutions of protestants made her extremely unpopular. Those burned were seen as martyrs and this only fueled their cause.
Asked in History of Australia, Mary I of Scotland, Mary Read

What made Mary Reiby famous?

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Mary Reibey (1777-1855) (also spelled 'Reiby', 'Raby', and 'Raiby'[1]) was born Mary Haydock in England. At the age of fourteen, she was arrested and convicted of horse stealing. She was transported to the Colony of New South Wales as a Convict to serve out her sentence in 1791. Landing in Sydney in 1792 she was assigned to a Major and given the duties of nursemaid in his household. In 1794, she married Thomas Reiby, formerly of the East India Company. Thomas soon branched out on his own as Entally House. At the beginning of 1803, Thomas owned three boats and traded coals and wheat up the Hawkesbury and Hunter rivers. By 1807, Thomas had bought a schooner for trading with the Pacific Islands. He fell ill after a voyage to India in 1809; his health never completely recovered. After his death in 1811, Mary was left with seven children and control of Entally House which by then included rural properties, sealing operations in Bass Strait, as well as overseas trading. Thanks to enterprise and hard work, Mary Reibey became one of the most successful businesswomen in the Colony. With her new affluence came the hard-earned reward of respectability: Mary was now part of Governor Macquarie's social set. Mary opened a new warehouse in 1812, enlarging her fleet with the purchase of two more ships by 1817. In 1820, Mary returned to England with her daughters. On returning to Sydney she began buying property, starting several building projects in the center of town. Mary was quickly able to retire and live on her investments. In 1825, in recognition of her interest in church, education and charity, Mary was appointed one of the governors of the Free Grammar School. Her later years were spent in Newtown, where she lived the remainder of her life until her death in 1855. Mary Reibey on the $20 note. Enlarge Mary Reibey on the $20 note. In recognition of her philanthropy Mary Reibey is put on the front of Australian 20 dollar banknote.
Asked in Monarchy, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

Did Mary Queen of Scots have any children?

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Yes, Prince James or James VI. Who became James I of England after the death of Queen Elizabeth I.
Asked in History, Politics & Society, History of England, Monarchy, Mary I of Scotland

Was Mary the first Queen of England?

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That is a trick question. Queen means, wife of a King. If you assume that definition, there were many queens before Mary. Mary was not the wife of an English King, however she was by definition the Queen of Spain, because her husband was the king of Spain. If you mean Queen as the official monarch of a Kingdom, she was the first official female head of England in her own right, however, for the 9 days preceding her reign as queen, her cousin Jane Gray was declared Queen of England upon the death of Mary's brother Edward, but the rebellion was quickly squashed and Mary took back her rightful place in the succession. Matilda was in fact the very first queen of England to inherit the title upon the death of her Father Henry I in 1135. She was immediately usurped by her cousin Stephen and civil war broke out in England. She regained her thrown briefly , but civil war broke out again and she never actually was crowned Queen of England. She fled to France where she lived out the rest of her life. King Stephen's only son died and agreed that the crown of England pass to Matilda's son Henry who became King Henry II. Actually the wife of Edgar the Peaceful, Aelfthryth was the first king's wife to be crowned and anointed.
Asked in History of Scotland, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

Why was Mary forced to leave Scotland?

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She was arrested for treason, brought back to England where is spent 17 years in the tower of London then she was beheaded.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

What was Mary queen of Scots legacy?

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Queen Mary was the only one of the cousin queens (the other being Queen Elizabeth) to have a child. This was her only son King James VI of Scotland and I of England. He in turn married Queen Anne of Denmark whom with he had two children who had their own issue (King Charles I of Britain with Henrieta Maria and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia with King Fredrick V). In other words the nobles and royal families of Europe all share her blood.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

What was Mary I Queen of Scots good points?

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she was very intelligent, speaking many languages. having received the best education available in France before her marriage to the French king. she was surprisingly tolerant of the protestant faith in a culture that demanded a more hard line view. she had many protestant advisor's. though this could have been down to naivety more than anything as they got her in to a lot of trouble in the end.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

Who did Mary Queen of Scots marry?

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She was married to three men: 1. Francis II of France (1558-60) - married on 24th April 1558 2. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (1565-1567) - married on 29th July 1565 3. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell (1567-1578) - married on 15th May 1567
Asked in History of England, Marriage, Henry VIII, Mary I of Scotland

Who did Henry viii sister Mary marry?

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Her first husband was Louis XII of France and her second husband was Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. She had no children as queen of France. Her most known daughter by Charles Brandon was Frances Brandon, who was mother of Lady Jane Grey.
Asked in Knights, Knights Templar, Mary I of Scotland

Where is the knights templar treasure?

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Answer This is a question that has long tormented treasure hunters and scholars. When the Catholic Church designed to destroy the Knights Templar, they secured the assistance of the French crown. This is the origin of the superstition of "Friday the 13th" because the Templars were rounded up on that day and the crown seized all of their holdings. However, the Templars had advanced word that their fortunes had changed and they gathered together all of their treasure and three Templar ships departed from La Rochelle. It is thought that these ships carried the vast wealth of the Templars, but in truth, they could carry but a fraction of their treasure if the tales about their wealth are reasonably accurate. The ultimate destination is unknown and it is unknown if these ships even made it to their destination. However, it would be a reasonable assumption that these ships made landfall in England. At this point in the story, nobody can give an authoritative answer to the question of "where does the treasure reside?" Speculation regarding Rosslyn and Oak Island point to the strongest possibilities regarding the final resting place of the Templar treasure. There was significant engineering done at Oak Island and the investigation there has destroyed as much as it has uncovered. Only time will tell if anything remains, but I doubt that anyone would go through such an elaborate hoax. With regard to Rosslyn Chapel, the builders of the chapel were known supporters of the Templars -i am editing this note (the builders are probably the freemasons) - However, nobody has ever found anything at Rosslyn and many consider the chapel to be a "key" to where the real treasure is concealed. Personally, I believe that the treasure that left in those ships was used to support the members of the order in the purchase of land, supplies, and other needs. Considering the requirements for a number of dispossessed Knights on the run from France and the Church, gold would be a necessity. I believe that the majority of the Templar fortune never left France. To be sure, it was concealed from the French monarchy, but the Templars did not have the time necessary to move it out of France. Ultimately, this is my answer to your question. As the treasure has remained undiscovered for some time, one could assume that it is well hidden. More This next information is answerd by a differant person, But the free masions were involed they were a scottish cruside who let the templar knights join there group so maybe the treasure could of being smuggeled out of France to Scotland but this is my opinion on the place were it is hidden. Or there is word that the treasure was brought from France into England and to a place called Nova Scotia not in the actuwal country but to an island of the coast of Nove Scotia nobody nows which island but i bet the treasure will be found one day. Its not just a small amount OS gold but treasure beyond your wildest imaganation! I dream of discovering the knights templer treasure but i now that there is many other people that have atemptad to find it and there is no way that i could ever beat anyone to the greatest treasure of all time! More Refering to the first paragraph above where the answerer says there were 3 Templar ships, records show that there were in fact 18 Templar ships at La Rochelle harbour on October 12th 1307, but the next day they had vanished. the answer bove me seems quite complex however i believe there to be a simpler answer to question, though no one can be certain. okay so 4 knights from temple dinsley, hertfordshire were arrested and taken to hertford castle in the early 1300's. two were taken to tower of London and they were all killed at some point. this was done on the orders of kind edward ll because he believed that they were hiding treasure from him. so he had them arrested, but when they refused to tell him it's whereabouts he had them killed. so many believe that the answer is simple. the treasure which is believed to be gold, silver, jewels, and possibly even the holy grail which Jesus drunk out of at the last supper (they apparently found this on a trip to Jerusalem) is likely to have buried underneath an oak tree in temple dinsley, where the knights who hid it lived, so that they could keep watch that no one tried to find it. another theory is that they actually buried it in temple dinsley deep deep under the ground and then created a pond over the top of where it was, to make it more difficult to get to. temple dinsley today is a village called Preston in hertfordshire and there is a large pond there, however the pond that the treasure is supposedly hidden underneath has been dug over, but no one knows exactly where it was. the spot where the treasure may have been buried unfortuantely has an old building on it which is now a school. The whole truth will almost certainly never come to light. Much of the Temple assets in France found their way into the Royal treasury. Phillip the Fair needed the money to pay off a crushing national debt. Chances are that much of it from outside France went to the Hospitallers along with their real estate and much of the membership. Some of those assets may simply have been stolen or individual members may have removed assets with the intent to restore them to the Temple at some future date. Neither is there any documented or archeological evidence that the Templar Fleet previously in harbor at New Rochelle ever reached Scotland nor that it carried the so called, "Templar Treasure." No hard evidence of any kind exists that any ship of any description carrying even one Templar Knight or anyone connected with the Temple ever reached North America. In fact, the so-called Zeno map does not mention the Temple at all. Moreover, the map has been shown to be a forgery. No evidence of any description supports speculation that the Templars ever possessed any of the, "treasures of the Temple of Solomon." Likewise, there is no documented connection between the Templars and the Oak Island Money Pit. In fact, much of the speculation about the pit has been put to rest. For example, the only evidence there is for the existence of those much discussed buried timbers, etc. is complete hearsay and the so called tunnels that introduced sea water to the pit are not tunnels at all. All that water seeped in through naturally occurring features. Oh yes, there is one other thing. There is absolutely no evidence that Henry I Sinclair Earl of Orkney ever visited Greenland or any part of North America. Conversely, there is ample evidence that many of the authors who are building up their own portfolios with wild speculation concerning the Templar Treasure or the purported mystical properties of the Temple are earning a substantial living by selling books to people who want to believe these things whether they are true or not. They are simply following in the footsteps of the, "Eric von Daniken" books from the seventies and all that nonsense about Aztec crystal skulls having mystical properties. When you stop to think about it, those books are the perfect con game. There is no law against publishing nonsense or selling the books that contains that nonsense. Buying a book is a legal transaction in nearly every case. Believing silly nonsense is a personal prerogative unless one does real harm as result. The bottom line is that all those stories about the Templars having owned the Ark of the Covenant, the Holy Grail and the True Cross are just that, stories. They may be amusing but they are not factual.
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

Who was Mary Queen of Scots and who was Mary Tudor?

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Mary I, Queen of Scots (known as Mary Stuart) was Queen of Scots in her own right and Queen of France as wife of Francis II of France. She was six days old when her father died - that's when she became Scotland's second queen regnant and most notable Scottish monarch. Mary I was granddaughter of Elizabeth I's aunt, making her the heir of childless Queen of England. She had three husbands, but her only child's father was her cousin and second husband. Elizabeth I imprisoned Mary I and seventeen years later she ordered Mary's execution. Mary's son James became James VI of Scotland after Mary's abdication and James I of England after Elizabeth I's death. There were two women known as Mary Tudor: * Mary Tudor was daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. She was briefly Queen of France as wife of Louis XII of France. She returned to England after his death and married Duke of Suffolk. Her granddaughter was Jane Grey, who ruled England and Ireland for nine days. * Mary I of England (known as Bloody Mary) was the only surviving child of Henry VIII of England and Katherine of Aragon. She became Queen of England and Ireland after deposing Jane Grey and she became Queen of Spain when her eleven years younger husband became Philip II of Spain. Mary I had no children and was succeeded by her nineteen years younger half-sister, Elizabeth I.
Asked in History, Politics & Society, Monarchy, Elizabeth I, Mary I of Scotland

What did Mary I do to her sister?

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Mary had her half-sister Elizabeth locked in the Tower of London on trumped up charges. When they could not be proved Elizabeth was released.
Asked in History of Scotland, Monarchy, Mary I of Scotland

What is the Genealogy of Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland?

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Queen Mary I, Queen of Scots(8 December 1542 - 8 February 1587) was the only child of King James V of Scotland(10 April 1512 - 14 December 1542) and Mary of Guise(22 November 1515 - 11 June 1560) King James V of Scotland was the only child of King James IV of Scotland(17 March 1473 - 9 September 1513) and Margaret Tudor(28 November 1489 - 18 October 1541) Mary of Guise was the oldest daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise(20 October 1496-12 April 1550) and Antoinette de Bourbon(25 December 1493 - 22 January 1583) King James IV of Scotland the oldest child of King James III of Scotland(10 July 1451 - 11 June 1488) and Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 - before 14 July 1486) Margaret Tudor was the oldest daughter of King Henry VII of England( 28 January 1457 - 21 April 1509) and Elizabeth of York(11 February 1466 - 11 February 1503) Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise was the son of René II Duke of Lorraine(2 May 1451 - 10 December 1508) and Philippa of Guelders(9 November 1467-28 February 1547) Antoinette de Bourbon was the daughter of Francis, Count of Vendôme (1470 - 30 October 1495) and Marie of Luxembourg (died 1 April 1547) King James III of Scotland the son of King James II of Scotland(16 October 1430 - 3 August 1460) and Mary of Guelders (c. 1434 - 1 December 1463) Margaret of Denmark was the daughter of King Christian I of the Kalmar Union(February 1426- 21 May 1481) and Dorothea of Brandenburg(1430/1431-November 10, 1495) King Henry VII of England was the son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (1431 - 1 November 1456) and Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby(31 May 1443 - 29 June 1509) Elizabeth of York was the daughter of King Edward IV of England(28 April 1442 - 9 April 1483) and Elizabeth Woodville(circa 1437 - 8 June 1492) René II Duke of Lorraine was the son of Frederick II of Vaudémont (ca. 1428 - 31 August 1470) and Yolande de Bar (2 November 1428 - 23 March 1483) Philippa of Guelders was the daughter of Adolf of Egmond, Duke of Guedlers(January 12, 1438-June 27, 1477) and Catherine of Bourbon Francis, Count of Vendôme was the son of Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme(died 6 January 1477) and Isabelle de Beauveau Marie of Luxembourg was the daughter of Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol(1440-25 Oct 1482) and Margaret of Savoy (April 1439- 9 March 1483) King James II of Scotland was a son of King James I of Scotland(10 December 1394 - 21 February 1437) and Joan Beaufort (c. 1404 - 15 July 1445) Mary of Guelders was the daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gelderland(14 July 1410-23 February 1473) and Catherine of Cleves(1417-1479) King Christian I of the Kalmar Union was a son of Dietrich of Oldenburg(c. 1398-February 14, 1440) and Helvig of Schauenburg(1398-1436) Dorothea of Brandenburg was the daughter of John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach(1406 - 16 November 1464) and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg (1405-1465) Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond was the son of Sir Owen Meredith Tudor(c. 1400 - February 2, 1461) and Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 - 3 January 1437) Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby was the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 3rd Earl of Somerset (1403-27 May 1444) and Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso (1 January 1405/6 - 8 August 1482) King Edward IV of England was the Son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (21 September, 1411 - 30 December, 1460) and Cecily Neville(3 May 1415 - 31 May 1495) Elizabeth Woodville was the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers(1405-12 August 1469) and Jacquetta of Luxembourg (1415/1416 - 30 May 1472) Frederick II of Vaudémont was the son of Antoine of Vaudémont (ca. 1400 - 22 March 1458) and Marie of Harcourt (9 September 1398 - 19 April 1476) Yolande de Bar was the daughter of King René I of Naples, Duke of Anjou(16 January 1409 - 10 July 1480) and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine(1400 - 28 February 1453) Adolf of Egmond, Duke of Guedlers was the son of Arnold of Egmond, Duke of Guedlers (14 July 1410-23 February 1473) and Catherine of Cleves Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme was the son of Louis Count of Vendôme(1376 - December 21, 1446) and Jeanne De Laval(d. 1468) Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol was the son of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, and Conversano, (1418 - 19 December 1475) and Jeanne de Bar Countess of Marle and Soissons, Dame d'Oisy, Viscountess of Meaux, and Countess of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, and Conversano (1415 - 14 May 1462) Margaret of Savoy was the daughter of Louis I Duke of Savoy(February 21, 1412/1413 - January 29, 1465) and Anne Princess of Cyprus(24 September 1418 - 11 November 1462) King James I of Scotland was the son of King Robert III of Scotland(c. 1337-April 1406) and Anabella Drummond(c. 1350 - 1401) Joan Beaufort was the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373 - 16 March 1410) and Margaret Holland(1385-30 December 1439) Arnold, Duke of Gelderland was the son of John II, Count of Egmond (c. 1385 - 4 January 1451) and Maria van Arkel (c. 1385 - 19 July 1415) Catherine of Cleves was the daughter of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves(2 August 1373 - 23 September 1448) and Marie of Burgundy(1393 - 30 October 1463) Dietrich of Oldenburg was the Son of Count Christian V of Oldenburg, (d. 1423) and Agnes of Honstein Helvig of Schauenburg was the daughter of Count Gerhard VI of Holstein and Elisabeth of Brunswick John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach was the son of Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg(September 21, 1371-September 20, 1440) and Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut (1383-1442) Sir Owen Meredith Tudor was the son of Maredudd ap Tudur (d. 1406) and Margaret ferch Dafydd Catherine of Valois was the daughter of King Charles VI of France(3 December 1368 - 21 October 1422) and Isabeau of Bavaria(c. 1370 - 24 September 1435) John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 3rd Earl of Somerset was the son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373 - 16 March 1410) and Margaret Holland(1385-30 December 1439) Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso was the daughter of John Beauchamp of Bletso and Edith Stourton Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York was the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. 1375 - 5 August 1415) and Anne de Mortimer(27 December 1390-c. 21 September 1411) Cecily Neville was the daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (c. 1364 - 21 October 1425) and Joan Beaufort(c. 1379 - 13 November 1440) Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers was the son of Sir Richard Wydeville and Elizabeth Bodulgate Jacquetta of Luxembourg was the daughter of Peter I Count of St Pol, Conversano and Brienne(1390-31 August 1433) and Margaret de Baux(1394- 15 November 1469) Antoine of Vaudémont was the son of Frederick of Lorraine (1371 - October 25, 1415) and Marguerite de Joinvile Marie of Harcourt was the daughter of Jean VII d'Harcourt(1369-18 December 1452) and Marie of Alençon (29 March 1373 - 1417) King René I of Naples, Duke of Anjou was the son of Louis II of Anjou (1377-29 April 1417) and Yolande of Aragon(11 August 1384- 14 November 1442) Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine was the daughter of Charles II Duke of Lorraine(1364-January 25, 1431) and Margaret of the Palatinate (1376 - 26 August 1434) Louis Count of Vendôme was the son of John I Count of La Marche(1344 - 11 June 1393) and Catherine de Vendôme (d. 1412) Jeanne De Laval was the daughter of Guy XIV de Laval, François de Montfort-Laval, (28 January 1406 - 2 September 1486) and Isabella of Brittany (1411 - c.1444) Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, and Conversano was the son of Peter of Luxembourg(1390-31 August 1433) and Margaret de Baux(1394- 15 November 1469), Jeanne de Bar Countess of Marle and Soissons, Dame d'Oisy, Viscountess of Meaux was the daughter of Robert of Bar, Count of Marle and Soissons, Sire d'Oisy (1390- 25 October 1415) and Jeanne de Béthune, Viscountess of Meaux, Countess of Ligny (c.1397- late 1450) Louis I Duke of Savoy was the son of Antipope Felix V(4 September 1383-7 January 1451) and Mary of Burgundy (1380-1422) Anne Princess of Cyprus was the daughter of King Janus of Cyprus(1375-June 29, 1432) and Charlotte de Bourbon-La Marche (1388- 15 January 1422)
Asked in Mary I of Scotland

Why was Mary Queen of Scots beheaded?

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Mary Stuart, known as Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded for high treason under the charge that she had participated in a plot to eliminate Queen Elizabeth (there is much more to this story however). Mary was the grand-daughter of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII therefore she had a claim on the English throne. Being a fervent Catholic, she was allied with Philip II of Spain--a ruthless enemy of her sister-in-law Queen Elizabeth mainly because she was a Protestant. After Mary was executed, Philip II sent a mighty navy to invade England (which became know as the invincible armada). Only, it wasn't so invincible after all. Some decisive cirurgical [what is this word?] strikes by vastly outnumbered English ships and a major storm left most ships at the bottom of the ocean and the few remaining fleeing Actually Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded because she was a catholic and a growing threat to Protestant England. I say a growing threat because it had become obvious that Elizabeth would not be producing an heir, and the unthinkable could happen Mary would become Queen of England. The trial was a farce. Nothing was produced to link her with Babington except `copies` of letters. As Mary said "Produce something with my handwriting and seal" The give away was by the Earl of Kent on the eve of her execution "You must die" he said "so that my faith will survive". Strangely enough after the death of Mary Tudor, Philip of Spain championed the claim of Elizabeth since Mary was allied to France and France and Spain were enemies. AS for the Armada, this was Philip tired of hsi ships being attacked by England and his threat of revenge. In fact half the ships had guns but the cannonballs did not fit and they were taken without a shot being fired. Actually Queen Elizabeth is Mary Queen of Scots cousin not aunt.