What are the major events of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict?
Jewish Settlement: 1920s-1940s, Jews settle in the British Mandate of Palestine. (This is not to say that there were not Jews in the Mandate prior to the 1920s, but the amount of Jews in the Mandate increases substantially.)
Fights between Arab and Jewish Militias: Late 1920s-1940s, Arabs and Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine begin to fight each other. These are usually small attacks or minor pogroms. Throughout this period, Arabs and Jews lived in segregated villages, so the attacking group would enter the village and wantonly kill the civilians there.
UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II): On November 29, 1947 the United Nations passed a General Assembly Resolution recognizing the right for the Jews of Mandatory Palestine and the Arabs of Mandatory Palestine to declare independence as separate and unique states. Both the United States and Soviet Union supported the Resolution from a pro-Jewish perspective. Arabs across the Arab World were angry and vehemently declared that they would never allow any part of Mandatory Palestine to become a Jewish State.
Israeli War of Independence / Palestinian Catastrophe (Nakba): This war was fought in two main phases. From late 1947 to May of 1948, the British still held nominal control of the territory and the fighting was restricted to groups within Mandatory Palestine. Jewish and Arab Militias more frequently fought away from civilian centers (except Jerusalem which was the sight of heavy bloodshed) for control of the area. After the British withdrew on May 14, 1948, the Jews declared their independence. This allowed the conflict to expand and seven Arab nations contributed armies or regiments to assist the Palestinian Arabs. During this period, both sides, but more commonly Israelis, attacked civilians and caused many of them to flee. After the war, Israel refused to allow them re-admittance. Israel controlled more land after the war than they would have controlled had the Arabs peacefully accepted a Jewish State along the UN-proscribed boundaries.
Suez Crisis: 1956, Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal and blocks Israeli shipping, leading to an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, and Israel attacking Egypt and conquering the Sinai Peninsula. After the War, the United States and Soviet Union jointly forced the parties to return to the antebellum situation, but while placing UNEF troops in the Sinai and giving Israel freedom of the seas.
Six Day War: 1967, By virtue of a preemptive war, Israel gains all lands in the former British Mandate of Palestine and begins the military occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Settlement construction begins at this point. Jerusalem is unified and the Old City is renovated to allow for mutual religious practice.
Yom Kippur War/October War: 1973, Egypt and Syria launch a devastating surprise attack on Israel, making important gains in the first two weeks. When Israel finally reversed the tide, they began conquering territories beyond the Six Day War territories. The lands were returned to the antebellum state and it was then clear that Israel would not be eliminated through strength of arms. The early Arab victories also shattered the myth of Israeli invincibility and lead to Arabs seeing themselves as less humiliated.
Egyptian-Israeli Peace Accords: 1979, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin signed the Camp David Accords. Egypt had Sinai returned to it from 1979 to 1982 and the two countries exchanged ambassadors. Sadat was later assassinated for his work to end the conflict.
Lebanese Civil War: 1981-1982, After the Palestine Liberation Organization began attacking Israelis from Lebanon, Israel intervened in the ongoing Lebanese Civil War to remove the PLO from Beirut. Israel was successful in this if only because they eliminated Beirut as a city. Israel also assisted in the atrocities of Sabra and Shatila which were perpetrated against Palestinian Refugees by Lebanese Christians. (Note that the Lebanese Civil War began in 1975, but there was no Israeli Involvement until 1981.)
Intifadas: 1987-1991, 2000-2005, Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza rose up against Israeli Military Occupation and the Settlements. They began to use suicide bombers to attack Israeli Civilians. This resulted in an intense shootout and an Israeli military and intelligence counteroffensive.
Oslo Accords: 1993, The Palestinian Authority was formed and given partial control of Gaza and parts of the West Bank by Israeli Authorities.
Jordanian-Israeli Peace Accords: 1994, Following the Oslo Accords, King Hussein of Jordan was willing to make peace with Israel and ceded his claim to the West Bank territories to the nascent Palestinian State.
Israeli Withdrawal from Gaza: 2005, All Israeli Settlements and troops were removed from Gaza on the orders of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. The Palestinian Authority was ceded full control of the region.
Separation Fence / Israeli Apartheid Wall: 2006-Present, The Fence made suicide bombing almost impossible and began the rocket attacks which persisted for a while in the West Bank before abating. Israeli and Palestinian Leaders in the West Bank continue to negotiate a solution for the West Bank. Palestinian Leaders there are improving the Palestinian Economic situation in spite of the Occupation.
Gaza Rocket Fire & the two Gazan Wars: 2006-Present, Following the Hamas Military Takeover of Gaza, Israel has blockaded the area and been the recipient of numerous rocket attacks. In December of 2008, Israeli military forces invaded Gaza in an attempt to quash Hamas' operations. Numerous Palestinian Civilians died in the raid. Hamas continues to launch rockets at Israeli border towns. The Second Gazan War of 2012 was no different.