Less expensive than other analytic studies
Less time consuming
Good for rare diseases
Disadvantages - Bias
Recall bias - people who have had the disease and better able to determine their exposure
Information bias- the difference between the measurment of each group
Selection bias- the difference between how the groups wre selected.
Epidemiology is the study of the spread of disease. It helps scientists to predict how far a disease will spread, how much damage it may do, and plan treatment, the creation of vaccines, and so forth. The current preparations for swine flu were a result of epidemiological studies.
Pathology and Epidemiology are two different sciences that deal with diseases and health. Both have their own specialities.
Pathology is a science that studies various diseases or ailments in the human body. It studies the symptoms and causes of various disorders, infections or other diseases in the body. Pathologists study the causes and treatment options for diseases through various tests and specialized equipment.
Whereas, Epidemiology is a science that studies the prevalence of various health problems and diseases in a population and the various discomforts associated with them. Epidemiologists study the sources of infection, the incidence of infection, and the methods of preventing infection.
sporadic infection mean the infection occur from time to time without maintaining in the population because its lack suitrable vector as Malaria in the UK
In 1854 John Snow mapped the cases of cholera in Soho, London, and realised that almost all of them were likely to have taken their water from the same pump. The spread of cholera stopped when the handle of the Broad Street pump was removed.
A epidemiological research method is a study of the frequency and distribution of a certain disorder within a certain population. For example a epidemiological research method could include how the AIDS virus affects people differently concerning gender and race. This method of research is also very effective in providing occurrence variables in concurrence with social and cultural factors concerning each group as a method of explanation to why certain people are more prone to certain disease or disorders. This research method primarily focuses on the prevalence of a disease or disorder, the incidence concerning how many new cases occurred within a year and the risk factors that are associated with the disease or disorder. This knowledge of course provides to be very important information to public and to health care facilities to properly orchestrate their facilities to best treat people most effectively. It also provides much more detailed information concerning individuals and what risk factors they need to be aware of and what factors to pay more attention to as being prone to certain diseases over others. The results of a epidemiological research study can be used to more thorough research methods.
well I have the idea that first in science of medicine there are prefixes and suffixes to the meaning of their words.
Here the suffix ology means , the study of something. The second part or rather the pre-fix is close to the word "epidemic" . I would venture to say this is asking: what is done in the study of epidemics. I would think to keep a spread of a disease to the masses,
first there might be quarantine for the affected. Perhaps even those possibly affected.
If there is already a vaccine for the illness , the health departments would give free shots until the supply ran out for those not yet positive with the illness.
The cause of the epidemic would be important to know so that scientist could test the possible cause for the massive outbrake. We would want to know...how it travels,spreads, what we should stay clear of ..... for example any thing that might give the illness opportunity to gain power or strength. As soon as we knew more about the cause and its affects on the people the government would hopefully take the measures needed to at least narrow the geographics down and confine it in that space . I think this would help the scientist know how much time they have to discover a vaccine if there isn't one, possibly a cure ,but the ability to give the knowledge the public would need to stay alive would be crucial in keeping the spread minimal. Tracking of the people infected, their families, their recent activities and travels. Any thing that might have occured in their life that was not in their usual day to day activities.Also tracking of other things that have commonalities in the specifically defined area affected.
There I do not know if I am correct totally or not at all. So if this is a ? from someone needing help I suggest a doctor visit immediately or even the health department. Can't think of one more thing. I'm surprised I came up with that many ideas not being a scientific person.
If any one knows if I'm correct or even incorrect ,please write it. I want to learn what is really done.
An epidemic that is caused by poor water quality or some other environmental cause can be stopped in time if the cause is corrected and remedied. An infectious or viral epidemic needs to have sick people isolated so that the healthy folk do not catch the disease. An example of intervention was for the ebola outbreak, where everyone was told to stay home to help stop the spread.
Humans are more vulnerable to the spread of disease than many other animals becasue we tend to live in closely packed communities. Many herd and hive living animals have the same vulnerability. And other animals experience that vulnerability when their population in a particular area gets too high.
Epidemiology allows scientists the ability to track diseases and to predict where they may show up. They are most interested in diseases that are passed from one person to another and how they are passed from one person to another. They try to stay one step ahead of where the 'bugs' like to hide.
These are the steps that field epidemiologists would use.
1. Determine the existence of an outbreak (may not be real)
2. Confirm the diagnosis (by testing)
3. Define a case
4. Search for cases
5. Generate hypotheses using descriptive findings
6. Test hypotheses with an analytical study
7. Draw conclusions
8. Compare hypothesis with established facts, additional studies
9. Communicate findings
10. Execute prevention measures
The importance of studing hiv and aids The importance of studing hiv and aids
An epidemic is when 7.7% of any given population is infected.
1 Koerner, Brendan I. 2003. Outbreaks vs. epidemics: whether it's time to freak about the flu. Slate [Internet]. [cited 31 May 2009]. Available from: http://www.slate.com/id/2092969/
1. The role of epidemiology in health policy formulation, planning and management
If health care professionals don’t look at the “how” and “why” involved in keeping populations healthy, the health of whole communities might be in jeopardy
Although there is a vaccine for this disease, it is not available in all countries. So, to try to prevent it, people should avoid coming in contact with infected animals and contaminated water or soil that carry the bacteria that causes this disease. Similarly, people should also use good hygiene. This disease causes symptoms, such as fevers, chills, diarrhea, and vomiting. This disease also affects both animals and humans.
The primary role of statistics in epidemiology is to make conclusions about a population of interest when data is only available from a sample. Statistics accounts for the uncertainty.
In epidemiological datasets there are usually measured observations of an occurance of a disease as well as measured indicators of exposure. An epidemiologist may for example be interested in whether exposure (e.g. smoking) increases the risk of disease (e.g. cancer). Information on smoking however may not be available for all people in the population of interest because of limited resources, so an epidemiologist would have to consider taking a sample. An epidemiologist would use a random sample in order to use statistics to to make inference about the association between smoking and cancer in the population. The role of statistics is to determine whether any association that is observed in the random sample is actually a real one. In most cases there will be some association even if it is very small. The role of the statistician is to determine if the association is different than what would occur by chance.
A communicable disease is a disease that can be transferred from an infected person to another individual. or A communicable disease is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from an infected organism to another. Examples of these include: Bird flu, cholera, Malaria, etc.
That branch of science which treats of epidemics.