Women's Health

Ask questions here about health issues specific to females including pregnancy, menstruation and breast cancer.

23,978 Questions

What does slim fast do?

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Well, if your follow the exact instructions on the product and stick to an additional diet, you might get slim fast.

The problem is, once you are finished with a cure, or you stop taking slim fast, you get fat fast again. It is called "the yo-yo- effect" and it will happen with every cure, exercise or diet that makes you slim in a fast way.

The best way is the cheapest way, and trust me- my father had many successes with this as a medical dietitian.

Eat healthy: 200 grams (7oz) of fruit and 200 grams of vegetables (not heavily cooked) a day, some Brazil nuts every day and a balanced breakfast, lunch and dinner, vary from day to day, don't eat the same every day but try to eat at the same time every day.

Avoid late night snacks, too much candy, pie, chips, fastfood restaurants, sodas, beer, sweet or fat food like pudding desserts.

Use palmsugar, a glass of fresh milk, and a glass of red wine a day, fresh fish, bake in coconut-oil, use real butter instead of margerine (no matter what they tell you). Stay away from almost every product that tells you it makes you slim but instead use fresh products. And sugar is your worst enemy- the fats in sugar that is, you can hardly get rid of them. So start looking at foodlabels, to much sugar? take something else!

Exercise: Walking is better than running, physical work is better than fitness. Many people that want to lose weight start exercising heavily like bodybuilding or running. The result is that the fat turns into muscles and muscles are even bigger and weight more than fat. For losing weight, normal but much movement is the best: take a long walk every day, or bike 5/10 miles everyday.

It is important to put your goal of losing weight not for next month. Take the time and you will stay slim (if you not immediately run off to get a hamburger once you're slim). Slim fast always means fat fast afterwards.

Men are better than women in rugby but in what way?

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Asked by Wiki User

Men are not better than women, nor are women better than men. They are different and cannot be accurately compared.

While women are pound-for-pound stronger than men, men are usually bigger, and therefore will be stronger, which of course is a desirable trait in rugby. Having said this, women's rugby is considered by some to be a purer form of the sport, owing to the fact that they tend not to rely on brute force (although there are undoubtedly some female players capable of doing this) and instead rely on skill.

Which virus causes cervical cancer?

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HPV is the infection that puts women at risk for Cervical cancer. The vaccine against cervical cancer lowers the risk significantly.

Why do girls have such big breast?

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It's genetics.
It's in the genes.

But, in the last decade or so, breast size has increased due to hormones put in cattle.

Cervical cancer after 65?

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Cervical cancer is less common in women over the age of 65, primarily because of routine cervical cancer screening, such as Pap smears and HPV testing, which can detect precancerous changes and early-stage cervical cancer. However, it's essential for women in this age group to remain vigilant about their cervical health, as the risk is not entirely eliminated.

Here are some key points to consider regarding cervical cancer after the age of 65:

Screening Guidelines: The need for cervical cancer screening may vary based on a woman's individual health history and whether she has had regular screenings in the past. In the United States, for example, the American Cancer Society recommends that women aged 65 and older should continue to have cervical cancer screenings if they have a history of abnormal Pap smears or if they were previously diagnosed with cervical dysplasia or cancer. However, for women with a history of regular screenings with normal results and no high-risk factors, screening may be considered unnecessary after age 65.

HPV Vaccination: The HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine can help prevent cervical cancer, and it is recommended for individuals up to the age of 26. If a woman has not been vaccinated and is in the eligible age group, she may still consider getting the vaccine if she is at risk of HPV exposure.

Sexual Activity: The risk of cervical cancer is linked to HPV infection, which is often transmitted through sexual activity. If a woman remains sexually active after the age of 65, she should continue to consider regular screenings and follow her healthcare provider's recommendations.

Individual Health History: A woman's personal health history, including any previous abnormal Pap smears or treatments for cervical dysplasia or cancer, will influence her cervical cancer screening schedule. It's essential to discuss screening recommendations with a healthcare provider who is familiar with her medical history.

Symptoms: Regardless of age, it's crucial to be aware of any unusual symptoms, such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. These symptoms should be promptly reported to a healthcare provider for evaluation.

In summary, while the risk of cervical cancer typically decreases after age 65 due to screening and reduced HPV exposure, it's important for women in this age group to maintain open communication with their healthcare providers. They should follow any recommended screening guidelines based on their individual health history and continue to monitor their cervical health. Regular check-ups and discussions with a healthcare provider can help ensure early detection and appropriate management if any concerns arise.

Is it possible to do a tubal reversal of a laparoscopic tubal ligation with single puncture technique and a Bipolar Kleppinger cautery was used to fulgurate 3 cm of the isthmic portion of each tube?

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Yes. It usually is. However, the success rate is only about 60% and the reversal usually requires major surgery. If the patient is over 36 years of age, she should probably consider in vitro fertilization instead. i have been cut can i get undone i like to have one more im looking for a doctor in bellive

What is the earliest stage of breast cancer called?

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The goal of screening exams for early breast cancer detection is to find cancers before they start to cause symptoms. Screening refers to tests and exams used to find a disease, such as cancer, in people who do not have any symptoms. Early detection means using an approach that allows earlier diagnosis of breast cancer than otherwise might have occurred.

Breast cancers that are found because they are causing symptoms tend to be larger and are more likely to have already spread beyond the breast. In contrast, breast cancers found during screening exams are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast. The size of a breast cancer and how far it has spread are some of the most important factors in predicting the prognosis (outlook) of a woman with this disease.

Most doctors feel that early detection tests for breast cancer save many thousands of lives each year, and that many more lives could be saved if even more women and their health care providers took advantage of these tests. Following the American Cancer Society's guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer improves the chances that breast cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage and treated successfully.

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx (voice box), bladder, kidney, and several other organs.

But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Most women who have one or more breast cancer risk factors never develop the disease, while many women with breast cancer have no apparent risk factors (other than being a woman and growing older). Even when a woman with risk factors develops breast cancer, it is hard to know just how much these factors may have contributed to her cancer.

There are different kinds of risk factors. Some factors, like a person's age or race, can't be changed. Others are linked to cancer-causing factors in the environment. Still others are related to personal behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and diet. Some factors influence risk more than others, and your risk for breast cancer can change over time, due to factors such as aging or lifestyle changes.

Risk factors you cannot change


Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for developing breast cancer. Although women have many more breast cells than men, the main reason they develop more breast cancer is because their breast cells are constantly exposed to the growth-promoting effects of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Men can develop breast cancer, but this disease is about 100 times more common among women than men.


Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. About 1 out of 8 invasive breast cancers are found in women younger than 45, while about 2 out of 3 invasive breast cancers are found in women age 55 or older.

Genetic risk factors

About 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, resulting directly from gene defects (called mutations) inherited from a parent.

BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In normal cells, these genes help prevent cancer by making proteins that help keep the cells from growing abnormally. If you have inherited a mutated copy of either gene from a parent, you have a high risk of developing breast cancer during your lifetime.

The risk may be as high as 80% for members of some families with BRCA mutations. These cancers tend to occur in younger women and are more often bilateral (in both breasts) than cancers in women who are not born with one of these gene mutations. Women with these inherited mutations also have an increased risk for developing other cancers, particularly ovarian cancer.

Although in the U.S., BRCA mutations are found most often in Jewish women of Ashkenazi (Eastern Europe) origin, they can occur in any racial or ethnic group.

Changes in other genes: Other gene mutations can also lead to inherited breast cancers. These genes mutations are much rarer and often do not increase the risk of breast cancer as much as the BRCA genes. They are not frequent causes of inherited breast cancer.

  • ATM: The ATM gene normally helps repair damaged DNA. Inheriting 2 abnormal copies of this gene causes the disease ataxia-telangiectasia. Inheriting one mutated copy of this gene has been linked to a high rate of breast cancer in some families.
  • p53: Inherited mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene cause the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (named after the 2 researchers who first described it). People with this syndrome have an increased risk of breast cancer, as well as several other cancers such as leukemia, brain tumors, and sarcomas (cancer of bones or connective tissue). This is a rare cause of breast cancer.
  • CHEK2: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome can also be caused by inherited mutations in the CHEK2 gene. Even when it does not cause this syndrome, it can increase breast cancer risk about twofold when it is mutated.
  • PTEN: The PTEN gene normally helps regulate cell growth. Inherited mutations in this gene cause Cowden syndrome, a rare disorder in which people are at increased risk for both benign and malignant breast tumors, as well as growths in the digestive tract, thyroid, uterus, and ovaries.
  • CDH1: Inherited mutations in this gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, a syndrome in which people develop a rare type of stomach cancer at an early age. Women with mutations in this gene also have an increased risk of invasive lobular breast cancer.

Genetic testing: Genetic testing can be done to look for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (or less commonly in other genes such as PTEN or p53). Although testing may be helpful in some situations, the pros and cons need to be considered carefully.

If you are considering genetic testing, it is strongly recommended that first you talk to a genetic counselor, nurse, or doctor qualified to explain and interpret the results of these tests. It is very important to understand what genetic testing can and can't tell you, and to carefully weigh the benefits and risks of genetic testing before these tests are done. Testing is expensive and may not be covered by some health insurance plans.

For more information, see the American Cancer Society document, Genetic Testing: What You Need to Know. You may also want to visit the National Cancer Institute Web site (

Family history of breast cancer

Women whose close blood relatives have breast cancer have a higher risk for this disease.

Having a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer almost doubles a woman's risk. Having 2 first-degree relatives increases her risk about 5-fold.

Although the exact risk is not known, women with a family history of breast cancer in a father or brother also have an increased risk of breast cancer. Overall, about 20% to 30% of women with breast cancer have a family member with this disease. This means that most (70% to 80%) women who get breast cancer do not have a family history of this disease.

Personal history of breast cancer

A woman with cancer in one breast has a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This is different from a recurrence (return) of the first cancer.

Race and ethnicity

White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than are African-American women. However, African-American women are more likely to die of this cancer. At least part of this seems to be because African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors, although the reasons for this are not known. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

Dense breast tissue

Women with denser breast tissue (as seen on a mammogram) have more glandular tissue and less fatty tissue, and have a higher risk of breast cancer. Unfortunately, dense breast tissue can also make it harder for doctors to spot problems on mammograms.

Certain benign breast conditions

Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions may have an increased risk of breast cancer. Some of these conditions are more closely linked to breast cancer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into 3 general groups, depending on how they affect this risk.

Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions are not associated with overgrowth of breast tissue. They do not seem to affect breast cancer risk, or if they do it is to a very small extent. They include:

  • fibrocystic disease (fibrosis and/or cysts)
  • mild hyperplasia
  • adenosis (non-sclerosing)
  • simple fibroadenoma
  • phyllodes tumor (benign)
  • a single papilloma
  • fat necrosis
  • mastitis
  • duct ectasia
  • other benign tumors (lipoma, hamartoma, hemangioma, neurofibroma)

Proliferative lesions without atypia: These conditions show excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue. They seem to raise a woman's risk of breast cancer slightly (1 ½ to 2 times normal). They include:

  • usual ductal hyperplasia (without atypia)
  • complex fibroadenoma
  • sclerosing adenosis
  • several papillomas or papillomatosis
  • radial scar

Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, there is excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue, and the cells no longer appear normal. They have a stronger effect on breast cancer risk, raising it 4 to 5 times higher than normal. They include:

  • atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)
  • atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)

Women with a family history of breast cancer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia have an even higher risk of developing a breast cancer.

For more information on these conditions, see the separate American Cancer Society document, Non-cancerous Breast Conditions.

Lobular carcinoma in situ

Women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 7 -to 11-fold increased risk of developing cancer in either breast.

Menstrual periods

Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating at an early age (before age 12) and/or went through menopause at a later age (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. This may be related to a higher lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Previous chest radiation

Women who as children or young adults had radiation therapy to the chest area as treatment for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) are at significantly increased risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient's age when they got the radiation. If chemotherapy was also given, it may have stopped ovarian hormone production for some time, lowering the risk.. The risk of developing breast cancer from chest radiation is highest if the radiation was given during adolescence, when the breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure

From the 1940s through the early 1970s some pregnant women were given an estrogen-like drug called DES because it was thought to lower their chances of losing the baby (miscarriage). These women have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy may also have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. For more information on DES see the separate American Cancer Society document, DES Exposure: Questions and Answers.

Lifestyle-related factors

Not having children, or having them later in life

Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Pregnancy reduces a woman's total number of lifetime menstrual cycles, which may be the reason for this effect.

Recent oral contraceptive use

Studies have found that women using oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have a slightly greater risk of breast cancer than women who have never used them. Over time, this risk seems to go back to normal once the pills are stopped. Women who stopped using oral contraceptives more than 10 years ago do not appear to have any increased breast cancer risk. When thinking about using oral contraceptives, women should discuss their other risk factors for breast cancer with their health care team.

Post-menopausal hormone therapy (PHT)

Post-menopausal hormone therapy, also known as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), has been used for many years to help relieve symptoms of menopause and to help prevent osteoporosis (thinning of the bones). Earlier studies suggested it might have other health benefits as well, but those benefits have not been found in more recent, better designed studies.

There are 2 main types of PHT. For women who still have a uterus (womb), doctors generally prescribe estrogen and progesterone (known as combined PHT). Because estrogen alone can increase the risk of cancer of the uterus, progesterone is added to help prevent this. For women who've had a hysterectomy (those who no longer have a uterus), estrogen alone can be prescribed. This is commonly known as estrogen replacement therapy (ERT).

Combined PHT: Use of combined post-menopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of getting breast cancer. It may also increase the chances of dying from breast cancer. This increase in risk can be seen with as little as 2 years of use. Large studies have found that there is an increased risk of breast cancer related to the use of combined PHT. Combined PHT also increases the likelihood that the cancer may be found at a more advanced stage, possibly because it reduces the effectiveness of mammograms.

The increased risk from combined PHT appears to apply only to current and recent users. A woman's breast cancer risk seems to return to that of the general population within 5 years of stopping combined PHT.

ERT: The use of estrogen alone after menopause does not appear to increase the risk of developing breast cancer significantly, if at all. But when used long term (for more than 10 years), ERT has been found to increase the risk of ovarian and breast cancer in some studies.

At this time there appear to be few strong reasons to use post-menopausal hormone therapy (combined PHT or ERT), other than possibly for the short-term relief of menopausal symptoms. Along with the increased risk of breast cancer, combined PHT also appears to increase the risk of heart disease, blood clots, and strokes. It does lower the risk of colorectal cancer and osteoporosis, but this must be weighed against the possible harms, and it should be noted that there are other effective ways to prevent osteoporosis. Although ERT does not seem to have much effect on breast cancer risk, it does increase the risk of stroke. The increased risk of hormone replacement therapy is the same for "bioidentical" and "natural" hormones as it is for synthetic hormones.

The decision to use PHT should be made by a woman and her doctor after weighing the possible risks and benefits (including the severity of her menopausal symptoms), and considering her other risk factors for heart disease, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. If a woman and her doctor decide to try PHT for symptoms of menopause, it is usually best to use it at the lowest dose that works for her and for as short a time as possible.

Not breast-feeding

Some studies suggest that breast-feeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it is continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been a difficult area to study, especially in countries such as the United States, where breast-feeding for this long is uncommon.

The explanation for this possible effect may be that breast-feeding reduces a woman's total number of lifetime menstrual cycles (the same as starting menstrual periods at a later age or going through early menopause).


Consumption of alcohol is clearly linked to an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. Compared with non-drinkers, women who consume 1 alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in risk. Those who have 2 to 5 drinks daily have about 1½ times the risk of women who drink no alcohol. Excessive alcohol use is also known to increase the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and liver. The American Cancer Society recommends that women limit their alcohol consumption to no more than 1 drink a day.

Being overweight or obese

Being overweight or obese has been found to increase breast cancer risk, especially for women after menopause. Before menopause your ovaries produce most of your estrogen, and fat tissue produces a small amount of estrogen. After menopause (when the ovaries stop making estrogen), most of a woman's estrogen comes from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue after menopause can increase your chance of getting breast cancer by raising estrogen levels.

The connection between weight and breast cancer risk is complex, however. For example, risk appears to be increased for women who gained weight as an adult but may not be increased among those who have been overweight since childhood. Also, excess fat in the waist area may affect risk more than the same amount of fat in the hips and thighs. Researchers believe that fat cells in various parts of the body have subtle differences that may explain this.

The American Cancer Society recommends you maintain a healthy weight throughout your life by balancing your food intake with physical activity and avoiding excessive weight gain.

Lack of physical activity

Evidence is growing that physical activity in the form of exercise reduces breast cancer risk. The main question is how much exercise is needed. In one study from the Women's Health Initiative, as little as 1¼ to 2½ hours per week of brisk walking reduced a woman's risk by 18%. Walking 10 hours a week reduced the risk a little more.

To reduce your risk of breast cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends 45 to 60 minutes of intentional physical activity 5 or more days a week.

Factors with uncertain, controversial, or unproven effect on breast cancer risk

High-fat diets

Studies of fat in the diet have not clearly shown that this is a breast cancer risk factor.

Most studies have found that breast cancer is less common in countries where the typical diet is low in total fat, low in polyunsaturated fat, and low in saturated fat. On the other hand, many studies of women in the United States have not found breast cancer risk to be related to dietary fat intake. Researchers are still not sure how to explain this apparent disagreement. Studies comparing diet and breast cancer risk in different countries are complicated by other differences (such as activity level, intake of other nutrients, and genetic factors) that might also alter breast cancer risk.

More research is needed to better understand the effect of the types of fat eaten on breast cancer risk. But it is clear that calories do count, and fat is a major source of these. High-fat diets can lead to being overweight or obese, which is a breast cancer risk factor. A diet high in fat has also been shown to influence the risk of developing several other types of cancer, and intake of certain types of fat is clearly related to heart disease risk.

The American Cancer Society recommends eating a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant sources. This includes eating 5 or more servings of vegetables and fruits each day, choosing whole grains over those that are processed (refined), and limiting consumption of processed and red meats.


Internet e-mail rumors have suggested that chemicals in underarm antiperspirants are absorbed through the skin, interfere with lymph circulation, and cause toxins to build up in the breast, eventually leading to breast cancer. There is very little laboratory or population-based evidence to support this rumor.

One small study has found trace levels of parabens (used as preservatives in antiperspirants and other products), which have weak estrogen-like properties, in a small sample of breast cancer tumors. However, the study did not look at whether parabens caused the tumors. This was a preliminary finding, and more research is needed to determine what effect, if any, parabens may have on breast cancer risk. On the other hand, a large population-based study found no increase in breast cancer in women who used underarm antiperspirants and/or shaved their underarms.


Internet e-mail rumors and at least one book have suggested that bras cause breast cancer by obstructing lymph flow. There is no good scientific or clinical basis for this claim. Women who do not wear bras regularly are more likely to be thinner, which would probably contribute to any perceived difference in risk.

Induced abortion

Several studies have provided very strong data that neither induced abortions nor spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) have an overall effect on the risk of breast cancer. For more detailed information, see the separate American Cancer Society document, Is Having an Abortion Linked to Breast Cancer?

Breast implants

Several studies have found that breast implants do not increase breast cancer risk, although silicone breast implants can cause scar tissue to form in the breast. Implants make it harder to see breast tissue on standard mammograms, but additional x-ray pictures called implant displacement views can be used to examine the breast tissue more completely.

Chemicals in the environment

A great deal of research has been reported and more is being done to understand possible environmental influences on breast cancer risk.

Of special interest are compounds in the environment that have been found in lab studies to have estrogen-like properties, which could in theory affect breast cancer risk. For example, substances found in some plastics, certain cosmetics and personal care products, pesticides, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) seem to have such properties.

Although this issue understandably invokes a great deal of public concern, at this time research does not show a clear link between breast cancer risk and exposure to these substances. Unfortunately, studying such effects in humans is difficult. More research is needed to better define the possible health effects of these and similar substances.

Tobacco smoke

Most studies have found no link between cigarette smoking and breast cancer. Although some studies have suggested smoking increases the risk of breast cancer, this remains controversial.

An active focus of research is whether secondhand smoke increases the risk of breast cancer. Both mainstream and secondhand smoke contain chemicals that, in high concentrations, cause breast cancer in rodents. Chemicals in tobacco smoke reach breast tissue and are found in breast milk.

The evidence on secondhand smoke and breast cancer risk in human studies is controversial, at least in part because smokers have not been shown to be at increased risk. One possible explanation for this is that tobacco smoke may have different effects on breast cancer risk in smokers compared to those who are just exposed to secondhand smoke.

A report from the California Environmental Protection Agency in 2005 concluded that the evidence about secondhand smoke and breast cancer is "consistent with a causal association" in younger, mainly pre-menopausal women. The 2006 US Surgeon General's report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, concluded that there is "suggestive but not sufficient" evidence of a link at this point. In any case, this possible link to breast cancer is yet another reason to avoid secondhand smoke.

Night work

Several studies have suggested that women who work at night, such as nurses on night shift, may have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. This is a fairly recent finding, and more studies are looking at this issue. Some researchers think the effect may be due to changes in levels of melatonin, a hormone whose production is affected by the body's exposure to light, but other hormones are also being studied.

American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms

Women age 40 and older should have a mammogram every year and should continue to do so for as long as they are in good health.

  • Current evidence supporting mammograms is even stronger than in the past. In particular, recent evidence has confirmed that mammograms offer substantial benefit for women in their 40s. Women can feel confident about the benefits associated with regular mammograms for finding cancer early. However, mammograms also have limitations. A mammogram can miss some cancers, and it may lead to follow up of findings that are not cancer.
  • Women should be told about the benefits and limitations linked with yearly mammograms. But despite their limitations, mammograms are still a very effective and valuable tool for decreasing suffering and death from breast cancer.
  • Mammograms should be continued regardless of a woman's age, as long as she does not have serious, chronic health problems such as congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and moderate to severe dementia. Age alone should not be the reason to stop having regular mammograms. Women with serious health problems or short life expectancies should discuss with their doctors whether to continue having mammograms.

Women in their 20s and 30s should have a clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of a periodic (regular) health exam by a health professional preferably every 3 years. Starting at age 40, women should have a CBE by a health professional every year.

  • CBE is done along with mammograms and offers a chance for women and their doctor or nurse to discuss changes in their breasts, early detection testing, and factors in the woman's history that might make her more likely to have breast cancer.
  • There may be some benefit in having the CBE shortly before the mammogram. The exam should include instruction for the purpose of getting more familiar with your own breasts. Women should also be given information about the benefits and limitations of CBE and breast self-examination (BSE). The chance of breast cancer occurring is very low for women in their 20s and gradually increases with age. Women should be told to promptly report any new breast symptoms to a health professional.

Breast self-examination (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should be told about the benefits and limitations of BSE. Women should report any breast changes to their health professional right away.

  • Research has shown that BSE plays a small role in finding breast cancer compared with finding a breast lump by chance or simply being aware of what is normal for each woman. Some women feel very comfortable doing BSE regularly (usually monthly after their period) which involves a systematic step-by-step approach to examining the look and feel of one's breasts. Other women are more comfortable simply feeling their breasts in a less systematic approach, such as while showering or getting dressed or doing an occasional thorough exam. Sometimes, women are so concerned about "doing it right" that they become stressed over the technique. Doing BSE regularly is one way for women to know how their breasts normally look and feel and to notice any changes. The goal, with or without BSE, is to report any breast changes to a doctor or nurse right away.
  • Women who choose to use a step-by-step approach to BSE should have their BSE technique reviewed during their physical exam by a health professional. It is okay for women to choose not to do BSE or not to do it on a regular schedule such as once every month. However, by doing the exam regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally look and feel and you can more readily find any changes. If a change occurs, such as development of a lump or swelling, skin irritation or dimpling, nipple pain or retraction (turning inward), redness or scaliness of the nipple or breast skin, or a discharge other than breast milk (such as staining of your sheets or bra), you should see your health care professional as soon as possible for evaluation. Remember that most of the time, however, these breast changes are not cancer.

Women at high risk (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderately increased risk (15% to 20% lifetime risk) should talk with their doctors about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening to their yearly mammogram. Yearly MRI screening is not recommended for women whose lifetime risk of breast cancer is less than 15%.

Women at high risk include those who:

  • have a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation
  • have a first-degree relative (parent, brother, sister, or child) with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, and have not had genetic testing themselves
  • have a lifetime risk of breast cancer of 20% to 25% or greater, according to risk assessment tools that are based mainly on family history (see below)
  • had radiation therapy to the chest when they were between the ages of 10 and 30 years
  • have Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, or have one of these syndromes in first-degree relatives

Women at moderately increased risk include those who:

  • have a lifetime risk of breast cancer of 15% to 20%, according to risk assessment tools that are based mainly on family history (see below)
  • have a personal history of breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)
  • have extremely dense breasts or unevenly dense breasts when viewed by mammograms

If MRI is used, it should be in addition to, not instead of, a screening mammogram. This is because although an MRI is a more sensitive test (it's more likely to detect cancer than a mammogram), it may still miss some cancers that a mammogram would detect.

For most women at high risk, screening with MRI and mammograms should begin at age 30 years and continue for as long as a woman is in good health. But because the evidence is limited regarding the best age at which to start screening, this decision should be based on shared decision-making between patients and their health care providers, taking into account personal circumstances and preferences.

Several risk assessment tools, with names such as the Gail model, the Claus model, and the Tyrer-Cuzick model, are available to help health professionals estimate a woman's breast cancer risk. These tools give approximate, rather than precise, estimates of breast cancer risk based on different combinations of risk factors and different data sets. As a result, they may give different risk estimates for the same woman. Their results should be discussed by a woman and her doctor when being used to decide whether to start MRI screening.

It is recommended that women who get a screening MRI do so at a facility that can do an MRI-guided breast biopsy at the same time if needed. Otherwise, the woman will have to have a second MRI exam at another facility when she has the biopsy.

There is no evidence right now that MRI will be an effective screening tool for women at average risk. While MRI is more sensitive than mammograms, it also has a higher false-positive rate (it is more likely to find something that turns out not to be cancer). This would lead to unneeded biopsies and other tests in many of the women screened.

The American Cancer Society believes the use of mammograms, MRI (in women at high risk), clinical breast exams, and finding and reporting breast changes early, according to the recommendations outlined above, offers women the best chance to reduce their risk of dying from breast cancer. This approach is clearly better than any one exam or test alone. Without question, a physical exam of the breast without a mammogram would miss the opportunity to detect many breast cancers that are too small for a woman or her doctor to feel but can be seen on mammograms. Mammograms are a sensitive screening method, but a small percentage of breast cancers do not show up on mammograms but can be felt by a woman or her doctors. For women at high risk of breast cancer, such as those with BRCA gene mutations or a strong family history, both MRI and mammogram exams of the breast are recommended.


A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. A diagnostic mammogram is used to diagnose breast disease in women who have breast symptoms or an abnormal result on a screening mammogram. Screening mammograms are used to look for breast disease in women who are asymptomatic; that is, those who appear to have no breast problems. Screening mammograms usually take 2 views (x-ray pictures taken from different angles) of each breast. Women who are breast-feeding can still get mammograms, although these are probably not quite as accurate because the breast tissue tends to be dense.

For some women, such as those with breast implants (for augmentation or as reconstruction after mastectomy), additional pictures may be needed to include as much breast tissue as possible. Breast implants make it harder to see breast tissue on standard mammograms, but additional x-ray pictures with implant displacement and compression views can be used to more completely examine the breast tissue. If you have implants, it is important that you have your mammograms done by someone skilled in the techniques used for women with implants.

Although breast x-rays have been performed for more than 70 years, modern mammography has only existed since 1969. That was the first year x-ray units dedicated to breast imaging were available. Modern mammogram equipment designed for breast x-rays uses very low levels of radiation, usually about a 0.1 to 0.2 rad dose per x-ray (a rad is a measure of radiation dose).

Strict guidelines ensure that mammogram equipment is safe and uses the lowest dose of radiation possible. Many people are concerned about the exposure to x-rays, but the level of radiation used in modern mammograms does not significantly increase the risk for breast cancer.

To put dose into perspective, a woman who receives radiation as a treatment for breast cancer will receive several thousand rads. If she had yearly mammograms beginning at age 40 and continuing until she was 90, she will have received 20 to 40 rads. As another example, flying from New York to California on a commercial jet exposes a woman to roughly the same amount of radiation as one mammogram.

For a mammogram, the breast is compressed between 2 plates to flatten and spread the tissue. Although this may be uncomfortable for a moment, it is necessary to produce a good, readable mammogram. The compression only lasts a few seconds. The entire procedure for a screening mammogram takes about 20 minutes.

Is breast cancer hard to get rid of?

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The difficulty of treating and "getting rid of" breast cancer can vary widely depending on several factors, including the stage at which it is diagnosed, the specific type of breast cancer, and individual factors such as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Here are some key factors that influence the treatment and outcomes of breast cancer:

Stage of Diagnosis: Breast cancer is typically categorized into stages, ranging from stage 0 (early, localized cancer) to stage IV (advanced cancer that has spread to distant organs). The earlier breast cancer is detected (in stages 0 to II), the more likely it is to be treated successfully. Early-stage breast cancer is often curable with appropriate treatment.

Type of Breast Cancer: There are different types of breast cancer, including invasive ductal carcinoma (the most common), invasive lobular carcinoma, and various subtypes. The type of breast cancer can influence treatment decisions and outcomes.

Hormone Receptor Status: The presence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status can guide treatment choices. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer may respond differently to targeted therapies.

Treatment Modalities: Breast cancer treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the individual case. The choice of treatments depends on the specific characteristics of the cancer.

Response to Treatment: Some breast cancers respond well to treatment and may shrink or disappear completely, while others may be more resistant to therapy. Response to treatment varies from person to person.

Genetic and Molecular Factors: Genetic mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, can increase the risk of breast cancer and influence treatment decisions.

Overall Health: A patient's overall health, including any underlying medical conditions, can impact their ability to tolerate and respond to treatment.

Timeliness of Diagnosis and Treatment: Timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are crucial for improving outcomes. Delayed diagnosis or treatment can make treatment more challenging.

Follow-Up and Monitoring: After initial treatment, breast cancer patients often require long-term follow-up and monitoring to detect and manage any potential recurrences or side effects.

It's important to emphasize that advances in breast cancer research and treatment have significantly improved the outlook for many breast cancer patients. With early detection and access to appropriate therapies, many individuals with breast cancer can achieve long-term survival and even remission.

Breast cancer is a highly treatable disease, especially when detected at an early stage. Regular breast cancer screenings and awareness of breast health are essential for early detection and successful treatment. Consulting with a healthcare provider and oncology team can provide personalized guidance and treatment options based on individual circumstances.

How do you cure secondary breast cancer?

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Secondary breast cancer, also known as metastatic breast cancer, occurs when breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, typically the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Unlike early-stage breast cancer, which is often treated with curative intent, the goal of treatment for metastatic breast cancer is typically to manage the disease, control symptoms, and improve the patient's quality of life. While it may not be curable in the traditional sense, it can be treated and managed effectively to extend survival and provide relief from symptoms.

Here are some key treatment approaches for secondary breast cancer:

Systemic Therapy:

Hormone Therapy: If the breast cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy can be used to block the hormones (estrogen and progesterone) that fuel the cancer's growth.

Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies, such as HER2-targeted drugs like trastuzumab (Herceptin), are used for HER2-positive breast cancer.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be prescribed to slow the progression of the cancer, reduce symptoms, and improve the patient's quality of life.

Immunotherapy: Some immunotherapy drugs are being studied for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to alleviate symptoms and manage pain in cases of metastatic breast cancer that has spread to the bones or other areas.

Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be recommended to address specific complications or relieve symptoms. For example, surgery may be performed to stabilize bones affected by cancer metastasis (bone metastases).

Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials can provide access to new and experimental treatments that may be more effective in managing metastatic breast cancer.

Palliative Care: Palliative care focuses on improving the patient's quality of life by managing symptoms, providing pain relief, and offering emotional and psychological support. It is an essential component of care for metastatic breast cancer patients.

Lifestyle and Supportive Care: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing side effects of treatment, and seeking emotional support through counseling or support groups can contribute to the overall well-being of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

It's important to note that treatment plans for metastatic breast cancer are highly individualized. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the type of breast cancer, the extent of metastasis, the patient's overall health, and their treatment goals. Patients with metastatic breast cancer often receive ongoing care and may transition between different treatments as needed.

While metastatic breast cancer may not be curable in the traditional sense, advancements in treatment have led to improved outcomes and longer survival for many patients. The focus of treatment is on extending life, managing symptoms, and maintaining the best possible quality of life for individuals living with metastatic breast cancer. Regular communication with a healthcare team and access to supportive care services are crucial aspects of managing this condition.

What kind of cure does breast cancer have?

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The treatment and potential "cure" for breast cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of cancer, the type of breast cancer, its hormone receptor status, and the individual patient's health and preferences. While a complete cure for all cases of breast cancer is not guaranteed, many women with breast cancer can achieve long-term remission or even be considered cancer-free after successful treatment. Treatment options for breast cancer typically include:

Surgery: Surgery is often the first step in treating breast cancer. The main surgical options are:

Lumpectomy: Also known as breast-conserving surgery, this involves the removal of the tumor and a surrounding margin of healthy tissue.

Mastectomy: This surgery involves the removal of the entire breast. Some women may choose to have a double mastectomy (both breasts removed) if they are at high risk or for personal reasons.

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: During surgery, nearby lymph nodes are often checked to determine if the cancer has spread to them.

Radiation Therapy: After breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy is often recommended to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the breast. It may also be used after a mastectomy in certain cases.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to target and kill cancer cells throughout the body. It is often administered after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence, and in some cases, it may be given before surgery to shrink tumors.

Hormone Therapy: Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers are treated with hormone therapy. This involves medications that block the hormones (estrogen or progesterone) that fuel the cancer's growth.

Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies are drugs that specifically target certain proteins or genes involved in cancer growth. These therapies are used for specific types of breast cancer, such as HER2-positive breast cancer.

Immunotherapy: In some cases, immunotherapy drugs are used to boost the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells.

Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy: Adjuvant therapy is given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Neoadjuvant therapy is given before surgery to shrink tumors and make them easier to remove.

Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials offers access to experimental treatments and therapies that may be more effective in treating breast cancer.

It's important to note that the success of treatment and the likelihood of a "cure" vary from person to person. Some individuals may achieve complete remission, meaning no evidence of cancer is found after treatment. Others may live with breast cancer as a chronic condition, managing it with ongoing treatment and care. In some cases, breast cancer may recur, and additional treatments may be needed.

Regular follow-up care and screenings are crucial for monitoring for any signs of cancer recurrence and managing potential long-term side effects of treatment. Breast cancer treatment has made significant advancements in recent years, leading to improved survival rates and quality of life for many women diagnosed with the disease. Individualized treatment plans, close collaboration with healthcare providers, and early detection through screening remain key components of breast cancer care and management.

Is a 60 day menstrual cycle normal?

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While there is no such thing as a "normal" menstrual cycle, 60 days is terribly long. I suspect that instead of a long cycle, what you are actually experiencing is intermittent ammenorrhea where you fail to ovulate or bleed at regular intervals. Many women who have anovulatory cycles will still bleed at regular intervals due to the progesterone drop they experience after the body attempts ovulation.

In your case, it seems that when you fail to ovulate, you fail to bleed as well. Many women have occasional anovulatory cycles. I recommend that you begin charting your basal body temperature over a period of time in order to see if you are ovulating or not, and if you are, what percentage of cycles are ovulatory. Short of an ultrasound, charting BBT is the simplest way to tell if you ovulated in a cycle.

That being said, you should probably see a doctor to rule out a more serious explanation than occasional anovulation.

Can you stop a pregnancy?

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You can get an abortion - this is the only way really. To get an abortion, you need to book an appointment with your Doctor Who can sort things out for you. Make sure you've properly thought it through

Is cervical cancer contagious?

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No, cervical cancer itself is not contagious. Cervical cancer is primarily caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. However, the transmission of HPV is through direct skin-to-skin contact, particularly during sexual activity, and not through casual contact.

It's important to note that while HPV is a common risk factor for cervical cancer, not everyone who has HPV will develop cervical cancer. Most HPV infections resolve on their own without causing any health problems. Additionally, cervical cancer typically develops over a long period of time, often years or even decades after HPV infection.

Cervical cancer is not spread through casual contact like shaking hands, hugging, or sharing personal items. The primary mode of transmission for HPV is sexual contact, including vaginal

Preventive measures such as HPV vaccination and regular cervical cancer screening (Pap tests and HPV tests) can help reduce the risk of cervical cancer and its associated health complications. If you have questions or concerns about cervical cancer, HPV, or prevention, it's advisable to consult with a healthcare provider for guidance and information tailored to your specific situation.

Is Stage-3 breast cancer curable?

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Stage 3 breast cancer is considered locally advanced breast cancer, meaning it has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes but has not yet metastasized to distant organs. The treatment and prognosis for stage 3 breast cancer can vary depending on several factors, including the specific characteristics of the cancer, the individual's overall health, and the treatments received.

While stage 3 breast cancer is typically more advanced and may be more challenging to treat than earlier stages, it is not necessarily incurable. Many individuals with stage 3 breast cancer can achieve remission or long-term control of the disease with appropriate treatment. Treatment options for stage 3 breast cancer often include a combination of:

Surgery: This may involve a mastectomy (removal of the breast) or lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and some surrounding tissue).

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is commonly used to shrink tumors before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) or after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence (adjuvant chemotherapy).

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy is often used after surgery to target any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Hormone therapy: If the cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy drugs may be used to block the effects of estrogen and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

Targeted therapy: Some types of stage 3 breast cancer, particularly those that overexpress HER2, may be treated with targeted therapies like trastuzumab (Herceptin).

Immunotherapy: In some cases, immunotherapy drugs may be considered as part of the treatment regimen.

Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials can provide access to new and promising treatments for stage 3 breast cancer.

The success of treatment for stage 3 breast cancer can vary from person to person. Some individuals may achieve complete remission, while others may experience long-term control of the disease. However, it's important to note that not all cases are curable, and the goal of treatment may shift to prolonging life and managing symptoms when a cure is not possible.

Early detection and prompt, comprehensive treatment are essential for the best possible outcomes. It's crucial for individuals diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer to work closely with a medical oncologist and healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and to discuss their prognosis and treatment options in detail. Additionally, seeking emotional support and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also be important aspects of coping with stage 3 breast cancer.

Why do some people have less pubic hair?

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All part of the human body telling you your getting older.

Why are woman hormonal when pregnant?

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Because she has more hormones in her body that she has ever had before except for puberty.

Can you produce an embryo with one ovary and no uterus?

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If you still produce eggs and you have unprotected sex you can still become pregnant however it would be an ectopic pregnancy, the egg needs the uterine wall to latch onto and imbed in to grow. If the egg begins to grow inside the fallopian tubes it will result in a rupture and the fallopian tube will burst, which results in a miscarriage and often in most cases death to the mother. It is incredibly dangerous and can only be rectified by immediate surgery. So no it is not recommended!

Why does my pee smells like eggs?

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No that is not a symptom of pregnancy

What colour is the inside of the uterus?

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Inside is red, due to the womans periods once a month

How long does it take for fallopian tubes to grow back?

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If your tube was removed with the ectopic pregnancy it won't grow back. You should still be able to get pregnant via your other tube but if that wasn't an option, IVF would be available to you to get pregnant.

Should you drink your sperm?

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The obvious answer is 'Carry on drinking it'. But I presume what you want to ask is 'Is it healthy, and should I stop drinking it?'. It would be a good plan to stop drinking it because many people, including your possible future wife, would think it a very odd habit.

What is the first clinical sign for breast cancer?

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The presence of tiny lamps or cysts in the breasts are commonly known as major sign of breast cancer more often than not. Other symptoms are itchy, sore, and redenned breasts, upper back pain, and nipple changes.

Is it possible to have a growth spurt three years after starting your period and not growing in the past year?

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Most teenage girls will have some growth toward the late teens & then be done.

Can you have a yeast infection and not know it?

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ummm if you dont know the signs you may not know it.. but you should know that something is wrong...

Atypical chest pain?

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Atypical Chest pain can be a cause of concern. It should be, as chest pain is often a symptom of a serious disorder, usually affecting the heart. An atypical chest pain can also be traced to something seriously wrong with the heart. The problem is, an atypical chest pain can be the result of any number of disorders, some of them serious, many of them not.