four. Kaduna, warri and eleme
No, it does not have one.
Turbine cycle heat rate is a measure of the turbine efficiency. It is determined from the total energy input supplied to the turbine divided by the electrical energy output. The energy input is the difference between the energy in the steam supplied to, and leaving from the turbine. The total energy supplied is the sum of the steam mass flow rates to the turbine multiplied by their respective enthalpies. The energy leaving is the sum of mass flow rates exiting the turbine multiplied by their respective enthalpies. Take the difference in the total energy supplied and leaving, divide by the electrical output and this gives you heat rate, typically expressed in Btu/kWh or kJ/kWh. This is easy for a single source of steam passing through the turbine to a condenser, but gets a bit more tricky for reheat turbines with multiple extractions as all the streams in and out have to be accounted for.
The main process that is used in oil refineries is fractional distillation. In this process several liquids are separated each at a particular temperature. In this process materials like butane, petrol, diesel, kerosene, heating oil, paraffin wax. greases and lubricating oils, bunker fuel oil, asphalt, etc. are separated.
Other processes are catalytic cracking (which breaks large molecules into smaller ones), catalytic reforming (which joins small molecules to form larger ones), etc.
Short for Enterprise Resource Planning software. ERP software aids and controls the ERP management system, which is a system that integrates and automates all facets of business operations. This includes planning, manufacturing, and sales, while more recent ERP software products encompass marketing, inventory control, order tracking, customer service, finance and human resources as well.
Typically anywhere form $20 to $35 hr, sometimes more. I have know some that made more than $150k in a year with overtime.
In the early 2000's there was almost no excess global refining capacity. The reason for the lack of excess capacity was that the industry had not added any capacity since the 70's. The lack of added capacity was due to the fact that since the 70's a huge amount of excess capacity had existed. It took almost 20 years for demand to catch up with excess capacity and the refining industry suffered low profits from the 1970's until 2002. When the demand caught up new refineries were built and they are beginning to come on line and are the reason for the increase in excess capacity. The capacity of a refinery to produce oil is increased with new innovations in the refining process and the removal of bottle necks within the system. Excess capacity is built into refineries to meet future demand. Assuming that oil refineries don't operate at full capacity to make more money and drive up prices is a false assumption. History shows that the profit margin for a refinery decreases as excess capacity increases. The global oil industry's growing challenges to increase crude production to meet demand and fill excess capacity is a much more likely source of high prices.
Weather, the short-term changes in the air for a given place and time.
Climate, a region's average weather conditions over a long period.
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt, timber, fish
There are 9 major oil refineries in the UK.
Koch Industries is a privately-held company and as such has no publicly-traded stock.
United States * Alabama Tuscaloosa Refinery (Hunt Refining Company), Tuscaloosa, Alabama 52,000 bpd Saraland Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Saraland, Alabama 80,000 bpd Mobile Refinery (Trigeant), Mobile, Alabama 16,700 bpd * Alaska Kenai Refinery (Tesoro), Kenai, Alaska 72,000 bpd Valdez Refinery (Petro Star), Valdez, Alaska 50,000 bpd North Pole Refinery (Petro Star), North Pole, Alaska 17,000 bpd Kuparuk Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Kuparuk, Alaska 14,400 bpd North Pole Refinery (Flint Hills Resources), North Pole, Alaska 210,000 bpd Prudhoe Bay Refinery (BP), Prudhoe Bay, Alaska 12,500 bpd * Arkansas El Dorado Refinery (Lion Oil), El Dorado, Arkansas 70,000 bpd Smackover Refinery (Cross Oil), Smackover, Arkansas 6,800 bpd * California Bakersfield Refinery (Big West), Bakersfield, California, 66,000 barrels per day Bakersfield Refinery (Kern Oil), Bakersfield, California, 25,000 bpd Bakersfield Refinery (San Joaquin Refining Company), Bakersfield, California, 24,300 bpd Benicia Refinery (Valero), Benicia, California, 144,000 bpd Carson Refinery (BP), Carson, California, 260,000 bpd El Segundo Refinery (Chevron), El Segundo, California, 260,000 bpd Golden Eagle Refinery (Tesoro), near Martinez, California, 166,000 bpd Long Beach Refinery (Edgington Oil Company), Long Beach, California, 26,000 bpd Martinez Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Martinez, California, 154,900 bpd Oxnard Refinery (Tenby Inc), Oxnard, California, 2,800 bpd Paramount Refinery (Paramount Petroleum), Paramount, California, 50,000 bpd Richmond Refinery (Chevron), Richmond, California, 242,901 bpd Rodeo San Francisco Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Rodeo, California, 73,200 bpd Santa Maria Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Santa Maria, California, 41,800 bpd Santa Maria Refinery (Greka Energy), Santa Maria, California, 9,500 bpd South Gate Refinery (Lunday Thagard), South Gate, California, 8,500 bpd Torrance Refinery (ExxonMobil), Torrance, California, 149,000 bpd Wilmington Asphalt Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, California, 5,900 bpd Wilmington Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Wilmington, California, 133,100 bpd Wilmington Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Wilmington, California, 98,500 bpd Wilmington Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, California, 149,000 bpd * Colorado Commerce City Refinery (Suncor), Commerce City, Colorado 90,000 bpd * Delaware Delaware City Refinery (Valero), Delaware City, Delaware 175,000 bpd * Georgia Savannah Refinery (Citgo), Savannah, Georgia (Asphalt Refinery) 28,000 bpd Douglasville Refinery (Young Refining), Douglasville, Georgia -- shutdown 07/04 * Hawaii Kapolei Refinery (Tesoro), Ewa Beach, Hawaii 93,500 bpd Hawaii Refinery (Chevron), Honolulu, Hawaii 54,000 bpd * Illinois Lemont Refinery (Citgo), Lemont, Illinois 160,000 bpd Joliet Refinery (ExxonMobil), Joliet, Illinois 238,000 bpd Robinson Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Robinson, Illinois 192,000 bpd Wood River Refinery (ConocoPhillips/EnCana), Roxana, Illinois 306,000 bpd * Indiana Whiting Refinery (BP), Whiting, Indiana 410,000 bpd Mount Vernon Refinery (Countrymark Co-op), Mount Vernon, Indiana 23,000 bpd * Kansas Coffeyville Refinery (Farmland Industries), Coffeyville, Kansas 112,000 bpd El Dorado Refinery (Frontier Oil), El Dorado, Kansas 103,000 bpd McPherson Refinery (NCRA), McPherson, Kansas 81,200 bpd * Kentucky Catlettsburg Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Catlettsburg, Kentucky 222,000 bpd Somerset Refinery, Somerset, Kentucky 5,500 bpd * Louisiana Baton Rouge Refinery (ExxonMobil), Baton Rouge, Louisiana 494,000 bpd Belle Chasse Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Belle Chasse, Louisiana 250,000 Chalmette Refinery (ExxonMobil), Chalmette, Louisiana 183,000 bpd Convent Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Convent, Louisiana 255,000 bpd Cotton Valley Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Cotton Valley, Louisiana 13,000 bpd Garyville Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), near Garyville, Louisiana 245,000 bpd Krotz Springs Refinery (Valero), Krotz Springs, Louisiana 85,000 bpd Lake Charles Refinery (Citgo), Lake Charles, Louisiana 425,000 Lake Charles Refinery (Calcasieu Refining), Lake Charles, Louisiana 30,000 bpd Meraux Refinery (Murphy Oil), Meraux, Louisiana 125,000 bpd Norco Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Norco, Louisiana 242,000 bpd Port Allen Refinery (Placid Refining), Port Allen, Louisiana 48,500 bpd Princeton Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Princeton, Louisiana 8,300 bpd Shreveport Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Shreveport, Louisiana 35,000 bpd St. Charles Refinery (Valero), Norco, Louisiana 260,000 bpd Westlake Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Westlake, Louisiana 247,000 * Michigan Detroit Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Detroit, Michigan 100,000 bpd * Minnesota Pine Bend Refinery (Flint Hills Resources), Rosemount, Minnesota 265,000 bpd St. Paul Park Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), St. Paul Park, Minnesota 70,000 bpd * Mississippi Lumberton Refinery (Hunt Southland Refining), Lumberton, Mississippi 5,800 bpd Pascagoula Refinery (Chevron), Pascagoula, Mississippi 325,000 bpd Vicksburg Refinery (Ergon), Vicksburg, Mississippi 23,000 bpd Rogerslacy Refinery (Hunt Southland Refining), Sandersville, Mississippi 11,000 bpd * Montana Billings Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Billings, Montana 58,000 bpd Billings Refinery (ExxonMobil), Billings, Montana 60,000 bpd Great Falls Refinery (Holly Corporation via Montana Refining), Great Falls, Montana 8,200 bpd Laurel Refinery (Cenex), Laurel, Montana 55,000 bpd * Nevada Eagle Springs Refinery (Foreland Refining), Eagle Springs, Nevada 1,700 bpd * New Jersey Bayway Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Linden, New Jersey 230,000 bpd Eagle Point Refinery (Sunoco), Westville, New Jersey 145,000 bpd Paulsboro Asphalt Refinery (Citgo), Paulsboro, New Jersey 51,000 bpd Paulsboro Refinery (Valero), Paulsboro, New Jersey 160,000 bpd Perth Amboy Refinery (Chevron), Perth Amboy, New Jersey 80,000 bpd Port Reading Refinery (Hess), Port Reading, New Jersey 62,000 bpd * New Mexico Artesia Refinery (Holly Corporation via Navajo Refining), Artesia, New Mexico 75,000 bpd Bloomfield Refinery (Giant Industries), Bloomfield, New Mexico 16,800 bpd Gallup Refinery (Giant Industries), Gallup, New Mexico 26,000 bpd Lovington Refinery (Holly Corporation), Lovington, New Mexico * North Dakota Mandan Refinery (Tesoro), Mandan, North Dakota 58,000 bpd * Ohio Canton Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Canton, Ohio 73,000 bpd Lima Refinery (Valero), Lima, Ohio 158,400 bpd Toledo Refinery (BP), Toledo, Ohio 160,000 bpd Toledo Refinery (Sunoco), Toledo, Ohio 160,000 bpd * Oklahoma Ardmore Refinery (Valero), Ardmore, Oklahoma 74,700 bpd Ponca City Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Ponca City, Oklahoma 194,000 bpd Tulsa Refinery (Sinclair Oil), Tulsa, Oklahoma 70,300 bpd Tulsa Refinery (Sunoco), Tulsa, Oklahoma 83,200 bpd Wynnewood Refinery, Wynnewood, Oklahoma 52,500 bpd Ventura Refining and Transmission, Thomas, Oklahoma 14,000 bpd * Pennsylvania Bradford Refinery (American Refining Group), Bradford, Pennsylvania 10,000 bpd Marcus Hook Refinery (Sunoco), Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania 175,000 bpd Philadelphia Refinery (Sunoco), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 335,000 bpd Trainer Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Trainer, Pennsylvania 185,000 bpd United Refining Company, Warren, Pennsylvania 65,000 bpd Wamsutta Oil Refinery (historical), McClintocksville, Pennsylvania * Tennessee Memphis Refinery (Valero), Memphis, Tennessee 180,000 bpd * Texas Baytown Refinery (ExxonMobil), Baytown, Texas 557,000 bpd Big Spring Refinery (Alon USA), Big Spring, Texas 61,000 bpd Beaumont Refinery (ExxonMobil), Beaumont, Texas 348,500 bpd Borger Refinery (ConocoPhillips/EnCana), Borger, Texas 146,000 bpd Corpus Christi Complex (Flint Hills Resources), Corpus Christi, Texas 288,000 bpd Corpus Christi Refinery (Citgo), Corpus Christi, Texas 156,000 bpd Corpus Christi West Refinery (Valero), Corpus Christi, Texas 142,000 bpd Corpus Christi East Refinery (Valero), Corpus Christi, Texas 115,000 bpd Deer Park Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Deer Park, Texas 333,700 bpd El Paso Refinery (Western Refining), El Paso, Texas 107,000 bpd Erickson Refining Corporation (Renexus International Corporation), Spring, Texas 50,000 bpd Houston Refinery (Lyondell-Citgo), Houston, Texas 270,200 bpd Houston Refinery (Valero), Houston, Texas 83,000 bpd bpd McKee Refinery (Valero), Sunray, Texas 158,300 bpd Pasadena Refinery (Crown Central Petroleum), Pasadena, Texas 100,000 bpd Port Arthur Refinery (Total), Port Arthur, Texas 233,500 bpd Port Arthur Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Port Arthur, Texas 285,000 bpd Port Arthur Refinery (Valero), Port Arthur, Texas 250,000 bpd San Antonio Refinery (Age Refining), San Antonio, Texas 10,300 bpd Sweeny Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Sweeny, Texas 229,000 bpd Texas City Refinery (BP), Texas City, Texas 437,000 bpd Texas City Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Texas City, Texas 72,000 bpd Texas City Refinery (Valero), Texas City, Texas 210,000 bpd Three Rivers Refinery (Valero), Three Rivers, Texas 90,000 bpd Tyler Refinery (Delek Refining Ltd.), Tyler, Texas 55,000 bpd * Utah North Salt Lake Refinery (Big West Oil), North Salt Lake, Utah 24,400 bpd Salt Lake City Refinery (Chevron), Salt Lake City, Utah 45,000 bpd Salt Lake City Refinery (Tesoro), Salt Lake City, Utah 58,000 bpd Woods Cross Refinery (Holly Corporation), Woods Cross, Utah 26,000 bpd Woods Cross Refinery (Silver Eagle Refining), Woods Cross, Utah 10,200 bpd * Virginia Yorktown Refinery (Giant Industries), Yorktown, Virginia 58,600 bpd * Washington Tesoro Anacortes Refinery (Tesoro), Anacortes, Washington 108,000 bpd Shell Anacortes Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Anacortes, Washington 145,000 bpd Cherry Point Refinery (BP), Blaine, Washington 225,000 bpd ConocoPhillips Ferndale Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Ferndale, Washington 96,000 bpd Tacoma Refinery (U.S. Oil and Refining), Tacoma, Washington 35,000 bpd * West Virginia Newell Refinery (Ergon), Newell, West Virginia 19,400 bpd * Wisconsin Superior Refinery (Murphy Oil), Superior, Wisconsin 33,000 bpd * Wyoming Cheyenne Refinery (Frontier Oil), Cheyenne, Wyoming 46,000 bpd Evanston Refinery (Silver Eagle Refining), Evanston, Wyoming 3,000 bpd Evansville Refinery (Little America Refining), Evansville, Wyoming 24,500 bpd Newcastle Refinery (Wyoming Refining), Newcastle, Wyoming 12,500 bpd Sinclair Refinery (Sinclair Oil), Sinclair, Wyoming 66,000 bpd
What is refinery residue
tren ouil refineeris
all of it
we have 4 refineries in nigeria, 2 in portharcort, 1 in kaduna n 1 in warri
Why aren't you giving me any gasoline? The US didn't owe the Japanese any oil. If your son is hitting his little sister with a baseball bat, do you give him another bat or take away the one he has? The Japanese commence hostilities in about 1933 and were commiting atrocities in China and Mongolia. The U.S. put a trade embargo due on Japan to this and because the Japanese were an obvious threat to the balance of power in the pacific.
Oil sands are deposits of bitumen, sand, clay and water. Bitumen is a heavy, viscous oil that at room temperature is a lot like cold molasses. The bitumen must be diluted with lighter hydrocarbons before it is usable by refineries to produce gasoline and diesel fuels.
AST's or Above Ground Storage Tanks, majority are an American Petroleum Institute (API) design.
Yes. If you are secure in the abilities of the clinic, theres nothing wrong with tooting your own horn or self promoting a business.
oven cleaner might work
Over Cleaner will work but is highly caustic (contains sodium hydroxide aka lye) and is unpleasant to work with. I have similar problems due to buildup of baked on popcorn oil spattered on my stove top and have worked out a two step process to clean it.
Step 1) If the buildup is heavy then first apply a thin layer of naptha (cigarette lighter fluid) to the surface to be cleaned. Obviously this should not be done near hot stoves or ignition sources but is otherwise safe since naptha evaporates quickly. I came up with this idea because naptha is the main ingredient in automotive fuel system cleaner and will dissolve hardened oil and varnish. After about 5 minutes the naphtha will soften the baked on oil or grease. Then use a plastic card of some sort to scrape up the softened residue (I use a 2" x 3" plastic card cut from a CD jewel case but anything like an old credit card would work just fine and will not mar the painted surface). Repeat as needed for heavier buildup.
Step 2) Once the bulk material is removed in this way you can use ordinary household ammonia along with a little bit of elbow grease to remove the remaining traces from the surface and return it to its original condition.
Contrary to popular belief there are many, spread all over. According to the EIA, 149. However, they are not all dedicated to refining oil into usable gasoline, and 149 still aren't enough. The real problem, however, is not that there aren't enough refineries (which, once again, there aren't,) but that the refineries we have are not working at maximum capacity. Regularly, their parent companies will shut them down or scale them back, dramatically reducing their output. The oil companies say its due to refinery age, reparis, etc. There is much debate, however, as to whether or not these actions are actually deliberate in order to boost prices at the pump. It could be argued that with problems occurring that increase expenses for oil companies that their increase in profits recently makes those same statements of high expenditures false. What adds further weight to the debate is the fact that dozens of refineries have been closed in the past 15 years, which doesn't add up during a supply shortage or price spike caused by the same, with increase in demand. It is also widely known that in the mid-1990's some refineries were closed as a direct result of refinery overproduction, during times of surplus, which was due to a loss of profits by the relevant companies. This further makes recent industry profit spikes quite coincidental, now that those refineries are closed and production is strickly controlled, shortage or surplus with every barrel with limited refineries, which can be slowed for any reason. Regardless, production of gasoline and related products is affected, and to be fair, 60% of U.S. oil is imported, and so conflicts in Iraq and problems with Iran, Venezuela, long shipping times/distances all can also dramatically affect the price of gasoline as well, and have been known to hamper it in the past.
It wasn't actually invented more like discovered. It progressed over time. People were involved to get to the place it's in today. Not really any one person has invented petrol. It was a development over time.
Petrol is commonly known as gasoline so:
Who invented gasoline?
What's the most outdated thing you still use today?
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