Marxism is sometimes referred to as "scientific socialism" because his analysis of economic laws would produce a form of socialism. His approach began with his economic interpretation of history. Marx's science here is that economic conditions determine the course of history. Therefore, history is "predictable" much as an apple falls down to the ground because of the laws of physics.Marx also viewed history as a struggle between economic classes. It became scientific inasmuch asthe have-not class would eventually overthrow the "haves". With this view, history and the future was-is predictable based on this struggle. Therefore it's only a matter of time before the exploited class overthrows the owner class. For Marx, the future from point of view in the mid-nineteenth century will result in the working class overthrowing the owning class. Thus, a predictable result which is a scientific result.
Marx identifies "surplus value" as the profits from the workers' toil and this too is a tool for the next social stage in human history. This places the workers in poverty.
Inevitability finalizes the situation. Just as it's inevitable that the apple falls to the ground by science, the workers overthrow the owners to survive. It is a scientific process. Marx only identifies it.
The Inca empire was a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
Bicultural socialization is to be socialized and functioning in two distinct cultures. Example: A child of first generation immigrants understands and functions fully in his/her ethnic culture at home, but is also able to fully function in and understands the culture of his school and greater community.
Socialism generally refers to an economic system based on public ownership and operation of the means of production (capital goods, assets and production equipment) with ownership vested in either a public body or in the workers who operate the enterprise.
There are several key variants of socialism that can be differentiated based on their economic mechanism (economic planning or market economics), their type of ownership (public ownership or worker's cooperatives), and how goods and services are valued.
Socialism may also refer to political ideologies and movements that have the establishment of socialism as their ultimate goal.
There are a number of different issues socialism seeks to resolve and goals socialism aims to achieve. Among socialism's key goals include:
There are different varieties of socialism. In general, they share a desire for egalitarianism, by which they mean equality as the oppurtunity to achieve self-actualization, and not just equality before the law.
Socialism - Economic vs Political
One thing the above gets a bit confused with is that in modern-day academic usage, socialism is mostly an economic idea, not a politicalidea. When talking about political socialism, usually it is referred to by another name, which specifies how the socialist economic policy is to be implemented; see things like Social democracy, Communism, Leninism and Maoism. Economic socialism by itself says nothing about the way that wealth should be distributed per se - that is, a socialist economy does not have to have one particular form of political system structure.
Commonly, Socialism (with the capital 'S') is a shorthand for Marxism, while socialism (with a lower-case 's') refers to the socialism economic theory.
Socialism means two related things:
An economic system based on social ownership of the means of production, collective-decision making in management, and production organized directly for use. There are several hypothetical versions of socialism, such as market-based socialism, planned economies and decentralized-planning.
Socialism also refers to a political ideology and political movement working toward the establishment of a socialist economy. This might encompass any policies or values held by that movement.
Socialism is where the government owns the industry of the country.
market socialism is a term used to denote two different economic system based in socialism which operate according tomarket priniciples.
any person who rules, guides or inspires others
Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin were major proponents of socialism.
ORIGINAL ANSWER: it is founded in facebook and myspace its were u can chat with ppl all over and not worring about who or talking to them on the phone its a more comfoprting way to talk to people
IMPROVED ANSWER: I honestly do not know alot about it, but I do know that it has nothing to do with Facebook. It was founded by Karl Marx, but I am unsure about when and where. Sorry!
it meets the needs for those unfortunate enough to draw a bad gene from their past gene pool and are not up to par in the know among the many! socialism can also meet the most of all needs ,love for nothing !
Just ask North Korea and Cuba how that is working out. Socialism makes you dependent on the government, and destroys your ambitions.
The major features of modern political thought are nation state,secularism,state sovereignty,democracy,nationalism,capitalism,socialism,liberalism and so on.
The theory and ideas of Communism were developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the 19th century. The first government established on those principals was that of Russia under Vladimir Lenin in October of 1917.
Marx developed Marxism with the help of Engels. Communism, the idea that goods should be held by the collective (community) rather than individuals, has been around a lot longer. traditionally even British culture was more communal than it is now. There were lots of struggles when the common (last remaining commonly owned land) was gotten rid of. Groups like the Diggers protested in 1649. Many native cultures in North America got so ripped off because the idea of the land belonging to anyone was so foreign to them that they didn't understand it and it got taken by Europeans.
No Government has ever been established on the principles of Communism as defined by Marx and Engels. In fact, the idea of Communist Government is a contradiction in terms. What we lazily call Communism is simply good old Capitalism where the faceless government owns the wealth, just like the faceless corporations who own the wealth of the "free world."
The idea of common ownership in a classless society of humans, however, is very old. We might better ask: When did communism end? And the answer might be: With the Division of Labor, which introduced drudgery and social class.
The rich have less ability to exploit the poor.
People get a fair chance in life.
A "fairer" distribution of wealth.
Socialism simply argues that certain activities are done better by a central authority, and in actuality are done poorly by a private market. If you believe the private market handles all things best then you disagree with this assumption.
perceptual cons (these are not cons of socialism in and of itself, but are cons of typical "socialist" governments)
Also, note that Socialism can refer to either a political (i.e. government) type, or an economic model. Socialist governments don't have to follow a socialist economic model, and vice versa. Usually, "Socialism" [capitalized] refers to the political form, and "socialism" [lowercase] refers to the economic model.
The main problem with this question is that there are many different, conflicting definitions of both words. Even Marx and Engels themselves used the words to mean different things at different points in time. To talk about someone's specific beliefs, you generally need to use more specific terms than either "socialist" or "communist".Socialism Vs Communism" Socialism is the idea that the working class, the class that produces the profits, the wealth, the cars, houses, planes, steel, should take over and run things collectively, democratically, for the benefit of the majority (who also "just happen" to be workers too).
Communism is the idea that society should not have classes - exploiters and exploited, oppressors and oppressed, and so on. "
Most communists would say that communism is a form of socialism, or a progression from socialism, so we will start with that word.
At its heart, Socialism stands for a belief in government for the benefit of the whole of society. It stands, therefore, opposite Liberalism, which is a belief in government (or lack thereof) for the benefit of the individual.
This broad meaning has allowed the term 'socialism' to be used to describe a very broad array of practical governmental styles.
Regardless of modern political practice, most forms of socialism owe a great debt to 19th century socialism. That period was a time of great social upheaval in Europe and many of its current and former colonies. The Industrial Revolution had irreversibly changed the way that working people lived their lives, and had brought a great many of them into the cities, where extreme poverty became normality.
Various strands of socialism began to form, trying to better the lives of the working class. Not all of them would be considered left-wing nowadays, and the Fascist and Nazi movements grew out of this period quite organically.
The German political economists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels gave enormous purpose to the general socialist movement and drew many socialists into their theories of socialism and communism. They famously wrote the Communist Manifesto, a very small document considering its reputation.
At that time, the terms, 'socialism' and 'social democracy' were largely interchangeable and they remain so to many people across the world, whose socialist or social-democratic political parties are driven primarily by the legacy of socialists other than Marx and Engels.
While many socialist parties now have Marxist factions, or attract a broad base of communist-leaning activists and voters, these parties are generally not communist, and even less Marxist.
Modern socialist parties tend to believe in a strong, centralised, welfare state, but they fall very short of communism, in that they support the right of individuals to own private capital.
Although their were 'communists' before Marx, they bear little resemblance to post-Marx Communists.
Marx was a high-profile figure in a political movement which sought to do away with the idea of private capital. It is important to note that the vast majority of communists do not believe that absolutely everything should be owned by the state, or by everybody. In his book Capital (Das Kapital in German), Marx laid out an economic philosophy, explaining how private capitalism works, how it is a deeply flawed economic practice, and how the working man and woman are exploited by capitalism's basic nature.
Marx and number of other political and economic theorists of the time, proposed that the way to achieve a dignified and high quality of life for everybody, was to communalise the economy. This wasn't just to be government for the people, it was to be government by the people. The communists called for a complete social, economic and political revolution, whereby all the private capital - the means of producing everything society needs - would be taken away from the private individuals and companies that got so rich at the expense of the works, and would be owned collectively by everyone.
In the form of communism proposed by Marx and his direct ideological descendants, such as Lenin, Trotsky, and Mao, this transformation would take place by a Communist Party seizing control of a national government (hopefully more than one, perhaps even them all), and instituting a transitional form of government, which would steadily communise the economy until the point where the state could be abolished and true communism would be complete. This stage they called socialism.
There are many communists who disagree with this strategy for achieving communism, in light of the atrocious crimes committed by 'Marxist' parties in the USSR, China and Cambodia in particular.
Chief among the libertarian communists are the anarchist-communists, who famously split acrimoniously with the communists led by Marx. Anarchist-communists believe that to give the state all the power is to invite disaster. They believe in the bottom-up approach to social transformation, fostering strong community and workers' groups, emphasising from the start, a need to limit personal power and heirarchies.
There are other strands of communism, but all ultimately believe in the idea of the collective ownership and management of the economy - by the people, for the people.
View 2 Socialism and communism are ideological doctrines that have many similarities as well as many differences. It is difficult to discern the true differences between socialism and communism, as various societies have tried different types of both systems in myriad forms, and many ideologues with different agendas have defined both systems in biased terms. Some main differences, however, can still be identified.
One difference between socialism and communism is that socialism is mainly an economic system, while communism is both an economic and a political system. As an economic system, socialism seeks to manage the economy through deliberate and collective social control. Communism, however, seeks to manage both the economy and the society by ensuring that property is owned collectively and that control over the distribution of property is centralized in order to achieve both classlessness and statelessness. Both socialism and communism are similar in that they seek to prevent the ill effects that are sometimes produced by capitalism.
Both socialism and communism are based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly and controlled and planned by a centralized organization. However, socialism asserts that the distribution should take place according to the amount of individuals' production efforts, while communism asserts that that goods and services should be distributed among the populace according to individuals' needs.
Another difference between socialism and communism is that communists assert that both capitalism and private ownership of means of production must be done away with as soon as possible in order to make sure a classless society, the communist ideal, is formed. Socialists, however, see capitalism as a possible part of the ideal state and believe that socialism can exist in a capitalist society. In fact, one of the ideas of socialism is that everyone within the society will benefit from capitalism as much as possible as long as the capitalism is controlled somehow by a centralized planning system.
Finally, another difference between socialism and communism is centered on who controls the structure of economy. Where socialism generally aims to have as many people as possible influence how the economy works, communism seeks to concentrate that number into a smaller amount.
Socialism and Communism are often used interchangeably as they are both in opposition to Capitalism but they are actually two different economic philosophies. Both have been theorized in different versions ranging from libertarian to authoritarian along the social spectrum. Societies having these economic philosophies bear little resemblance to one another if they are on opposite sides of the social spectrum. To add to the confusion many political entities have described themselves as "Socialist" or "Communist" in name, without actually adhering to either in their economic policies. One of the most notable is the Nationalist Socialist German Worker's party which incorporated "Socialist" into their name but actually carried out a mixed policy of privatized and state Capitalism. Another infamous and most commonly cited one was the U.S.S.R., which not only claimed to be Socialist but also claimed to be a Federation of Democratic Republics. In reality that government was an oppressive bureaucracy with a centrally planned state capitalist economy.
Both Socialism and Communism oppose the private ownership of the means of production and the products produced from that capital, ie. Capitalism. Instead Socialism advocates ownership by the workers who use the capital and Communism advocates ownership of capital by the entire community. So in Capitalism an individual or group of individuals would own a factory, all the machines that produce, let's say a car, and all the cars produced. They then hire workers to make the cars and pay them wages that they compete with each other for. Afterwards they sell the cars and keep what they make above their expenses as profit. In Socialism the workers in the factory own the factory, machines, and the cars produced. After they produce their cars they sell them on a market and distribute what they make above their expenses amongst themselves. The workers only have collective ownership of where they work and what they produce. Finally, in Communism the entire community collectively owns all industries and everything produced in those industries. The workers in the commune's car factory would produce cars that could either be distributed within the commune or sold to others with the profits being distributed amongst all members of the commune.
It is important to differentiate State Capitalism from even the most authoritarian version of Socialism and Communism. In the latter government institutions are limited to the enforcement of Socialist and Communist property rights, ie. Ensuring that workers have free access to capital, or that profits are distributed to everyone who has a right to them. In a State Capitalist economy government bureaucrats own the means of production, set wages for their citizens, and distribute goods and services. As in all economies wealth tends to concentrate with those who own the capital and the goods produced by that capital.
A summarized, simplified point of view
From the two above answers the second one is very thorough but it can be hard for a person who hasn't studied left-wing ideologies to understand it. Therefore I will try to simply explain how the difference between socialism and communism has changed throughout time, and the meaning of both terms has been contorted throughout history (Like leninism being called communism and nazism being called socialism). In the dawn of all ideologies in the 19th century there were 5 main types of philosophies - Nationalism, Conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism and Utopian Socialism. After that many scientists and philosophers built on "Socialism" and many sub-ideologies were formed, one of them communism. So you can imagine it this way - Socialism is the drive C on your computer and Communism, Libertarian Socialism, Marxism, etc. are the folders in the drive. When Marx and Engels came along, they started using Socialism and Communism interchangeably, but basically you don't see the word "communism" is used less in their text because, like all the other left-wingers of the 19th century, they were building on Socialism. Then, when Lenin and the USSR came along they applied a industrialization-based economy to an agricultural country, therefore they failed and were at loss. Then they decided to create a "transition" to communism, which was surprisingly called socialism. So they claimed that they are a socialism country and socialism will lead to communism. Basically, their transition was a centralized capitalist system, and even Lenin admits that, because he thinks if Russia becomes a communist country it would be crushed through military force, and Stalin, in one of his secret letters claims that the USSR isn't socialist at all but if this went public it would mean the end of the USSR.
Now in the 21st century people either think Socialism means more to the right and Communism means more to the left or that Socialism is the "transition" to Communism, but that couldn't be further from the truth - they forget that Communism is one of the ideologies in the category Socialism
According to Karl Marx (in the middle of the 19th century), there necessarily will be a revolutionary movement because workers will not accept their situation any longer. They will size power , i.e. overthow capitalism and a workers' government will be set up. This will lead to a communist society, in which people will share things and work, they will do what they are good at, everybody will be able to get everything according to his or her needs from a central pool of resources. The state owns all the factories, land, and provides for people's needs. But, a communist society will emerge after a transitional period of the dictatorship of the proletariat= this period is called socialism. (As if people would have to be forced to feel how good a society were awaiting for them, if they refused to feel this and did not want to work for it, they would be persuaded.)
The most famous book of Karl Marx was the Communist Manifesto. His associate, Friedrich Engels, played a key role in the Manifesto. Das Kapital is a more technical book on economics.
Socialism is not a form of government. It is an economic system much like capitalism, mercantilism and feudalism.
People support the basic idea of socialism for different reasons.
For economic reasons, one might support socialism as a means to "rationalize" the economic system by eliminating the boom-and-bust cycle inherent to capitalism, to allow for full employment, efficient use of resources, and public ownership over large industries so that the profits can be distributed more evenly amongst the population.
Socialism may also be supported by those who criticize capitalism on cultural and moral grounds.
Philosophically, socialism is advocated for greater equality, individuality as defined as enabling a greater scope for self-actualization and the expansion of democratic-decision making into the economic aspects of society.
If "socialism" is defined as state-ownership over the means of production in most large-scale industries; then the People's Republic of China, Norway and Singapore would be contemporary examples of countries with "socialist" economies.
If "socialism" is defined as a planned economy, then the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc would be considered to be "socialist" countries.
If "socialism" means worker's self-management and collective ownership of enterprises, the former Yugoslavia would be an example of a socialist country.
An excellent example of socialism is the nuclear family. Let's say you have a family of 3:
The family is doing financially well, given that the father and mother are both employed. Despite the fact that their child cannot work (and thus has no economic worth) they still care for him. If the mother was in a disabling car accident and lost her economic worth, the father would not only continue caring for the child, but would also take care of the mother. He does this because he believes they are still important, and because it is the right thing to do.
The problem lies with socialism as a national model. In the example above, what happens if the father decides his family is better off being cared for by the government than caring for his family alone? The entire economic model collapses. People will not work as hard for others as they will for their own family. Why would they if they know someone else will do it for them?
Life itself, evolution, is driven by capitalism. Every living thing capitalizes on something else. Take that away and you take away what drives us. People are generous when they are prosperous. They will and do help the needy without being forced and the needy, need to want to help themselves.
The US does not "hate" socialism, although a significant portion of the population is opposed to socialism due to Cold War-era propaganda, misinformation and lack of understanding.
The ideology of the former Soviet Union and its allies, Marxism-Leninism, has given socialism a negative reputation because it was the adversary of the United States during the Cold War and maintained an authoritarian form of government.
Socialism is an economic system based on co-operative or social ownership of the means of production, self-management or democratic decision-making in economic enterprises, and in its most developed form, the replacement of money with a direct measure of economic value for economic calculation. However, most Americans do not associate socialism with its true definition, and conflate it with one or more of the following:
1) The political system of authoritarianism, where the government wields excessive power over society and can curtail individual freedoms and rights at will.
2) State-ownership of companies, which is not socialistic per se, and is actually a feature or has been a feature of many capitalist economies.
3) Social welfare programs and policies, which have nothing to do with socialism as an alternative to capitalism and were actually a way to safeguard capitalism against the threat of socialist revolution by detracting workers from developing support for socialism. In Western Europe, many social democratic or formerly socialist parties have implemented social welfare policies, hence why it is associated with socialism to many Americans.
4) Political revolution and Anti-Americanism associated with the theories of Leninism and marxism-Leninism, which subscribe to the theory of Imperialism and opposed American interests because the United States is, according to this theory, the leading Imperialist nation.
Real Socialism would be the transition stage from capitalism to communism that Marx and Engels created and possibly with help from Lenin. Read the area about transition in The communist Manifesto if you want "real socialism". It is not too specific so you might want to go to Communist Party web sites if you want a more specific description.
I think not. Women are often hormonal and moody and I think have larger egos at the job. Men cut to the chase and you have no doubt what they are thinking. Id much rather work for a man and I am a woman.
To a small extent yes;
On one hand you have great fear of communism generated by the 1916 Russian revolution.
Take America during this period;
The journalist Kenneth Roberts wrote that "social democracy gives off a distinct sour Bolshevik odour". He was part of the 100% Americanism movement that preached sermons and lectured at university although hit only spread its message to a few, the fact that this fear was here illustrates that many of the Super capitalists in America were tending towards capitalism.
The Palmer raids in 1919 demonstrate effectively the fear that many people had of communism. After his house was bombed the then Attorney General A.M.Palmer created a "red scare", using the General intelligence division to arrest around 6,000 "foreign radicals", 5400 were later released due to lack of evidence. The public lost interest as they saw the threat had been exaggerated. The ability of Palmer to create such a scare in the first place in America and also in many other Western countries.
Count Carlo Sforza noted that "the privileged classes wanted security against a "red danger" more imaginary than real - and to them the best bulwarks against the "red danger" were the two dictators in Berlin and Rome".
Indeed a British envoy stated that "These Japanese how violent, how barbarous! Just the stuff we need to destroy Moscow" and the same was true of the Germans and the Italians and their view.
This Mussolini quote illustrates the great ideological divides between fascism and "We declare war against socialism, not because it is socialism, but because it has opposed nationalism". The charisma of the two infamous fascist leaders meant that they could sell fascism as a way to overt socialism to many leading conservatives. This prompted many prominent bankers, financers and business chiefs to donate to fascist parties.
Therefore fear of socialism and communism's played a major part in the development of fascism but bourgeoisie hate of socialism also contributed to the origin of Fascism.
Fascism was a combination of pre-existing ideologies such as nationalism and militarism. What caused these ideologies to fuse together was WW1 which discontented Italians and Germans after Versailles, and its effect to split the political left between internationalist and nationalists. Fear of socialism (amongst the general population and not just the upper-class) also contributed.
As fascist parties expanded and no longer depended heavily on the support of business they adopted a very anti-capitalist approach - turning on its creators.
Mussolini detested the "super capitalism" that caused the depression and even criminalised 1st class train cabins.
Hitler stated that the bourgeoisie "know nothing except their profit, "Fatherland" is only a word for them". This conflict in views between moderate conservatism and fascism made the clash inevitable the tragedy was that British and French Tories did not realised it 10years too late.
So yes Fascism was the answer of many German and Italian conservatives to the growing red threat in their own countries. British and French conservatives failed to see how fascism turned on its creators and adopted a policy of non-interventionism as they saw it as a means to stand against Moscow.
Social Strata is the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and/or wealth within a society.
Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. This control may be either direct-exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils-or indirect-exercised on behalf of the people by the state. As an economic system, socialism is characterized by state or community ownership or control of the means of production. The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on Socialism.
However, it is quite an elusive term, of which the boundaries have become blurred. For instance, the UK Labour Party (Current UK Government) of which Tony Blair used to lead is a "democratic socialist" party affiliated with Socialism International.
The same can be said for the French government, as for the German government and many other European governments, as an example that there is no prevailing definetion of socialism as it varies from one territory to another.
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