Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover was the 31st President of the United States and served from March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933.

2,611 Questions
Herbert Hoover

Why was Herbert Hoover not reelected in 1932?

Mostly it was the economy that did Hoover in. The country faced depression and people thought it was time for a change.

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Herbert Hoover

How many books did Herbert Hoover write?

16

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US Presidents
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Herbert Hoover

Who were Herbert Hoover's siblings?

Herbert Hoover had one older brother and one younger sister:

Theodore "Tad" Jesse Hoover ( Jan. 28, 1871- Feb. 4, 1955) who had a distinguished career as Dean of engineering at Stanford U

Mary "May" Blanche Hoover Leavitt (Aug. 1,1876- Jun. 7, 1953) ( aka Mrs Cornelius Van Ness Leavitt)

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

Was president hoover buried in a piano box?

NO- he was buried in a standard casket.

The pictures of President Hoover's burial seem to show that he was buried in a Marsellus 710 solid African mahogany casket like the one chosen for the funeral of John F. Kennedy. Unlike a piano, the Marsellus Seven-Ten is a standard casket (to be more specific: a heavily rounded corner design), but a luxury casket above standard, and therefore pricewise close to a grand piano, especially if Hoover's casket was equipped inside with a hermetically sealed inner bronze liner with a full length oval plate glass top.

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

How did Herbert Hoover view the US economy as he campaigned for president in 1928-?

Herbert hoover saw unparalled prosperity across the country about the US economy as he campaigned for president in 1928.

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoovers hobbies or sports if any?

he played medicine ball for 30 minutes every morning.

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Herbert Hoover

What religion is Herbert Hoover?

Herbert Hoover was a Quaker.

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

How old was Herbert Hoover when he entered office?

When Herbert Hoover entered office in March 4, 1929, he was 54 years old.

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US Presidents
US Constitution
Herbert Hoover

Which president was not a u.s.citizen till after elected?

I don't really understand what you are asking, but let me try to help. All presidents must be natural born citizens. This means that they must have been born on U.S. soil. For example: Arnold Schwarzenegger cannot become president because he was not born in the United States.

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History of the United States
US Presidents
The Great Depression
Herbert Hoover

What did Herbert Hoover do in response to the Great Depression?

The very first thing Hoover did in response to the 1929 crash was call business leaders to Washington to pressure them into keeping wages high, instead of cutting wages as economic conditions required. Lee E. Ohanian of UCLA calculates that this was the cause of about 2/3 of the unemployment in the first years of the Great Depression.

While not believing in charity by the government, Hoover did try and help the economic mess that began during his administration. He gave much of his money to charity and encouraged Americans to do the same. He broke with Republicans and did away with the taxes that had been placed on citizens during the Coolidge administration. He thought that would allow for more income being spent to help the economy rebound. He spent $500 million a year on public works and government programs to build or improve government properties. The most famous was the Hoover (Boulder) Dam. Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (continued by FDR) which created an agency to help banks, railroads, and other key businesses to stay in business thus helping the economy. All of these things could not stem the tide of the economic collapse. Hoover believed in a balanced budget and not pumping government money into the economy. He believed in "rugged individualism" and relied on the individual, the churches and private charities, and the local and state governments to handle most of the economic help that was needed.

Hebert Hoover was blamed for the great depression because of his lack of involvement and issue with the stock market. He took out his money from the stocks which feared Americans currently invested in the stock market, so they pulled their money out as well, this decreased the value of stocks greatly. Also, when the great depression struck, Hoover decided not to give government aid to the people believing that it would inflate the Federal government budget. Later on though, Hoover decided to take action and try to get America out of this depression.

Herbert Hoover broke with the previous laissez-faire policy for dealing with recessions and depressions. Long before the 1929 crash, in the early 1920's, he wrote that he believed that public works projects were a means for government to fight recessions and depressions. In the last week of October 1929, he urged the Fed to extend $300 million in quantitative easing. Right after the '29 crash, he called business leaders to Washington to keep them from lowering wages as market conditions demanded. He used a technique called "voluntarism", but which was as voluntary as a mobster's calls for "cooperation". He strong armed them by threatening them with pro-union legislation. UCLA professor Lee E. Ohanian calculates that this caused as much as two thirds of the increase in unemployment in the early years of the Great Depression. Read his article "What or Who Started the Great Depression". Hoover's public works projects include the Hoover Dam. Total spending on public works in 1930 exceeded $4 billion.

Hoover tried to help by pressuring business leaders to keep wages high when economic conditions dictated that they fall. Professor Lee E. Ohanian calculates that this accounts for as much as 2/3 of the unemployment in the first years of the Great Depression. Liberals claim that Hoover's laissez-faire caused the Great Depression, but the opposite is true. His interventions caused it.

While not believing in charity by the government, Hoover did try and help the economic mess that began during his administration. He gave much of his money to charity and encouraged Americans to do the same. He broke with Republicans and did away with the taxes that had been placed on citizens during the Coolidge administration. He thought that would allow for more income being spent to help the economy rebound. He spent $500 million a year on public works and government programs to build or improve government properties. The most famous was the Hoover (Boulder) Dam. Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (continued by FDR) which created an agency to help banks, railroads, and other key businesses to stay in business thus helping the economy.

Hoover blamed the Depression on foreign economic collapse over which he had no control. Major European banks went bankrupt, causing alarm in other foreign banks. While not believing in charity by the government, Hoover did try and help the economic mess that began during his administration. He gave much of his money to charity and encouraged Americans to do the same. He broke with Republicans and did away with the taxes that had been placed on citizens during the Coolidge administration. He thought that would allow for more income being spent to help the economy rebound. He spent $500 million a year on public works and government programs to build or improve government properties. The most famous was the Hoover (Boulder) Dam. Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (continued by FDR) which created an agency to help banks, railroads, and other key businesses to stay in business thus helping the economy.

Although it was not Hoovers fault that the Great Depression took place and that the Stock Market crashed Hoover was widely blamed and was strongly disliked by the American people, due to his lack of involvement. As the U.S failed, American people looked to Hoover for leadership, many were starving, homeless and dying but Hoover refused to believe or give any government assistance to those who needed it. He believed that the people could help themselves and he also referred to the Great Depression as "a temporary halt in the prosperity of a great people." He also feared that by giving American people assistance it would inflate the federal budget and reduce the self-respect of the Americans receiving the aid.

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History of the United States
US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

What is the issue mentioned in Herbert Hoover's speech?

When the Republican convention in Kansas City began in the summer of 1928, the fifty-three-year-old Herbert Hoover was on the verge of winning his party's nomination for President. He had won primaries in California, Oregon, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Maryland. Among important Republican constituencies, he had the support of women, progressives, internationalists, the new business elite, and corporate interests. Party regulars grudgingly supported Hoover, but they neither liked nor trusted him. Hoover's nomination was assured when he received the endorsement of Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon, who controlled Pennsylvania's delegates.

The convention nominated Hoover on the first ballot, teaming him with Senate Majority Leader Charles Curtis of Kansas. The Republican platform promised continued prosperity with lower taxes, a protective tariff, opposition to farm subsidies, the creation of a new farm agency to assist cooperative marketing associations, and the vigorous enforcement of Prohibition. The party also proclaimed its commitment to delivering a "technocrat" known for his humanitarianism and efficiency to the White House. In his acceptance speech, Hoover promised "a final triumph over poverty"-words that would soon come to haunt him.

The four-term New York governor, Alfred E. Smith, a Catholic opponent of Prohibition (the common term for the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that banned the manufacture, sale, or transport of liquor), won the Democratic nomination on the first ballot. His "Protestant Prohibitionist" running mate, Senator Joseph G. Robinson of Arkansas, balanced Smith's "Wet (anti-prohibitionist) Catholic" stance. Democrats hoped that Smith could unify the party and defeat Hoover, something that few political pundits at the time considered even remotely possible. The Smith-Robinson ticket actually mirrored the divide in the party between southern, Protestant backers of Prohibition and northern, urban, often Catholic opponents of Prohibition. The Democratic platform downplayed the tariff issue and emphasized the party's support for public works projects, a federal farm program, and federal aid to education. It also promised to enforce the nation's laws, a nod to supporters of Prohibition who worried that Smith might try to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment.

Hoover ran a risk-free campaign, making only seven well-crafted radio speeches to the nation; he never even mentioned Al Smith by name. The Republicans portrayed Hoover as an efficient engineer in an era of technology, as a successful self-made man, as a skilled administrator in a new corporate world of international markets, and as a careful businessman with a vision for economic growth that would, in the words of one GOP campaign circular, put "a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage." Republicans also reminded Americans of Hoover's humanitarian work during World War I and in the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover the administrator, the humanitarian, and the engineer were all on display in the 1928 campaign film ï"Master of Emergencies," which often left its audiences awestruck and in tears. But perhaps Hoover's greatest advantage in 1928 was his association with the preceding two Republican administrations and their legacy of economic success.

Religion and Prohibition quickly emerged as the most volatile and energizing issues in the campaign. No Catholic had ever been elected President, a by-product of the long history of American anti-Catholic sentiment. Vicious rumors and openly hateful anti-Catholic rhetoric hit Smith hard and often in the months leading up to election day. Numerous Protestant preachers in rural areas delivered Sunday sermons warning their flocks that a vote for Smith was a vote for the Devil. Anti-Smith literature, distributed by the resurgent Ku Klux Klan (KKK), claimed that President Smith would take orders from the Pope, declare all Protestant children illegitimate, annul Protestant marriages, and establish Catholicism as the nation's official religion. When Smith addressed a massive rally in Oklahoma City on the subject of religious intolerance, fiery KKK crosses burned around the stadium and a hostile crowd jeered him as he spoke. The next evening, thousands filled the same stadium to hear an anti-Smith speech entitled, "Al Smith and the Forces of Hell."A consistent critic of Prohibition as governor of New York, Smith took a stance on the Eighteenth Amendment that was politically dangerous both nationally and within the party. While the Democratic platform downplayed the issue, Smith brought it to the fore by telling Democrats at the convention that he wanted "fundamental changes" in Prohibition legislation; shortly thereafter, Smith called openly for Prohibition's repeal, angering Southern Democrats. At the same time, the Anti-Saloon League, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and other supporters of the temperance movement exploited Smith's anti-Prohibition politics, dubbing him "Al-coholic" Smith, spreading rumors about his own addiction to drink, and linking him with moral decline. A popular radio preacher put Smith in the same camp as "card playing, cocktail drinking, poodle dogs, divorces, novels, stuffy rooms, dancing, evolution, Clarence Darrow, nude art, prize-fighting, actors, greyhound racing, and modernism."The Republicans swept the election in November. Hoover carried forty states, including Smith's New York, all the border states, and five traditionally Democratic states in the South. The popular vote gave a whopping 21,391,993 votes (58.2 percent) to Hoover compared to 15,016,169 votes (40.9 percent) to Smith. The electoral college tally was even more lopsided, 444 to 87. With 13 million more people voting in 1928 (57 percent of the electorate) than had turned out in 1924 (49 percent of the electorate), Smith won twice the number of voters who had supported the 1924 losing Democratic candidate, John W. Davis. Hoover, though, also made significant gains, tallying nearly 6 million more Republican votes than Coolidge had four years earlier. Smith's Catholicism and opposition to Prohibition hurt him, but the more decisive factor was that Hoover ran as the candidate of prosperity and economic growth.

The Campaign and Election of 1932

Much had changed politically for Hoover and the Republican Party by the time convention delegates assembled in Chicago in the summer of 1932. The Great Depression that struck during the "Great Engineer's" presidency, and his inability to do much about it, had changed the national mood and its political temper. The word "Hooverize," which in 1917 carried positive images in the public mind, had undergone a similar transformation; by 1932, "Hooverville" had come to represent the dirty shacks in which the unemployed and homeless now lived, with "Hoover Flags" denoting the turned-out pockets of men's trousers as they stood in bread lines. All the things about Hoover that had sounded positive notes during the 1920s rang off-key in 1932. Words like "rationalize," "efficiency," and "technocrat" spoke of heartlessness and a cold-minded concern with an industrial process that had devastated the nation. Hoover's political problems during his term-his repeated failures to muster congressional support for his policies-did not help his chances for re-election, either. Hoover's reputation waned further, and his political future darkened, after General MacArthur routed the Bonus Army from its camps in Washington, D.C., much to the horror of the American public. (See Domestic Affairs section for details.)Few Republicans believed that Hoover could win in 1932, but the President was determined to defend himself. Both Hoover and Vice President Charles Curtis were renominated on the first ballot. No disruptive demonstrations, rowdy parades, or outbursts of applause colored the convention hall in Chicago. No pictures of Hoover or Curtis hung from its rafters. The Republican platform praised Hoover's programs, called for a balanced budget and a protective tariff, and urged repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment-a reversal of its 1928 stance on Prohibition. Nothing was said about trade associations, technology, or the promise of prosperity. A sense of gloom-and-doom filled the air.

The Democratic convention met in Chicago as well, but in an entirely different atmosphere. The party faithful and their leaders were certain that the 1932 presidential election would bring the first Democratic victory since Woodrow Wilson in 1916. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the governor of New York and the man who had twice nominated Al Smith, held the lead among convention delegates. But Smith wanted to try again, and other Democrats, notably powerful House Speaker John Nance Garner of Texas, also sought the nomination. Roosevelt's floor managers managed to convince Garner and key supporters, such as California senator William McAdoo, to back Roosevelt's candidacy rather than let the convention deadlock. Garner acceded and Roosevelt won on the fourth ballot. Roosevelt then flew to Chicago to deliver his acceptance speech in person, a maneuver that defied tradition. It was a politically necessary one, however, because FDR needed to show the electorate that while his body had been ravaged by polio, he was still a vigorous and energetic leader. In his acceptance speech, Roosevelt pledged "a new deal for the American people" and was cheered wildly by the delegates.

Roosevelt's campaign was cautious, largely because he did not want to commit any gaffes which might draw attention away from Hoover's failings or the nation's immense troubles. He repeatedly returned to the phrase "New Deal" throughout the campaign, although he rarely offered details on the programs or policies he might pursue. Indeed, Roosevelt spoke in such generalities and exuded so much optimism that some commentators wondered if he understood the extraordinary challenges facing the nation. Roosevelt departed from this campaign strategy on September 25 in a major address at the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco. It was there that he outlined the governing philosophy behind his New Deal. The federal government, Roosevelt charged, must assume responsibility for the welfare of the nation. It must assist business and labor in the development of "an economic constitutional order" based upon a fair distribution of wealth, in which every working person would be guaranteed "the right to make a comfortable living."Hoover delivered nine major addresses during the campaign, defending his record and attacking Roosevelt. The President blamed the Great Depression on the aftermath of World War I, and he argued that his anti-Depression measures had prevented the total collapse of the economy. Roosevelt's New Deal, he warned, would support an activist federal government whose centralized and coercive powers endangered traditional notions of "self-government" and individual liberty. Hoover's speeches, however, were dreary, laden with statistics and delivered as sermons. The President inspired few Americans, in stark contrast to Roosevelt's uplifting oratory. FDR responded by comparing Hoover's record to the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: "Destruction, Delay, Despair, and Doubt."More than 40 million voters went to the polls in 1932, a record number. They voted overwhelmingly for Roosevelt, who beat Hoover by 7 million votes and captured forty-two of the forty-eight states. Except for Pennsylvania, all the states Hoover won were in New England-a bedrock of GOP support. The Democrats won both houses of Congress by substantial majorities, as well. In the long term, the election marked the beginning of Democratic dominance in presidential elections and American politics. FDR's Democratic Party would win the next four presidential elections and its philosophy of "New Deal liberalism" would emerge as the nation's guiding political ideology. During this period of dominance, Democrats never shied away from reminding voters of Hoover's and the Republicans' failure to end the Depression. In the short term, though, FDR's victory removed the burden of leadership from Hoover; the Great Depression officially became Roosevelt's problem in March 1933.

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Herbert Hoover

Who was Herbert Hoover?

President Herbert Hoover refused to meet with thousands of World War I veterans when they marched on Washington D.C.

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History, Politics & Society
The Great Depression
Calvin Coolidge
Herbert Hoover

What year did the Great Depression start and end?

It beganon Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929 and lasted until the early forties

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

Who defeated president Herbert Hoover in the 1932 election?

Franklin Roosevelt defeated Hoover in 1932 in the presidential election.

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History of the United States
US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

What did Herbert Hoover believe was the job of the government?

to interfere as little as possible

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The Great Depression
Herbert Hoover

What was Herbert Hoovers first response to the great depression?

Hoover blamed the Depression on foreign economic collapse over which he had no control. Major European banks went bankrupt, causing alarm in other foreign banks. Great Britain went off the gold standard. The Bank of England no longer redeemed its paper money in gold bullion or coin. Investors feared that all paper money would lose its value so they withdrew $1.5 billion in gold from American banks. This further weakened the global economic situation.

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History of the United States
US Presidents
Famous People
Herbert Hoover

Was J. Edgar Hoover related to Herbert Hoover?

They had no known family ties.

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

How many votes did Herbert Hoover get?

Herbert Clark Hoover got 58.2% votes

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History of the United States
US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

What is Herbert Hoover's favorite songs?

I'm herbert the hoover

herbie theme tune

my herbie heart skips a beat

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

Who was Herbert Hoover's vice president?

The vice president for Herbert Hoover was Charles Curtis(January 25, 1860 - February 8, 1936) , congressman from Kansas.

The 31st President of the United States was Herbert Hoover from March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933. His Vice President was Charles Curtis.

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

What was Herbert Hoover Weight and height?

Five feet eleven inches was his height. He weighed around 180 pounds.

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US Presidents
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Poverty
Herbert Hoover

What did Herbert Hoover believe about poverty?

He was against it and spent much of his life fighting it. As a private citizen he single-handedly organized a vast relief operation that saved the Belgian people from starving due to the German blockade of WW I.

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Banking
Business and Industry
Herbert Hoover

What is Stevin Hoover of Hoover Capital Management doing now in 2007?

I am Stevin Hoover. Thank you for your interest. I am living in northern Florida. I have an elderly mother and a sister who live not far away. I recently started a blog at http://www.stevin-hoover.com, where I try to post intelligent reflections and observations about a wide range of matters going on in the world. I hope you will visit the site from time to time and would be honored if you add it to your list of favorites. The best way to contact me is through my blog. SRH 15 October 2007

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US Presidents
Herbert Hoover

What did Herbert Hoover do before becoming president?

Hoover was a very successful mining engineer, ran his own international company and made millions. (He earned one of the first engineering degrees from Stanford U. )

In 1914 he became involved in humanitarian food relief efforts for Americans stranded in Europe and for natives, particularly in Belgium, who could not get food due to war blockades. He single-highhandedly got people to donate tons of food and found ways to get it shipped to Europe and distributed to the people who needed it. He also served as Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge.

He was the third Unites States Secretary of Commerce (March 5, 1921 - August 21, 1928) and later served with distinction on several civil commissions.

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Herbert Hoover

What was a reason that the Bonus Army made a Hooverville in front of the White House?

The Bonus army was a protest movement. The participants wanted the bonus now and were trying to disrupt the government enough that Congress would humor them and pay them early.

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