2008 Economic Crisis

A sub-category dedicated to the economic crisis that has affected us all

2,391 Questions
Business Law
2008 Economic Crisis

What is a positive externality?

an economic side effect that generates unexpected benefits

2008 Economic Crisis
2009 Economic Stimulus Plan

How does trade address the economic problem?

By trading with other countries businesses ( and therefore consumers) have access to raw materials and goods that may not be available locally.

2008 Economic Crisis

Distinguish between public debt and private debt?

The first distinction to be made is between an internal debt and an external debt. An internal debt is owed by a nation to its own citizens. Many argue that an internal debt poses no burden because we owe it all to ourselves. While this statement is oversimplified, it does represent a genuine insight. If each citizen owed $10,000 of government bonds and were liable for the taxes to service just that debt, it would make no sense to think of debt as a heavy load of rocks that each citizen must carry. People simply owe the debt to themselves.

An external debt is owed by a nation of foreigners. This debt does involve a net subtraction from the resources available to people in the debtor nation. In the 1980s, many nations experienced serve economic hardships after they incurred large external debts. They were forced to export more than they imported to run trade surpluses in order to service their external debts, that is to pay the interest and principal on their past borrowings. Countries like Brazil and Mexico need to set aside one fourth to one third of their export earnings to se4rvice their external debts. The debt service burden on an external debt represents a deduction in the consumption possibilities of a nation.

Small Business and Entrepreneurship
2008 Economic Crisis

Contribution of the top 10 successful filipino entrepreneurs?

.) Henry Sy 2.) Lucio Tan 3.) John Gokongwei 4.) Jaime Zobel de Ayala 5.) Andrew Tan 6.) Tony Tan Caktiong 7.) Enrique Razon Jr. 8.) Beatrice Campos 9.) George Ty 10.) Eduardo Cojuangco Jr

2008 Economic Crisis

Which technological forces will impact marketing the most in the near future?

which technological force will impact marketing in the near future

Newspapers and Magazines
2008 Economic Crisis
European Union
RSS Feeds

What are the steps in developing a new financial assistance service?

Speech Writing
2008 Economic Crisis

Importance of opportunity cost to individuals?

The importance of opportunity cost to individuals is a great one. One is constantly assessing what an item is worth.

2008 Economic Crisis

What is the impact of globalization on agriculture and industries?

Globalization affects every econmic sector - for the better nad worse, per se. In the agricultural sector, crop imports could be traded at cheaper prices, and could be exchange for another commodity becasue of the free trade - as entailed among the provisions of WTO. In this way, countries that rely primarily on agriculture (i.e. the Philippines), could purchase or import crops from another country at cheaper tariff rates, in case of a shortage. However, on the downside, countries that are more progressive agriculturally could just dump their third-rate or low-class products to their third-world trading counterpart. Thus, poor quality products could be received by the "lesser" country. "Quality Control" of the traded products is the main issue. The same thing holds true for the industrial sector. Exchnage of technoligical and industrial products will definitely exist. Both prducts may benefit mutually. Nonetheless, a possible detraction is again the instances of poor imported products from the superior countries, just like in the issue of the agricultural sector. Simply put, Globalization has its benefits as well as disadvantages. But generally, the free trade among nations - its exisitng policies - must be reviewed in order to protect the developing countries from receiving low-class imports. These countries are yet to adjust and compete globally, they are not ready to enter the fray and go head-to-head with the titans. Therefore, it must be imperative that the governing rules must be ammended. Although the free trade is yet to completely implemented, at least on the Philippine setting, nevertheless, it must be reviewed to protect and given cushion to the developing nations.

2008 Federal Bailout
2008 Economic Crisis
2009 Economic Stimulus Plan

Scope and importance of managerial economics?

Managerial Economics is often interchangeable with Business Economics, though there is some difference between these two terms:

i) Business Economics - means Economics necessary to be understood for running any business.

ii) Managerial Economics - lays more emphasis on the managerial functions in any business firm. Managerial functions are decision making and forward planning.

DEAN, author of the first managerial economics text books defines managerial economics as "the use of economic analysis in the formulation of business policies"

Out of two major managerial functions served by the subject matter under managerial economics are decision making and forward planning:

Lets explore the scope for decision making:

1. Decision relating to demand.

2. Decision related to Cost and production.

3. Decision relating to price and market.

4. Decision relating to profit management.

5. Macro economic factor.

2008 Economic Crisis

What can cause a production possibilities curve to move to the right?

new technology, new labor sources, new resources

2008 Economic Crisis

What are advantages of diversification?

  • reducing risk of relying on only one or few income source
  • avoid cyclical or seasonal fluctuation by producing goods or services with different demand
  • achieving a higher growth rate
Stock Market
2008 Economic Crisis
Lehman Brothers

How do you invest in the Lehman Brothers Aggregate Index?

You could consider the iShares Lehman Aggregate Bond Fund (AGG), an exchange traded fund (ETF) managed by Barclays that "seeks investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the total United States investment grade bond market as defined by the Lehman Brothers U.S. Aggregate Index." At 0.20%, the fund expenses are low compared to a traditional mutual fund. You can find more information on ETFs using tools such as the Fidelity Fund Screener (see Related Links).

2008 Economic Crisis

What is the meaning of deemed prospectus?


Business & Finance
2008 Economic Crisis

Which phase of a business cycle can lead an economy into recession?

The most telling indicator or "cycle" is usually a decrease in material production.

Business Plans
2008 Economic Crisis
Mission Statements

What is the difference between a vision statement and a mission statement within education?

Vision Statement is the big picture--what you or the organization want to become.

Mission Statement is how this vision will be implemented.

Business & Finance
Business Finance
2008 Economic Crisis

Role of cost accounting in managerial decision making?

Role of cost accounting in managerial decision making?"

2008 Economic Crisis

Explain any three features of public distribution system?

Historically, the objectives of the PDS have been:

• maintaining price stability,

• increasing the welfare facilities for the poor (by providing access

to basic foods at reasonable prices to the vulnerable population),

• rationing during situations of scarcity, and

• keeping a check on private trade.

Income Garnishment
Colonial America
China and Chinese Territories
2008 Economic Crisis

What are the main sources of income in China?

the main sources of income for china are agriculture,industry and trade and services(courtsey :wikipedia)hkjhljhl

2008 Economic Crisis
Philippines Economics

What is the cause and effect of economic problem in the Philippines?

because of our government

Small Business and Entrepreneurship
2008 Economic Crisis

The Louisiana sugar industry thrived when sugar was produced on a large scale The large-scale cultivation of sugar required which of the following?

A Huge Labor Force

2008 Economic Crisis

What is the main cause of the current economic crisis in the US?

The mortgage collapse was the final "straw that broke the camel's back", but this is merely a symptom of concentration of wealth.

An excellent collection of articles on Federal tax policies and their effects from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is given in the links below.

One of those papers states: " Not since 1928, just before the Great Depression, has the top 1 percent held such a large share of the nation's income. " from Income Concentration at Highest Level Since 1928, By Chye-Ching Huang and Chad Stone (linked below).

Wikipedia has a good article on Distribution of wealth - see the link below for the entire article. The next snip is from this article.

In the United StatesIn the United States at the end of 2001, 10% of the population owned 71% of the wealth, and the top 1% controlled 38%. On the other hand, the bottom 40% owned less than 1% of the nation's wealth.

In describing tax systems, it is important to distinguish between the percent of taxes paid on a given income, and the percent of taxes paid by a person with a given income. For example, if a person earns $1,000,000 and is taxed at a rate of 10%, they will owe $100,000 in taxes. On the other hand, if a person earns $10,000 and is taxed at a rate of 20%, they will owe $2000 in taxes. The person with the greater income is taxed at a lower rate but pays a higher tax. The person with the lesser income is taxed at a higher rate but pays a lower tax. The United States has a tax system which is a mixture of progressive taxationand regressive taxation. The income taxis progressive, capital gains tax, at a lower rate than the income tax, is regressive, as is the sales tax, since the less wealthy spend a greater percentage of their income. In 2003, the one percent with the highest salaries paid more than 34% of the nation's federal income tax; the ten percent with the highest salaries paid more than 66% of the total income tax; the top 25% of paid 84% of the income taxes; and the upper half accounted for virtually the entire U.S. income tax revenue (nearly 97%). This is an inevitable consequence of the concentration of wealth. People who do not have much money cannot pay high taxes, even when they pay a greater percentage of their earnings in taxes.

The above clip gives ecomomic reasoning that explains why the Constitution of the United States originally forabade direct taxes (income taxes).

This country's growth and success are the result of giving everyday people the right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". That growth would have been even greater, and probably built on a more solid base if the Native and enslaved population had been given those same rights. This country will continue to deteriorate economically and socially if those rights are not restored.

You have this fairly continuous downward trend from 1929, until just about the mid-1970s. Since then, things have really turned around, and the level of wealth inequality today is almost double what it was in the mid-1970s.

Above quoted from linked article below: "The Wealth Divide".

The increase in incomes of the top 1 percent of Americans from 2003 to 2005 exceeded the total income of the poorest 20 percent of Americans, data in a new report by theCongressional Budget Office shows.

The poorest fifth of households had total income of $383.4 billion in 2005, while just the increase in income for the top 1 percent came to $524.8 billion, a figure 37 percent higher.

The total income of the top 1.1 million households was $1.8 trillion, or 18.1 percent of the total income of all Americans, up from 14.3 percent of all income in 2003. The total 2005 income of the three million individual Americans at the top was roughly equal to that of the bottom 166 million Americans, analysis of the report showed.

See the NY Times article linked below for the rest of the above article.

"The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed some disturbing changes in the standard of living and in equality in the United States. ... Between 1973 and 1993 the real wage declined by 14 per cent, though it has since risen by 7 percent from 1993 to 2000, for a net change of -8 per cent. .... Despite falling real wages, living standards were maintained for a while by the growing labor force participation of wives....


Another troubling change... Inequality in the distribution of family income .. virtually unchanged since the end of World War II until the late 1960s, has increased sharply since then.... The poverty rate, which had fallen by half from a postwar peak in 1959 (the first year the poverty rate was computed) to 1973, has since risen.


The first series is the top marginal tax rate (the marginal tax rate faced by the richest tax filers). Back in 1944, the top marginal tax rate was 94 per cent! After the end of World War II, the top rate was reduced to 86.5 per cent (in 1946) but during the Korean War it was soon back to 92 per cent (in 1953). Even im 1960, it was still at 91 per cent. This generally declined over time, as tax legislation was implemented by Congress. It was first lowered to 70 per cent in 1966, then raised to 77 per cent in 1975, then to 50 per cent in 1983 (Ronald Regan's first major tax act). and then again to 28 per cent in 1986 (through the famous Tax Reform Act of 1986). Since then, it has trended upward, to 31 per cent in 1991 (under President George Bush) and then to 39.6 per cent in 1993 (under President Bill Clinton).

Above from Recent Trends in Living Standard in the United States, in Edward N. Wolff see below

Obama has proposed a raise in the top marginal tax rate. Some are screaming about it but it correlates to healthier economic times. Senator Obama would raise the top individual tax rate back to 39.6 percent, impose an additional 2 to 4 percent tax on earnings for some over the existing Social Security wage cap, and bring back the phase-out of the personal exemption and certain itemized deductions for higher-income taxpayers. When added up, the top effective marginal tax rate rises...from 37.9 percent to roughly 48 to 50 percent. "High" is in the eye of the beholder, but these are tax rates not seen since before the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

(see Manikaw economics blog linked below) Taxation can be utilized by the government to facilitate the redistribution of wealth. See the Wikipedia article and the related question: How has the Income Tax contributed to the economic crisis of 2008? Short Answer: Bad Mortgage Lending Practices not mandated by the government If you ask me put your money into a money market mutual fund.




Deregulation of the mortgage lending and investment banking industries.

Um - or is it over regulation because the "liberals" bought their votes by helping people afford homes?

No, really, wait .... it's because the SEC isn't enforcing the regulations we have.

No! No! No! It's because the politicians have trashed the Constitution and we are being held hostage by "THEM", the ones that own the FEDERAL RESERVE.

I agree with many of the answers to this question. The "root" cause for this financial melt down is "GREED." Money has never been the problem. It has been the love of money. Because of this greedy love for money organizations that lacked morals began creating lending programs, fraudulently inflating property values and even committing mortgage fraud to get people qualified that could not afford to buy.

What causes me more worry for me is that our government thinks that the solution is to give the banks more money to get more people to borrow.

Here is a Fact...

If the nation is incapable of paying their debt today, what make us think that consumers will be able to re-pay even more debt in the future? The key to resolving this problem is not loaning more money. It is teaching and empowering the nation's consumers to get debt free. People need to learn how to be GOOD STEWARDS of their money.

Let us focus on helping one another to make the right decisions and get out of this mess.


The Mortgage problem is the result of corporate greed run amuck. And the damage caused in the '90s by changing banking regualtions is small change compared to the fleecing of the middle class with the tax code. That's why they can't pay a mortgage.

See: How has the Income Tax contributed to the economic crisis of 2008?

and: What is the main cause of the current economic crisis in the US?

Answer:Basically what happened is that in the late 1990s the Republican Congress did away with a lot of regulations in the financial industry that had been put in place in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Without these regulations, it became easier for a lot of questionable banking and lending practices to take place. Lenders started making money by giving out mortgages to people they knew or should have known could not actually afford the houses they were buying; the lenders assumed that housing prices would continue to rise, so in the case of foreclosure the lender would still make money.

Millions of people ended up in these kinds of mortgages, called subprime mortgages; knowingly or not, these people ended up not being able to repay their mortgages. At the same time, housing prices started to fall. This problem has happened millions of times in the U.S. but also in other countries where the same lax practices were taking place, e.g. Spain, Canada, the U.K., etc.

AnswerLenders that gave out too many mortgages of this type then found themselves having a lot of people not be able to pay back their mortgages. The lender then ends up with the foreclosed house, but it can't sell the house for very much because housing prices are falling. This means that the lender has lost a LOT of money on the one house. If banks loose $200,000 on a million homes, that's already $2 billion in lost money.

This is all simplified, of course.

AnswerThe other problem is that these mortgages were being bundled into investment opportunities that companies like Lehman Brothers and other companies then sold shares in to investors. All these people are now also loosing their money.

The results are that bank in trouble don't have enough assets to stay in business; the problem is so massive that only government bail-outs can keep the banks in business. Because so many banks have so many bad mortgages, which are a kind of loan, so they have bad loans, it's hard for any bank to offer credit/loans for any reason right now--they just don't have enough cash to cover everything.

The problem then turns to businesses: small businesses rely on credit to expand, make payroll, etc., and without credit business starts to shrink, jobs are lost, and the economy overall tanks because no one can get any credit at all, so the economy is being forced to switch to a cash economy: if you don't have the money already, you can't buy anything.

AnswerThe fundamental reason: Financial Leverage was misused to manipulate markets for decades. Organizations were never regulated and compelled to hire more ethical traders and managers rather than B-School MBA Grads who have just learned to make money at any cost. US officials while rescuing the global giants claim it is just a real estate correction due to bad debts in banking system. Whatever the case, the market sentiment have changed forever, and valuations will come under immense pressure from now on...be it real estate, equity, debt, bond, products, services, or...anything

A man jumping from top floor out of a 100 storey building can feel flying with joy until his reaches the ground floor with a big bang. This is the case with most inflated companies and their greedy management, we only know when they actually burst. We should watch and regulate them starting from their intention to climb that building from ground zero!

Some Food for Thought: The golden rule is "do not expect the market to behave and act for your profit". They are playing for their own profit. Win-Win is only a term used to convince or induce not-so-smart investors. There will still be a bunch of guys who have profited from these crashes. After all, nobody is throwing money into the Atlantic Ocean, if you lose someone else gains. Unfortunately, incentives for playing smart (mostly doing bad) are huge and accepted by legal systems, regulators, government and modern society at large.

American Debt They have been spending money that doest exist. they have now spent so much that the collateral they put up wont cover the debt. and in order to keep spending, even modestly, they have to loan more money, the lender knowing they are unable to repay are nervous about lending the money. as a result the organizations that provide work cant get the finance they need to continue and end up having to put people of. This has a snowballing effect. For instance America has been buying cheep goods from China for years with American money. and china has been lending it back to them and making interest on the deal. If the US dollar losses value then the Chinese will have to ask for higher interest in order to recoup for Chinese imports into the US. The tentacles go every where. For every dollar the US owns They are about 200 dollars in debt.The price of self regulation, human greed and corruption.

nothing other than SUB PRIME lOSS.....it is nothing,US bank issused Home loans to all the people without enquiring their credit background......which lead to non-repayment of many loans......this is one of the reason for US crisis

The USA was spending money it borrowed from China, China lent money to America so they would buy their goods. Something had to give. The economy of the world is based on toasters and ever improving mobile phones.

Answer:The current crisis is both economic and financial. It may be better to have an understanding of what causes these crises in general, rather than getting tied down in endless details regarding the current crises. The causes of the Great Depression are still being debated over seventy years later. It is unlikely a consensus will be reached regarding the specific chain of events leading to the current crises.


The underlying cause of all financial crises is due to a drop in the rates of return on investments, falling equity prices and/or a rise in defaults on loans.

Such changes can put a chill on the investment markets, thus driving down the current prices paid for units of investment instruments. As investors see 'paper' losses mount ('paper' value is the stated value of the investment at a given time, usually based on the most recent price paid for a unit of that investment by the last buyer), a feedback process may ensue in which falling 'paper' values lead to more risk aversion, which in turn leads to a further drop in 'paper' values.

For this reason, understanding the difference between 'paper' losses and real losses is important, though it appears many investors do not understand the difference. Real losses are only experienced when an asset is sold for less than what was paid for it (assuming the interest or dividends paid on the investment kept up with inflation). Many investors do not know whether or not they are experiencing real losses because they generally do not keep track of what they paid for the assets to begin with. Rather, they believe they have lost money simply because last price paid for a unit of the investment by a buyer is less than the previous price paid for a similar unit by an earlier buyer. This is much like believing you've lost half the value of your house because your neighbor sold his extremely similar house for half of what his neighbor sold his extremely similar house for.

When 'paper' losses occur, sophisticated investors and their agents realize that assets had been overvalued in the first place and that promised rates of return were unsustainable. In a severe crisis and armed with this truth, many begin looking for answers as to why prices and expected rates of return had been so high in the first place. In some cases, the answers are used to punish those who 'caused' the meltdown. In other cases, the answers are used to justify legislative and regulatory changes meant to prevent a recurrence of such errant valuations.

As stability returns to the financial economy, prices and rates of return on investments will be based, as they should be, on more realistic estimates of the expected profitability of enterprises that produce goods and services for the economy.

A sizable financial crisis will generally lead to a decline in funding for riskier investments. The deeper the crisis, the more severe the decline in funding.

Real economic growth - especially that which comes from new or improved goods, services and technologies - depends on funding provided by risk-taking investors. If investors are hiding from risk en mass, such economic growth will decline or cease (and the economy may be even shrink) until funding for riskier investments in real economic activity increases.

An economic crisis occurs when there is a substantial drop in resource utilization. Resources fall into three categories: labor, capital and raw materials.

A substantial drop in resource utilization might be caused by loss of or reduced access to one or more resources. For example, an economic crisis can be triggered by a sudden lack of access to oil.

Declining resource utilization may also be caused by declining demand for some goods and services. As demand for some goods and services decline, so does demand for the resources that produce those goods and services.

Generally, a decline in resource utilization is considered a crisis when the resource in question is labor and the decline is sudden and substantial.

Of course, unused resources are available to be utilized to produce other goods and services, assuming that demand for them either exists or is projected to exist, and assuming that investment monies are available to fund the creation of new enterprises or the expansion of existing enterprises.

Because the financial economy consists of numeric valuations of economic realities, it is viable only to the degree it renders an accurate numeric portrayal of the real economy. Therefore, a real economic decline should be reflected by declines in the financial economy - unless government and other actors seek to mask the economic crisis with actions that result in bogus valuations in the financial economy.

Therefore, a financial crisis might be the numeric representation of a crisis in the real economy, or it might be the result of the financial system 'correcting' previous overvaluations of real assets (i.e. - removing overly-speculative influences from those valuations). In some cases, an economic crisis may trigger financial 'over-correction', thus magnifying the overall effect of the economic crisis and perhaps prolonging it.


An economic crisis will inevitably lead to a financial crisis - unless governments and other agents manipulate financial valuations in an attempt to avoid devaluations based on real declines in economic potential. Attempts of this sort usually lead to even greater financial crises later that are manifest as damaging levels of inflation or deflation. This occurs as the financial economy, in order to remain viable, inevitably seeks to establish accurate valuations of the real economy.

All financial valuations are stated in terms of numbers and those numbers represent money. As such, a financial crisis can be triggered by too much or too little growth (or decline) in the money supply. Such disruptions can, and often do, lead to disruptions in the real economy as well. However, these 'disruptions' may be quite frequent, though little noticed because they are so small. Major monetary mismanagement will lead to major financial disruptions, which can then lead to disruptions in the real economy.

The worst scenario is when an economic or financial crisis is large enough to set up a feedback cycle between the two aspects of the economy, thus pushing each toward further decline. A financial crisis can thus lead to an economic decline which further perpetuates the financial decline, which in turn perpetuates the economic crisis. In such a situation, risk aversion may become more important than making money on investments, leading to abandonment of risk-taking investments.

Assuming an adequate supply of funds available for investment and continued access to real resources, economic crises are prolonged solely by continued widespread aversion to risk on the part of those with funds available for investment.

Any crisis emerges from changes in the real economy and/or from the need for the financial economy to 'correct' itself in order to render more accurate valuations of the real economy. The beginnings of the crisis are due to real disruptions in the real economy, the financial economy and/or the money supply, but the longevity of that crisis is increasingly based, as time goes by, on the unwillingness of holders of wealth to invest in real economic activity.

This question should be merged with

What is the main cause of the current economic crisis in the US
1-root cause of Labor and Capital conflict. Labors are killed by Capitals with new technology and outsourcing.

2- In Global market, many people lose jobs and less income.

3- Local market, regimes pay less price to local labor.

4- As the result, consumption and purchasing power fall down.

No job or less pay -> reduce purchasing-> market slow- > economics crisis.

Business & Finance
2008 Economic Crisis

Difference between capital goods and consumer goods provide two examples?

Capital goods, are goods used in production. Consumer goods are for the final consumer, as a person. For example, a machine that makes pins is a capital good, because a pin factory will buy it. But pins is a consumer good, because a person will buy it. A combine harvester is a capital good, but the bread is a consumer good.

Politics and Government
Business Globalization
2008 Economic Crisis

What are the problems with a free market economy?

the problem with a complete free market economy is monopolizes. with no regulation one company can have a monopole and charge whatever they want.people can buy and sell what they want because a market econmy means a free econmy.

2008 Economic Crisis

Does the US recession affect Australia?


Speech Writing
Business and Industry
2008 Economic Crisis

What is the elasticity of demand and supply and why is supply fixed in the short-run?


Wheat grows according to harvest cycles. So in the short run, you only have as much wheat as was planted and harvested for a given year.

If you forecast that you are going to need more wheat over, say, the next 5 years, you can plan to devote more land to growing wheat, buy more fertilizer, invest in more labor hours, etc. But once the wheat is in the ground and growing for a particular year, there is only a limited amount you can do to improve supply for that particular year.


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