Paper Production

One of the staples of modern society, paper and paper production, originated in the 2nd century. Questions here should be asked and answered about how paper is produced and how the process works.

1,269 Questions
Transportation and Logistics
Paper Production

What is freight class 92.5 description?

Usually reserved for used electronics.

Small Business and Entrepreneurship
Business Plans
Industries and Professions
Paper Production

What is a small scale industry?

A small scale industry is a business or project is created on either a small budget or for a small group of people. For instance if someone starts a laundry service just around their neighbourhood, that is small, not too expensive to start or manage but not too cheap either. Another example is a small pizzeria or a kiosk or say a moving around with an ice-cream van, these are types of small scale industries.

Farm Crops
Paper Production

What is the best cash crop in tn?

The number one cash crop in Tennessee right now is Marijuana. After that is Soybean and Hay.

Ticks and Mites
Paper Production

What is the main country to produce paper?

Paper is manufactured in many countries. It is a product of everyday use for each literary man. But most significant paper industries are located in:

  • North American (United States, Canada),
  • Northern Europe (Finland, Sweden),
  • East Asia (Japan),
  • Australasia,
  • Latin America,
  • India and China.
Paper Production

What is oak tag?

Oak tag paper is similar to poster board except it is thicker and holds up better

Paper Production

What does the size A4 mean when describing paper size?

It's a paper size, the most used in Europe and pretty much the rest of the world, except for Canada, The US and Mexico in those three countries the use the letter size paper which is almsot the same size as A4.

Paper Production
The Difference Between

What term refers to softened wood fibers used to make paper?

Beating or Refining

American Revolution
Industries and Professions
Paper Production

What does Parsons and Whittemore make?

Parsons and Whittemore is a world leader in the production of both market pulp and bleached kraft pulp

Newspapers and Magazines
Paper Production

How much is one lula magazine?

My copy of issue 9 (purchased at a NYC newsstand) was $15.99. Well worth the money!

Waste and Recycling
Paper Production

What is PE coated paper?

Well, to be precise, its a paper which is coated with polyethylene by extrusion coating process..... It will have a shiny appearance on the coated side but will not have gloss levels comparable to glossy or machine glazed paper.... PE Coated paper tend to curl because dead fold characteristics of this weakens due to poly coating (when compared to raw paper).......... I believe it means polyethylene paper.

So I can imagine it's a glossy paper. Perhaps photo-paper?

Entertainment & Arts
Paper Production

Which publisher is better raider publishing international or leadstart publisher?

I would have to say that I would pick the latter because I saw something about raider international being a scam.

-Katniss Everdeen

Paper Production

What are the Paper production process steps?

I had to do a research project on this and found it extremely difficult. There are different ways of making paper here is what i did.

Step 1: Getting the trees from the forest

Step 2: Debarking, Chipping and/or Recycling Logs are passed through a debarker, where the bark is removed, and through chippers, where spinning blades cut the wood into 1" pieces. Those wood chips are then pressure-cooked with a mixture of water and chemicals in a digester.

Step 3: Pulp Preparation The pulp is washed, refined, cleaned and sometimes bleached, then turned to slush in the beater. Colour dyes, coatings and other additives are mixed in, and the pulp slush is pumped onto a moving wire screen.

Step 4: Paper Formation

As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet, or web, is squeezed between large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure smoothness and uniform thickness. The semi-dry web is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.

Step 5: Paper Finishing

The finished paper is then wound into large rolls, which can be 30 feet wide and weigh close to 25 tons. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls, and the paper is ready for use.

Mechanical Pulp

Step by Step Process

1) Logs are immersed in water

2) The logs then have their barks removed.

3) The wood is then ground down to from a pulp

4) Pieces of 1-2mm carry on to be produced, anything larger goes through the process again.

5) The pulp is then bleached.

Chemical Pulp

Also a way of producing paper and board, the less efficient of the two as many chemicals are used to break down the lignin in the wood fibres. This method is used for materials that need to be stronger. The machine used is called a digester a large container where all the breaking down of the fibres happens. It enters the top of the digester and comes out the bottom of the digester after 6 hours as pulp.

Step by step process.

1) Logs (hardwood & softwood) have their barks removed.

2) Logs are cut into 20mm chips (along the grain)

3) Chips are pounded into fragments (and screened)

4) Pulp is treated with acid or alkaline (bleach)

5) All of this is done in the digester

6) Lignin is dissolved away

7) Fibres are filtered out then washed.

Waste Pulp

The recycling of paper.

Step by step process.

1) Recycled paper is ground down into a pulp

2) All the metal bits are filtered out.

3) The ink is removed.

4) Waste pulp can be mixed with virgin fibres (i.e. from MP/CP processes) this improves quality

5) Processed with bonding agents/pigments/bleach

6) A sizing agent may be added to improve water resistance/prevent ink from bleeding.

A:The wood is turned into pulp, which is then treated with chemicals that effectively break up all the cellulose, leaving only the fiber strings.

The fiber is then used to make paper pulp. Colors and other additives are added as needed, and the paper is created.

Units of Measure
Paper Production

What is boyfriend value when talking about Kraft Paper?


BF means Burst factor it is a measurement used for testing the paper strength. an equipment is used namely BF tester by which it is tested. If higher the BF strength will be high.

How testing : mechanism is that we are passing some kind of air through the whole on which paper is put and check in what preassure the paper brokes and multiples the value with one squr metre of the said paper. the value will be BF.

For corrugating industry strength of box is very much related with BF and GSM (one sqr meter weight) variety of BF & GSM combination used for strengthing the boxes.

suresh from Sree Sakthi PAper mills LTd

Manufatures of KRaft Paper 14 BF to 40 BF in a range of 80 Gsm to 450 Gsm.

and Dublex Colour boards with variety of colours(shades)

Paper Production

How did the development of farming lead to the growth of civilization?

Farming led to the growth of civilization because the knowledge of agriculture spread throughout the americas. having a stable food supply changed the way people lived. once they no longer had to travel to find food, they built permanent villages. farmers were able to produce large harvests, so that fewer people needed to farm. some people began to practice other crafts, such as weaving or making pots. a few people became religious leaders.

Paper Production

Is paper made of oil?

No. It is made from trees ... and pulp is added.

Newspapers and Magazines
Paper Production
The Difference Between

Difference between investigative and interpretative reporting?

difference between investigative and interpretative reporting?

Humor & Amusement
Paper Production
Anagrams and Word Scrambles

Jumble by Henri Arnold and Mike Argirion answers to daily newspaper jumble?

After the acupunture worked the patient ...said this

Computer Printers
Paper Production

How long is a normal piece of printer paper?

What is "normal" depends on where you are. In North America and a limited handful of other countries around the world, both letter and legal paper are common sizes (as one person indicated below). Letter is 8-1/2 inches in width by 11 inches in length. Legal is the same width but is 14 inches long instead.

However, if you are located elsewhere in the world, paper sizes are defined by the International Standards Organization, specifically ISO 216. This standard defines the A series as based on an aspect ratio of the square root of 2. Thus A0 is the largest size in the A series measuring 841 millimeters by 1189 millimeters (about 33-1/8 inches by 46-3/4 inches). Each successive size cuts the largest dimension in half so that A1 is 841mm x 594mm, A2 is 420mm x 594mm, A3 is 420mm x 297mm, A4 is 210mm x 297mm, and so forth. The most common typing/printing paper used in countries conforming to the ISO 216 paper size standards is A4 and it is sized between the North American letter and legal paper sizes as 210 x 297 is approximately 8-1/4 inches x 11-3/4 inches.

There is also the B series of sizes that are not used as commonly but they start out with larger dimensions for the B0 paper size, measuring in at 1000mm x 1414mm (about 39-3/8 inches x 55-5/8 inches) with each successive size following the same patter of reduction as demonstrated in the A series.

The C series in the ISO 216 standard is used only for envelopes and, thus, is not germane to the discussion only for the sake of being complete in regard to the reference to the aforementioned standard.

Paper Production

What are some products made from plants?

Food items for human and animal consumption


Lumber Paper Chemicals

Paper Production

How many inches is A3 paper?

A3 paper is 16.5 x 11.7 in.

Talk Shows
Paper Production
Reporters and Anchors
Bill O'Reilly

How long has Bill O'Reilly been married?

Bill O'Reilly has been married for over 13 years. He and his wife were wed on November 2nd, 1996.

Lawn Mowers and Garden Tools
Paper Production

How do you plumb hydro log splitter?

what do you mean Plumb it ? sit it upright ?

I didn't understand it please tell clearly.

Paper Production

What materials are paper plates made of?

heavy duty paper sometimes they are coated with wax or paraffin to make them somewhat waterproof Other disposable plates - which is what I believe you meant anyway - are made from styrofoam or kinds of plastics.

Environmental Issues
Paper Production

How much paper can one tree produce?

According to the Technical Association for Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI), and the American Forest & Paper Association only about one-third of the fiber used to make paper in the U.S. is from whole trees. only trees smaller than 8 inches in diameter, or larger trees not suitable for solid wood products, typically are harvested for paper making. The remaining two-thirds is made up of residue (wood chips and scraps left behind from forest and sawmill operations), and recovered (recycled) paper.

Assume that the paper in question is typical 20lb copy paper, and it has been produced using 100 percent hardwood, measured in cords. A cord of wood is approximately 8 feet wide, 4 feet deep, and 4 feet high and weighs roughly 2 tons (15-20% water weight). It has been estimated that one cord of this wood will yield an average of 1,500 pounds of paper (300 reams).

According to the Kansas green teams website, it takes 17 trees to produce one ton of paper (no detail in this article).

According to the Trinity College in Western Australia, it takes 17 x 20 year old trees to produce 1 ton of paper. This suggests that 1 tree is equal to 22.62 reams @ 2.6 KG of the A4 80gsm copy paper.

According to the timber corporation agribusiness Investment Managers (who are encouraging landholders to plant blue gum eucalyptus trees as an investment) you can achieve 45 reams of A4 paper from a blue gum after 10 years.

A popular Paper Calculator suggests that one tree equals 14 reams of paper. To confirm this place 10 reams a week into the calculator and this equals 520 reams a year for which the calculator requires 37 trees. Their interest is to stop tree felling.

WHO KNOWS how many A4 80 GSM 500 sheet reams of paper to the "average" tree... I would suggest it depends upon the trees in question in relation to their size and paper producing qualities. The answer appears to be somewhere between 16 and 22 reams of A4 80 gsm paper per tree. How many average trees to one cord of paper producing timber as mentioned above is another interesting question.

In other words; 8,350 sheets per tree.
it depends on wha ttree you are talking about. if you say a pine tree then about 1000 pages can be made, but if it is a redwood tree than about 900000 ca nbe made since they r da biggest trees i nda world

Workers Compensation
Paper Production

The cat goes moo?

My cousin's cat likes to imitate the cows he sees on their farm.


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