Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration is the series of metabolic reactions that takes place in a cell that harvests chemical energy. The energy is converted from the stored chemical energy in molecules to the stored energy in ATP.

4,264 Questions
Photosynthesis
The Difference Between
Cellular Respiration

How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration different?

Photosynthesis:

  • occurs in plants and some bacteria.
  • only occurs in the presence of sunlight/UV light
  • occurs within the chloroplasts.
  • requires chlorophyll
  • uses water, light energy and carbon dioxide
  • produces oxygen and glucose (which are the reactants of cellular respiration)
  • captures light energy to store as chemical energy
  • builds up the plant's energy stores
  • chemical formula is 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • is an anabolic reaction, i.e. simple molecules are built up into complex ones
  • occurs in two phases: the light and dark reactions
  • uses NADP to carry hydrogen ions
  • is an endothermic process
  • results in the production of carbohydrates
  • captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy
  • energy is solar energy converted to chemical energy

Cellular Respiration

  • occurs in plants and animals.
  • occurs at all times in all living organisms
  • occurs within the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
  • does not require chlorophyll
  • uses oxygen and glucose
  • produces energy (in the form of ATP), carbon dioxide, and water (which are the reactants of photosynthesis)
  • chemical formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)
  • is a catabolic reaction, i.e. complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones
  • occurs in three phases: glycolysis, Krebs and the ETS
  • uses NAD+ to carry hydrogen ions
  • Is an exothermic process.
  • Involves the use/consumption of carbohydrates
  • takes the chemical energy resulting from photosynthesis and breaks it down, releasing energy
  • energy is the stored chemical energy that originated from photosynthesis; this chemical energy is converted to other kinds of energy like heat and motion (energy required for cellular processes to occur.)
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Biochemistry
Cell Biology (cytology)
Cellular Respiration

What is the chemical formula for cellular respiration?

The general equation for aerobic respiration is as follows:

Organic compounds + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

Usually the organic compound is glucose, but other nutrients can be involved as well. The specific equation for glucose (and is most commonly used) is:

C6H12O6+ 6 O2 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + Energy (34-36 ATP + heat)

Alcohol Fermentation

Glucose Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy (2 ATP)

C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + Energy (2 ATP)

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Glucose → Lactic Acid + Energy (2 ATP)

C6H12O6 → C3H6O3 + Energy (2 ATP)

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Cellular Respiration

Role of insulin in cellular respiration?

Insulin is a hormone that is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver,muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle.

Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. When insulin is absent, glucose is not taken up by body cells and the body begins to use fat as an energy source or gluconeogenesis; for example, by transfer of lipids fromadipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source. As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells). In addition, it has several otheranabolic effects throughout the body.

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Biology
Genetics
Cellular Respiration

What would be the problem if cellular respiration took place in just one step?

== == All of the energy from the glucose would be released at once, and most of it would be lost in the form of light and/or heat.

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Cell Biology (cytology)
Cellular Respiration

What is cellular respiration?

EASY TO UNDERSTAND BASICS ABOUT CELLULAR RESPIRATION:

Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules, such as sugar, and release the energy they contain. Respiration is carried out continuously by plant cells, as well as animal cells. This process begins in the cytoplasm, where molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules. Oxygen is not involved, and only a small amount of energy is released. Next, the process moves on to the mitochondria, where the small molecules are broken down into even smaller molecules. These chemical reactions require oxygen, and they release a great deal of energy. This energy is still stored in the form of chemical energy, but now it is stored in molecules that are readily used by the cell. The three final products are carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

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Cellular respiration is a cellular process that requires oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide in order to obtain energy for the organism. That's a brief meaning so see the Related Link below for more info.

In brief, there are 3 stages: Glycolysis, the Kreb's Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation (or Electron Transport Chain). Cellular respiration takes place near or in the mitochrondria, an organelle in all eukaryotic cells.

In Glycolysis, a sugar is taken in and, through a bit of energy stored in Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), it gives off some electrons which are stored, and it splits into Pyruvic acid.

In the Kreb's Cycle, the Pyruvic acid gives off more electrons and cycles through, some of it becoming carbon dioxide.

In Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain), the stored electrons "pump" hydrogen cations (positive ion) to one side of the inner mitochondria membrane. Due to the high concentration, the hydrogen cations flow back through a protein that makes a lot of ATP. For every sugar molecule, it makes about 60 of these. The oxygen is taken in here to take care of the hydrogen ions- it becomes water.
it converts energy in food into a more usable form!
The chemical process that generates most of the energy in the cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions of an organism run.

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Biology
Biochemistry
Cellular Respiration

What are the products of cellular respiration?

The formula for aerobic respiration is as follows:

Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (34-36 ATP + heat)

As you can see, the products are:

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Water
  • Energy as ATP (34-36)

In alcohol fermentation (anaerobic), the products are:

  • Ethanol
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Energy (2 ATP)

In lactic acid fermentation (anaerobic), the products are:

  • Lactic acid
  • Energy (2 ATP)
The products of cellular respiration are glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The waste products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide, water and ATP (adedenisine triphosphate a.k.a energy)

The equation goes:

glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water +ATP

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Mammals
Cellular Respiration

Who needs oxygen?

Most living organisms need oxygen for aerobic respiration.

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Botany or Plant Biology
Cellular Respiration

When a plant undergoes respiration what happens?

Respiration breaks down the sugar inside its cells.

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Biology
Genetics
Biochemistry
Cellular Respiration

Where does cellular respiration take place at?

Cellular respiration occurs in three main steps. The first step takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. The last two steps take place in the mitochondria(or if cellular respiration is taking place inside of a plant then the last two steps would take place in the chloroplasts) of the cell. Specifically, the second step occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and the last step occurs along the inner membrane of the mitochondria, or the cristae.

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Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

What process is the reverse of respiration?

The reverse is photosynthesis.

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Biology
Genetics
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

How does decomposition relate to cellular respiration?

The same chemical reaction is occurring in both cellular respiration and decomposition. An organic compound such as glucose is used as fuel to run cellular respiration.

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Biology
Cellular Respiration

When is carbon dioxide released during cellular respiration?

Carbon dioxide is released during two phases of cellular respiration. The first phase that carbon dioxide leaves is during pyruvate decarboxylation. The second time CO2 is released is during the Kreb's cycle. 1 CO2 leaves during the decarboxylation and two leave during the Kreb's cycle. Since there are two pyruvate per glucose molecule, everything happens twice. This makes a total of 6 CO2 released per glucose molecule.

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Biology
Genetics
Biochemistry
Cellular Respiration

What is the site of cellular respiration?

The mitochondria is mainly where cellular respiration takes place.

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Cellular Respiration

Could an individual unable to absorb oxygen into the body perform cellular respiration?

An individual unable to absorb oxygen into the body is called dead, and is unable to perform cellular respiration.

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Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

What is the result of cellular respiration?

The result of cellular respiration is the gain of energy in the form of ATP molecules.

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Cellular Respiration

How is aerobic cellular respiration similar to anaerobic cellular respiration?

Both take place in cell and provide ATP .

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Cellular Respiration

Is cellular respiration and aerobic respiration the same thing?

It is definitely the same thing because they both involve oxygen

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Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

Can plants do both photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

All organisms belonging in the Plantae kingdom are photosynthetic and are capable of cellular respiration.

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Cell or Plasma Membranes
Cellular Respiration

What are the two things that enter a cell for cellular respiration?

Carbohydrate molecules and oxygen enter the cell during cellular resperation.

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Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

Is cellular respiration the same as photosynthesis in reverse?

For the most part, but photosynthesis requires sun energy, whereas cellular respiration gives off energy in the form of ATP

535455
Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?

One forms glucose and the other one breaks it down

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Biology
Cellular Respiration

What organelle is the site of cellular respiration?

Mitochondrion ( plural : mitochondria ) is the site of cellular respiration in both plant and animal cells.

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Respiratory System
The Difference Between
Cellular Respiration

What is the difference between breathing and respiration?

In common usage there is no difference between "breathing" and "respiration." Both terms are used to describe the process of bringing air into the lungs, exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide and expelling the stale air. For example, the medical profession speaks of "respiration rate" to describe the number of inspiration cycles per unit time that a patient has.

Getting a bit more specific, respiration is actually a broader category than breathing, since there are methods of gaseous exchange that do not require breathing. Insects, for example, do not breathe, but do respire.

Breathing may be considered the physical action your whole body goes through to begin the process of respiration. Respiration is the action of removing air from the atmosphere, replacing it with the carbon dioxide in the blood stream, and moving that back into the atmosphere.

There is also a process called "cellular respiration" which is very different from the breathing/respiration of complex organism. Cellular respiration is the means by which individual cells use oxygen from the blood stream in combination with a sugar to release energy.

Cellular Respiration: The chemical reaction that occurs within cells to produce energy. It is essential for bodily function as it provides energy. The chemical equation for cellular respiration is:

Glucose + Oxygen => Carbon Dioxide + water + energy.

OR

(Sugar) + Oxygen => Energy (Carbon Dioxide and water)

OR

The scientific equation is:

C6H12+O2=6Co2+6H2o+ENERGY

Breathing or bodily respiration: The mechanical process that allows air to be transported into the lungs for the diffusion of oxygen into the bloodstream and diffusion of carbon dioxide into lungs which is then transported out.

(BREATHING IS AN EXCHANGE OF GASES)

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Biology
Biochemistry
Respiratory System
Cellular Respiration

What is a product if cellular respiration and not fermentation?

Water .

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College Applications and Entrance Requirements
Biology
Genetics
Cellular Respiration

How does oxygen affect the efficiency of cellular respiration?

Without oxygen - only glycolysis occurs. This results in very few ATP molecules.

With oxygen, all of celluar respiration occurs and this results in almost 40 ATP molecules. So, oxygen is essential to the production of mass ATP molecules.

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