Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is the study of how molecules (biomolecules such as protein, DNA) communicate in the cell and how the field helps to study them in a external condition.

1,407 Questions
Chemical Bonding
Molecular Biology

Is CH3OH ionic or molecular?

CH3OH is molecular.

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Chemistry
Molecular Biology

What is tromethamine?

Tromethamine, or TRIS, Tris Hydroxymethyl Aminomethane, THAM, etc. is a chemical with the formula c4h11no3 and molecular weight 121.14g/mol. It is often used as a buffer in chemistry and biology. It has an effective pH range of 7-9.2, and is not very harmful. It is often used

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Molecular Biology

Did Darwin use molecular biology as evidence of evolution?

No. Darwin published his theory in the 1850s. The structure of the DNA molecule was not worked out by biologists until around the 1950s. Darwin was long dead before molecular biology came into play to support his theory.

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Biology
Molecular Biology

What are 7 unifying themes in the biology?

cell theory

molecular basis of inheritance

relationship between structure and function

diversity of life arises by evolutionary change

evolutionary conservation

cells are information processing systems

living systems exist in a non-equilibrium state

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Molecular Biology

Two scientific uses of radioactive isotope?

Carbon dating is probably one of the largest uses of radioactive isotopes. Others include Technetium 99-m being used in medicine and Phosphorus 32 being used to label small molecules in molecular biology experiments.

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Molecular Biology

Why is getting a degree in Cell and Molecular biology hard?

Learning concepts and materials is easily 'one-thing', yet the [Biochemical] Mathematics and the mathematical problem solving in general is where the difficulty lies.

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Molecular Biology

Is there any online quiz for central dogma of molecular biology?

Yes, there are a few quizzes for central dogma under the related links.

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Chemical Bonding
Molecular Biology

Is p-dichlorobenzene ionic or molecular?

molecular

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Biology
Genetics
Molecular Biology

How are genes arranged on a chromosome?

They are organized in a very complex manner. A gene is a term that denotes not only for a RNA or protein coding sequence but it consist of regulatory elements such as promoter, terminator and so on. And not all genes code only one single protein, neither it is coded in a linear manner. A gene can make RNA from any of its (both) strand according to the sequence message and each frames (Inda sequence of 'ATGTCC', the first frame ATG=Methionine, if it start from second from TGT which give another amino acid for example). So in theory, there are 6 possible frames (3 frames from 5' to 3' and 3 others from 3' to 5' direction) for a given piece of DNA or so called gene.
Then we this long non coding introns, and gene splicing events which tangle a bit more to study them.

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Molecular Biology

What kind of forces act between molecules?

Intermolecular forces

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Molecular Biology

How many molecules in 4H2O?

How many hydrogen atoms are in 4H2O

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Chemical Bonding
Molecular Biology

C2H4 is it molecular or ionic?

C2H4 or Ethene is an organic molecule composed of covalent interactions.

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Molecular Biology

What is a molecular biologist?

A molecular biologist is someone who works in a laboratory studying and researching genetics and the microorganisms dealing with hereditary and genes. Through many tests, they find out how characteristics are passed from generation to generation. They pair up with specialists in other fields of science to gain more information on hereditary, diseases and illnesses in humans and animals. They can find jobs in hospitals, pharmacies, universities, medical laboratories or with the government.

Education

Before a person can become a molecular biologist, they must first earn a Bachelor�s degree in Molecular Biology. This program requires an intense amount of sciences like chemistry, biology, physics, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, calculus, linear algebra and molecular biology. Once a person has graduated with their Bachelor�s degree, they can seek employment as an assistant or technician in a laboratory. Molecular biologists require more education. A Masters and Doctorate are preferred for molecular biologists to research and study. A medical microbiologist requires an medical doctor degree. Salary for medical biologists depends on education, location and place of employment; the average is around $60,000.

Molecular Biologist Technician

If a prospective molecular biologist is not interested in furthering his education through a Masters or Doctorate degree, then he can pursue a career as a technician. This person works with and tests many cells. They are responsible for finding any diseases, abnormalities and counting the number of cells. They take their test results, with the help of their microscopes and counters, to the appropriate physician or specialist who ordered the test. The results are discussed among the scientists and a treatment plan is created, if necessary.

Laboratory Work

Molecular biologists work in laboratories learning new information about human genetics. They work beside scientists and physicians to diagnose, treat and prevent diseases and illnesses. They use computers and other high tech equipment like high pressure liquid chromatographs, electrophoresis units, thermocyclers and fluorescence activated cell sorters, among others. Depending on where they work and what their assignment is, they may have a lot of information to research and cover. However, no matter what the case, a molecular biologist is someone who researches genetic information in a laboratory to gain knowledge on how to treat and prevent some diseases.

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Molecular Biology

What is the difference between molecular biology and microbiology?

Molecular bio is the study of molecules (atoms or groups of atoms), Microbiology is the study of microorganisms... small stuff, viruses, bacterium, etc. which is made of molecules.

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Molecular Biology

Where can you get a bachelor of science in molecular biology and biochemistry?

A good place to start is by going to www.collegeboard.com/splash/ and use their College MatchMaker search engine. You can do a search by major, institution's name, and geographical area.

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Molecular Biology

Why is molecular shape crucial in biology?

Biology is linked with chemistry, which we call biochemistry.Molecular structure is necessary to understand the functioning and the ingredients in the cells of different organisms including plants.

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Microbiology
Genetics
Molecular Biology

What must happen for transcription of the lac operon genes to take place?

Lac operon is a set of genes that regulates the digestion of lactose. In absence of lactose in the medium, the repressor protein binds to the operator that inhibit the transcription of structural genes such as beta galactosidase, lactose permease and transacetylase. This makes sure to avoid the enzyme synthesis when there is no need!
Conversely, when the lactose present in the medium, an isomer of lactose called allolactose bind to the repressor protein, the conformational change in the repressor let it to detach from repressor hence the RNA polymerase can transcribe the structural gene. Although this may be enough for synthesis of structual gene the system is tightly regulated by a protein called CAP (catabolite activator protein) and glucose.
Glucose is a preferred source of energy for cell when this desirable source is present, lactose need not be used as a energy resource. What happens is there will be low level of cAMP when there is high amount of glucose and this keeps CAP inactive.
When there is low glucose levels, the cAMP would be higher, that binds to CAP to make it active, which in turn binds to the promoter that enhance the transcription of structural genes.
Thus, for efficient transcription lac operon structural genes, lactose must be present where glucose must be absent.

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Biochemistry
Proteins
Molecular Biology

What stabilizes proteins?

Protein structures are stabilized largely by non covalent forces and the surrounding medium. Forces such as ionic bonding, Hydrogen interaction, Van der Waals forces keep the proteins stable. Disulphide linkage also plays a role in protein stability.

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Molecular Biology

Francis crick and what his contribution in biology?

molecular biology, embryology, explanation of genetic codes

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Science
Genetics
Molecular Biology

Is the gene sequence in twins the same?

they would share the very same DNA, that doesn't mean the genes will be expressed the very same way yet they will still be genetically the same.

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Biochemistry
Proteins
Molecular Biology

How are proteins renewed?

Every protein molecule sooner or later reaches the end of its lifetime. This might be for example when oxidative damage has degraded it to the point where it cannot fulfill its function.

The only option left to the cell in this case is to somehow get rid of the damaged protein. A typical mechanism for this is called ubiquitinylation. This means that several ubiquitin residues are attached to the damaged protein. These residues will result in the protein being transported to the proteasome, where it is broken down into amino acids.

To maintain the function that the protein was performing, the cell has to create new protein molecules of the same type. This happens through the common pathway of gene expression:

  1. The gene which encodes the protein is transcribed from the genomic DNA in the nucleus. This produces mRNA encoding the protein, which is shuttled to the cytoplasm.
  2. Ribosomes in the cytoplasm attach to the mRNA and start translating the protein, coupling amino acids to each other in the sequence defined by the mRNA.
  3. The resulting amino acid chain will then fold into the finished protein (either on its own, or with some help from chaperones).
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Biology
Genetics
Molecular Biology

What nucleus acid is called that makes up a chromosome?

It is DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid).

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Biochemistry
Proteins
Molecular Biology

What happens to enzymes if they are heated too much?

The enzymes get denatured on too much heating.

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Biology
Biotechnology
Molecular Biology

How does topoisomerase affect the DNA strand during DNA replication?

The topoisomerase enzyme uncoils the double helical structure of DNA during its replication to form the replication fork. In eukaryotes both posive and negative supercoils get unbind by topoisomerase I & II respectively.

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Molecular Biology

How does molecular biology differ from genetics?

Genetics deals with genotypes and phenotypes and the frequency of gene expression. Molecular biology deals with the topology and structure of DNA.

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