Persian Wars

The Persian Wars were a series of sackings, invasions, and takeovers that lasted for over 700 years. The Persians fought against Hellenic city states, but the brunt of the wars were against the Romans. Centuries of supporting military through wartime caused serious economic hardship for both the Persians and the Romans.

2,293 Questions
Persian Wars

What was the Persian War fought for?

Persia faced a revolt by Greek city-states within its empire. When it began to suppress the revolt, Gree cities outside the empire intervened and so the war spread across the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Persian Wars

What are the causes of Persian Wars?

The Persians expanded their empire to what they thought was a defensible frontier in the west - the Mediterranean Sea coastline. However the coast was dotted with hundreds of Greek city-states, who resented this dominance.

Those cities were colonies of cities in the Greek mainland, and these mother-cities supported sporadic uprisings by the cities in Asia Minor against Persian rule. When Athens and Eretria supported an uprising by Miletus, they went too far by burning the Persian provincial capital of Sardis. Persia sent a punitive expedition against the two cities, which was turned back at Marathon 490 BCE.

Realising there would always be this trouble, Persia decided to subdue mainland Greece, and so establish an ethnic frontier. They invaded in 480 BCE but failed. Athens orgainsed a defensive anti-Persian league, so sporadic clashes continued. This concluded in 449 BCE with a treaty under which the Persians agreed to stay out of Greek waters. The Greek cities then went back to their usual fighting amongst themselves.

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How do the Persian Wars bring Athens and Sparta together?

They each provided major forces for a coalition of southern Greek city-states to resist the Persian invasion. After the invasion was repelled, Sparta left the follow-up action to Athens. They remained allies until Athens converted the anti-Persian alliance into an empire of its own after the Persians gave up trying to enforce peace in the western Mediterranean. Athens over-reached itself and this led to the Peloponnesian War between a Spartan alliance and Athens and its empire.

In this war Persia gave assistance to Sparta to help it defeat Athens.

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What contribution did Miltiades make to the course of the Persian war?

Miltiades the Younger helped to defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon .

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What was the immediate cause of the Persian War?

THe Greek city-states within the Persian Empire revolted. Greek cities outside the empire intervened and the war spread throughout the Eastern Mediterranean - 499-449 BCE.

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Which event happened first?

boston massacre

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Persian Wars

How many years did the Persian Wars last against Greece?

From 499 BCE until 449 BCE = 50 years.

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Ancient History
Ancient Greece
Persian Wars

How did city walls and acropolises affect Greek city-states?

City wall protected the city from invaders and provided reefuge for the farming and commercial peopte outside the walls. The acropolis was the original refuge before city walls were built, and became a last bastion if the walls were breached, a place for the gods and a repository for treasures under protection of the gods, a place for religious practices, and a refuge at alters for accused fugitives claiming protection from the gods.

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Persian Wars

Who led Sparta during the Persian War?

King Leonidas led Sparta during part of the war as he died during the battle of Thermopylae (August 480bc). His son was too young to take the throne so Leonidas's nephew Pausanius took over as regent.

Also, the Spartan commander Eurybiades can be noted as he was in charge of the Greek navy during the Persan Wars.

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Persian Wars

What did Greeks invent in front of Persian war elephants to incapacitate them?

Caltrops - akin to a land mine which was capable of denying them the ground forward of the elephants . Look to the related link below for further information .

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Persian Wars

What are 3 adjectives that describe Persian Wars?

Brutal, destructive, failure, inconclusive, and resolved nothing as wars continued on in the region for centuries.

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Persian Wars

Which event happened first A the Persian Wars B Alexandria becoming the center of education C the Peloponnesian War began or D Alexander invading Persia?

C. The Persian Wars began 499 BCE.

Then:

The Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE

Alexander invaded Persian Empire 334-324 BCE.

Alexandria became the centre of education 3rd Century BCE.

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Persian Wars

What leads to rivalry between nations the causes of the Persian Wars?

Persia had included the Greek city-states in Asia Minor in its empire. These cities revolted, the other Greek cities gave them support. Persia then tried to keep them quiet by absorbing them into its empire.

It was not rivalry but a search for peace which brought them into conflict with Greek city-states which wanted to retain their independance and fight each other as they pleased.

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Persian Wars

Did Pericles fight bravely in the Persian Wars and then became leader of Athens?

Yes Pericles fought bravely, but he was under the age. He was 15 years old. After the PW, he became the leader of Athens.

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Persian Wars

What is the historical significance of the Greek victory in the Persian Wars?

They cemented their influence in the Eastern Mediterranean and cleared the way for Alexander's eventual takeover of the Persian Empire, and the temporary spread of Greek culture throughout the east.

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Persian Wars

What is the Persian War?

The Persian Empire took control of Asia Minor in the 6th Century BCE. Included in this were the Greek cities which dotted the Mediterranean and Black Sea coast. Mainland Greek cities supported revolutions of those 'daughter' colonies in Asia, and the Persians looked to punishing this interference, and to establish a longer term ethnic frontier by incorporating mainland Greece within the Empire.

King Darius planned this, and to punish the Athenian and Euboean assistance to Miletus which resulted in burning of Sardis, the Asia Minor province of the Empire, an amphibious expedition was sent in 490 BCE which reduced Euboea but failed in defeat at Marathon and before the walls of Athens. A second major expedition was planned but was delayed by the death of Darius and prior commitment to capture of Egypt.

However by 480 BCE the new emperor King Xerxes had assembled a new and larger naval and land expeditionary force, subverted most of the northerly Greek city states, and captured Athens after defeating an abortive attempt to destroy his fleet off the pass at Thermpopylae. His force was defeated by a sea battle - Salamis 480, the land battle at Plataia 479 and the sea-land battle at Mykale 479.

For further detail see WikiAnswers question:

Who_won_the_battle_with_the_300

The Athenians then established an anti-Persian alliance of the mainland and Asian greek states, which it progressively converted to an empire of its own, the proceeds from which ended up financing the great buildings of the city, and also stimulated the 27-year war between Athens and its empire and Sparta and its allies. Athens lost after the intervention of Persian money allowed Sparta to build up a navy to rival Athens'. The Persians continued to sit on the sidelines through the 5th and 4th Centuries BCE, preferring to exercise control through financial influence rather than fighting as the Greek cities weakened themselves fighting each other. This was reversed only after Philip of Macedonia and then his son Alexander gained control of mainland Greece in the second half of the 4th Century BCE, and the latter then invaded and defeated the Persian Empire. The empire was split up between Alexander's successors after his death.

For further detail see WikiAnswers question:

What_happened_to_Alexander_The_Great's_empire_after_his_death
In the Eastern Mediterranean 499-449 BCE.

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Persian Wars

Why did the first Persian War start?

The Greek city-states within the Persian Empire in Asia Minor revolted in 499 BCE.

The mainland Greek city-states of Eretria and Athens sent contingents to help them, and after the revolt was put down, Persia sent a punitive expedition to bring those two cities under control of local tyrants to ensure they did no cause trouble again. However this expedition was defeated at Marathon, so the Persians decided to bring all of Greece under control and mounted a major invasion 480-479 BCE.

This also failed and the war went on until 449 BCE, when peace was declared and Persia agreed to stay away from the Greek city-states.

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Persian Wars

What led to the outbreak of the Persian War?

Persia had included a couple of hundred Greek city-states in its province in Asia Minor. The cities were under local Greek government with a Persian provincial governor as was usual throughout the Empire.

These city-states were colonised by the cities in mainland Greece, and these mother-cities often interfered on the side of the daughter cities.

When the cities revolted from 499 BCE Athens and Eretria sent an expedition to help Miletus and overdid it by burning down the Persian provincial capital of Sardis. The Persian king Darius I resolved to punish them and instal a friendly government to keep them under control, and sent an expedition in 490 BCE which captured and enslaved Eretria, but failed against Athens at the battle of Marathon.

The Persian king realised that to stop this interference in his empire he would have to bring all of mainland Greece into his empire, creating an ethnic frontier. He died before he could bring this to fruition but his son Xerxes I took up the task and sent a combined naval and military force to Greece in 480 BCE, first paving the way by coercing and bribing the states of northern Greece to join him.

The invasion failed, turned back at the naval Battle of Salamis and the land battles of Plataia and Mycale. The war went on until 449 BCE when a peace was arranged.

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Persian Wars

Who fought against each other in the Persian wars?

Persians and the greeks

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Persian Wars

How did the Persian War lead to the Peloponnesian War?

When the Greek city-states banded together to repel the Persian invasions, Athens and Sparta emerged as Persia's leading opponents. Athens' fleet destroyed the Persian Navy, while the Spartan Army led the defense on land. Once they had disposed of the Persian threat, the two former allies grew suspicious of one another. A similar thing happened after Russia and the US allied to defeat Nazi Germany, but became suspicious of one another after defeating Hitler in WWII.

Another View:

After defeat of the Persian invasion, Sparta proposed evacuating the Greek cities within the Persian Empire back to mainland Greece to remove the cause of war between Persia and the Greeks (this was actually done over two thousand years later after World War 1).

Athens had a better idea - to form an anti-Persian league from these cities in Persian territory, and guarantee the cities independence and protection. The cities could either contribute warships or pay the League for the upkeep of warships. Most gave money, and most of the money went to maintain Athens' superior fleet. Sparta, always inwards looking, stayed home in its own territory.

Athens was involved in several wars between Greek cities, and imagined itself impregnable, with the alliance fleet and its city walls at home, and became a standover power, intervening as it pleased. The cities of the Peloponnese resented this and looked to Sparta to lead resistance to Athenian domination.

After flashpoints at Corcyra and Potidaia, Athens took punitive action against its neighbour Megara, which was a member of the Spartan-led Peloponnesian League. Sparta demanded on behalf of the League that Athens cease action against Megara and with no response, warfare was opened - a bitter and devastating 27-year struggle which extended through the Greek world from Sicily to Asia Minor.

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Iran
Persian Wars

How did the Persians lose the Persian Wars?

One very popular site with great tips is www.bassresource.com/bass-fishing-tips. You and your whole family can follow the simple steps to catch the biggest fish on your next trip.

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Persian Wars

Who became leader of Athens after the Persian Wars and helped make it the center of Greek culture?

Pericles .

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Persian Wars

Who lost the Persian War?

The Persian conflict with the Greeks went on for a hundred years, as the expanding Persian empire took over Greek city-states in the western Mediterranean. The Persians won some, lost some.

A peace was made in 449 BCE in which the Persians agreed to stay from the Greek cities outside its empire. It all ended when the Macedonian king Alexander ended it by conquering the Persian empire.

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Athens
Persian Wars

Was the Persian marathon war on sea or land?

It arose from a Persian amphibious force which tried to capture Athens and put it under an Athenian tyrant to stop it interfering in the Persian Empire elsewhere. The force landed on the Marathon plain with the Athenian army lurking in the hills waiting for reinforcement from Sparta. When the Athenians saw the Persian cavalry being re-embarked, they dashed down and defeated the inferior Persian infantry. Then they woke up to the fact that the Persian cavalry was being shipped around to Athens to take the city in their absence, so they ran back over the hills the 26 miles to Athens to protect the city, getting there just as the Persian cavalry was disembarking. The Persians went home.

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Persian Wars

What writing is Herodotus famous for?

He is famous for writing The History of the Persian Wars.

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