Biochemistry is the study of the structure, composition and chemical processes in all living organisms. It covers the structures and functions of various cellular components, including proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules.
What is the importance of the cytoplasm?
It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including Glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. cytoplasm is a part of the cell that holds the other organelles of the cell together.
What is The meaning of phosphorous?
Phosphorus is one of the mineral elements, indeed a major mineral required by the body for its proper metabolism. The term metabolism used here is in a loose sense. Actually, phosphorus level in the body is checked alongside with that of calcium. This is done by the hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland, the parathyroid hormone (PTH). This hormone is supported by the prohormone, provitamin D3, which is actually produced by the direct rays of the UV light at about 298nm on a substrate know as 7-dehydrocholesterol found on the skin.
The regulation of phosphorus alongside with calcium in the body is important in bone formation and mineralisation as well as in teeth formation. The amount of these minerals in different parts of the body like the bone marrow and the plasma must be controlled effectively to avoid disease states.
How does polypeptide differ than an equal protein?
Generally, polypeptides are shorter than proteins. It's a non-specific term, but usually it's amino acid < polypeptide < protein.
The "equal protein" is presumed to refer to a protein with the same amino acid sequence and length. In that case, there is another difference. Polypeptides aren't necessarily biologically active molecules. Once they're biologically active, they're proteins, or enzymes. All you care about in a polypeptide is the amino acid sequence. But in proteins, the primary structure is the amino acid sequence, but you're also very concerned about secondary structure (folding & conformational changes), tertiary structure (cross bonds among amino acids in the chain) and quarternary structure - association of multiple independent polypeptides into a single protein structure.
In short - with polypeptides all you really care about is the order of a long string of amino acids. With proteins, you're worried about exactly how that long string is bent, twisted, folded, and tied into other strings that have been bent, twisted and folded, to become a protein like hemoglobin that you need to breathe.
In summary - A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids. A protein is a chain of amino acids and thus a polypeptide. Short amino acid chains are called peptides. So the answer is if they are equal then they are the same thing, just different terms.
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Could somebody suggest some good books on biochemistry to read to put on personal statement?
Lehninger's principles of Biochemistry..
Voet and Voet, Biochemistry
Elliot and Elliot, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
What do glycolipids do?
Glycolipids may be involved in cells signalling that they're ''self''; to allow the immune system to recognise them.
They could also be hormone receptors
Glycolipids are a carbohydrate with lipids attached. Their main function is to provide energy and to serve as markers for cellular recognition.
Glycolipids are found in cell membrane animals tissues and nerve cells, composed of lipids and carbohydrates such as glucose or galactose as in cerebrosides or combination with sialic acids in gangliosides. It provide energy as well as cell recognition. In cell membrane it is bonding with water molecules.
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Which process converts oxygen and food into cellular energy?
That process is called as biological oxidation. Glucose is the best example of biological oxidation. Here the end products are same. They are water and carbon bi oxide. In the biological oxidation the energy is released in step wise fashion in multiple steps. In the chemical oxidation the energy is released in single step. The amount of energy is exactly same in both the processes. Chemical oxidation is like jumping from the top of the building. Biological oxidation is like coming down via steps. You come down at the same place. But you may end up in braking your legs in the process of jumping down. In biological oxidation, you do not end up in braking your legs.
What are the Biological properties of Water?
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam.
Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.
Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration),precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.
Clean drinking water is essential to human and other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world. There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDPper capita. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%. Water plays an important role in theworld economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% offreshwater is consumed by agriculture.
Water is a polar molecule (this means that the distribution of charges through the molecule isn't even). The hydrogen atoms have partially positive charges (δ +) and the oxygen atoms have partially negative charges (δ -). These charges form very strong bonds between molecules of water (Hydrogen - oxygen) called hydrogen bonds. A covalent bond is formed between the oxygen (group 6) and two hydrogen atoms (group 1).
High specific heat capacity
Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy that it takes to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degree. Temperature relates to the amount of kinetic energy that the molecules within a substance have. As there are very strong hydrogen bonds between the water molecules, it takes a lot of energy to break them. As a result of these strong hydrogen bonds, more of the energy goes into breaking them rather than raising the temperature of the water. Therefore the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree is relatively high so it has a high specific heat capacity.
The high specific heat capacity is why water has a high boiling point and is a water at room temperature.
Water in our bodies works as a temperature buffer. This means that it keeps our bodies as close to 37 degrees most of the time. This is because if, for example the temperature of the surrounding environment increases or the rate of respiration rises à exercise, then the temperature of our bodies does not increase. (There is a high percentage of water in our bodies). A constant body temperature is important for homeostasis to stop our enzymes from denaturing.
Latent heat of evaporation
In a body of water, some molecules are moving faster than others because they have more kinetic energy. Some of these molecules have enough kinetic energy to leave the body of water. As this water leaves the body of water it takes a lot of the energy from the total body of water with it (as they are taking kinetic energy with them and therefore the temperature of the body of water falls).
This is why water evaporates in the sun after it has rained even though the water isn't boiling.
This process is important in bodies of animals because the evaporation of sweat helps to cool down the body.
It is also has effect on the leaves in plants as it removes water from leaves.
Cohesion Is when molecules attract to each other (because of the partial charges of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms). In a body of water, all of the molecules are attracted to each other, however, the uppermost molecules only have forces from beneath. Therefore, the uppermost molecules are pulled further down and closer together (laterally).
This creates surface tension on a large body of water.
These strong attractions are important in the xylem as it allows water to flow in a continuous stream so the water can be taken up from root to leaf.
As water is a polar molecule, it is therefore an important solvent. This is because the partially positive and negative charges attract atoms in other molecules causing them to separate and therefore dissolve. à When substances are dissolved in water they are free to move around and react with other molecules.
Metabolic processes (i.e. respiration or photosynthesis) which are essential for any life can only happen when reactants are dissolved in water. For example the movement of Oxygen into our blood.
When water freezes it turns to ice, which is less dense than when it is a liquid. This is because the hydrogen bonds formed are slightly further apart (due to the polarity) than that distance in water. This produces a giant, rigid open structure where every oxygen atom is at the centre of a tetrahedral arrangement (surrounded by hydrogen atoms).
The lower density as a solid is why ice floats on water and doesn't sink.
The cohesive forces of water are related to the property of strong adhesion. Adhesion is the attraction between water molecules and other molecules - these forces can sometimes be stronger than cohesion.
When water is within charged surfaces, for example the type that are found on the inside of a capillary tube, the water 'climbs' up the tube. This is because the water molecules are attracted to the charges on the insides of the capillary walls more than they are to each other.
What is the structure of phenyl?
the phenyl group or phenyl ring is the with the formula C6H5.
It can be thought of as being derived from benzene(C6H6)
the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic ring structure
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The term refers to the phenyl moiety aromatic molecular formula C6H5-R. This group is part of the family and is an aryl benzene derivatives by loss of a hydrogen atom. It is often designated by the symbol Ph,-Φ, φ-or-Ø.
This name refers also the radical derived from benzene which a carbon carries an unpaired electron.
What is test tube skin?
Short Answer is: It is skin in / and from / a test tube. What else ... would you need: Q'n.
What is the equation for oxidative phosphorylation?
3ADP + 3Pi + NADH + H+ +1/2O2 ----> 3ATP +NAD+ + H20
Is A1 Positive a rare blood group?
No. Depending on the country, this is usually between 30 and 40 percent of the population.
What are the final products of aerobic respiration in plants and animals?
They are Carbon Dioxide, Water and energy in the form of ATP.
Why can protease break down protein but not starch?
Proteases are enzymes which break down proteins. Each enzyme can only break down one substance (they are specific to one substrate).
This is because their active site has a specific shape to fit a protein and will not fit a starch molecule.
What are PGAL and RuBP?
PGAL is more commonly know as G3P, or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. It is the final product of the Calvin Cycle, or the dark reaction in plants. Two G3P molecules, which are each 3-carbon compounds, go on to create glucose. RuBP is ribulose bis phosphate . It is an organic compound used in Calvin cycle, it is used to fix CO2 during Calvin cycle . where one CO2 molecule is covalently bonded to RuBP to form an unstable intermediary compound that later breaks down by an enzymatic reactions to form G3P. It is vital for carbon fixation in plants.
Do cellular respiration and fermentation have any similar reactions?
Both start with glycolysis... but once you reach pyruvic acid, they're very different. Respiration final product is an inorganic compound (oxygen) whereas fermentation final product is an organic compound (such as lactic acid or ethanol)
Why is a buffer needed in gel electrophoresis?
The buffer is the medium through which the current flows. In the electrophoresis chamber, the anode and cathode are separated and the gel is placed between them. In order to close the circuit and generate the voltage which causes the migration, the entire chamber is filled with a conductive buffer. It is actually possible to perform electrophoresis without a buffer; however this requires a specially made electrophoresis chamber. In these chambers the electrodes actually contact the top and bottom of the gel eliminating the need for a conductive buffer to close the circuit.
SDS PAGE electrophoresis uses buffer not primarily as a conductor but for holding a desired pH, dissipating heat and providing SDS in excess in the case of denaturing gels. A gel would run without a buffer as the gel itself is a conductor but the currents involved would heat it to the point of decomposition. Also the volume of liquid in a gel does not allow for an adequate pH buffering system. Holding a pH is extremely important for reproducibility especially in native gels as the pH can change the charge on the peptide. It is true some gels do not require buffer but these are rare cases like isoelectric focusing.
the primary application of the buffer would be to conduct electricity,to form a closed circuit
Does insulin convert glycogen to glucose?
No. Insulin converts glucose into glycogen for storage in the body. Glucagon converts glycogen into glucose.
(it's the various cells in the body that do the conversion in either case, insulin and glucagon are hormones that induce the shift in the metabolism.)
Is cellular respiration an example of dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis?
Respiration is a catabolic reaction - it breaks down a complex molecule (glucose) and forms simpler molecules (carbon dioxide and water).
Respiration is neither a dehydration synthesis nor a hydrolysis because dehydration synthesis means formation of a molecule by removal of water molecule from two reactants . On the other hand hydrolysis involves addition of water molecule after breakage of water , nothing of these two happens in respiration .
What is biological continuity?
The thread of descent that connects all life - All life comes from life. A succession of parts intimately united.
All organisms are produced by their parents , genetic information is transferred from parents to offspring , through DNA via gametes ,this DNA is responsible for genetic continuity .
In what process are carrier proteins important?
Carrier proteins is important in facilitated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion transports molecules from one area of higher concentration on one side of the membrane to an area of lower concentration on the other side .Because the molecules are moving down their concentration gradient , facilitated diffusion is passive transport.
Is salicylamide a neutral or acidic compound?
It is slightly basic. Behaves almost completely neutral.
How does alcohol affect the permeability of the cell membrane?
You have to be careful with this question, alcohol does not affect the permeability of the cell membrane. However alcohol increaces the rate of diffusion throught the cell membrane.
Alcohol dissolves lipids from cell membrane thus it increases permeability as it can be seen in case of Gram staining .
What effect does a paper bag have on a banana?
Placing bananas in a paper bag or any other enclosed environment will hasten the ripening process. This is due to the fact that, as a banana ripens, it emits ethylene gas. Ethylene gas is essential in the ripening process. If you place bananas in a bag, the gas concentrates and the ripening process accelerates. Ethylene gas is what banana importers use to accelerate the ripening of bananas prior to sending them to market.
When does gluconeogenesis occur?
It occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, or during intense exercise.