Law & Legal Issues

The laws of a society is a set of rules and principles that determine a system of society's dos and don'ts, and the institutions that legislate and enforce the laws. Ask your questions about laws, legal systems, and legal issues here.

121,658 Questions
Law & Legal Issues
Politics and Government
Women's Suffrage

Which country was the first to give women the right to vote?

At a national level, Grant Duchy ofFinland(1883) was first to declare universal suffrage and allow anyone to participate in politic, women included, although it was a autonymous part of Russian Empire at that stage. The first independent country to give women the right to vote in national elections (not local or provincial) was New Zealand in 1893. Previous bills or amendments only narrowly failed in New Zealands parliament as early as 1878.

Places with similar status which granted women the vote include Wyoming Territory (1869). Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant female suffrage include the Corsican Republic(1769), the Isle of Man (1881), the Pitcairn Islands(1838), Franceville(1889), but some of these had brief existences as independent states and others were not clearly independent. Sweden was first one to allow women to participate in elections in 1718,but only to guild members and only on local elections.
Of currently existing independent countries, New Zealand was the first to give women the right to vote in 1893 when it was a self-governing British colony. Similarly, the colony of South Australia enacted legislation giving women the vote in 1894. Places with similar status which granted women the vote include Wyoming Territory (1869). Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant female suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Isle of Man (1881), the Pitcairn Islands, and Franceville, but some of these had brief existences as independent states and others were not clearly independent.

Law & Legal Issues
US Constitution
US Government

Do the three-tier federal court system have anything in common?

With what?

Law & Legal Issues
Bankruptcy Law

What is an unsecured promissory note?

A promissory note is a document where you agree or promise to repay a certain amount of money to someone. If it is unsecured, it means that nothing was put up as collateral to back up your promise [such as a house, a car, stocks, etc. ].

Law & Legal Issues

Can a person practice being a lawyer and a judge at the same time?


If a person is a part time judge, such as in a city court, they frequently only serve as a judge on a few occasions per week, and spend the remainder of their time practicing law.

Law & Legal Issues
US Constitution
US Government

What is meant by having jurisdiction over the case?

Having the appropriate legal authority to hear and determine the issues in the matter.

Law & Legal Issues

Can you fax a notarized document?

Yes you can but a document is notarized to guarantee that the signers have shown legal documentation that they are who they say they are (it was not signed by someone else). Only the original notarized document provides the legal confirmation of the identity of the signers (not a copied or faxed copy of the document).

History of Europe
Law & Legal Issues

What do you mean by Indian mercantile law?

Indian Mercantile law is primarily an adaptation of the English Law. The different Indian acts follow, to a considerable extent, the English mercantile law with some reservations and modifications necessitated by the peculiar conditions prevailing in India.

Law & Legal Issues

What is the definition of oil pool account?

The Oil Pool Account is the buffer maintained by the Government of India that takes care of the fluctuations in the price of of petroleum products with the help of surcharges collected on sales and enables it to make the products available at stable prices decided by it over long periods. The difference in the inflows and the outflows of funds result in a surplus or deficit in the oil pool account.

Law & Legal Issues

What is USM FORM-41?

It is a US Marshall Service Order. It is used when taking prisoners into custody.

Law & Legal Issues
Wine and Champagne

What are the three parts of a stemmed glass?

The bowl, stem, and foot.

Grand Theft Auto (video game)
Law & Legal Issues
Criminal Law

What is the penalty for grand theft in pa?

Felony 3rd Degree/ Felonyu*7 yrs$15,000

Law & Legal Issues

Is it legal to sell used mattress in MD?

Not as long as you disclose that it is not being sold as "new." Also - there may be some health department regulations governing the sale of used bedding that you may have to comply with.

Law & Legal Issues

In what circumstances might you have to breach confidentiality?

Both doctors and lawyers have confidentiality agreements with their clients and patients.

Doctors and lawyers can be sued for malpractice if they divulge the secrets they are told.

The confidentiality rule does have exceptions however.

Doctors and lawyers must keep the secrets they are told. For example, a doctor cannot tell anybody if one of their patients has AIDS. He can, however, tell the police if the AIDS patient threatens to have unprotected sex with others in order to intentionally spread the disease.

The same goes for lawyers. A lawyer cannot tell anybody that his client has committed murder. If the client admits that he is planning to murder another person, however, the lawyer is required to tell the authorities to prevent further crimes.

Added: You may add to the above -- clergymen (particularly of the Roman Catholic faith) who are also protected from being forced to reveal confidentialities they received via "confession."

Reporters, and other members of "The News Media" like to believe that they are protected from revealing confidentialities, however there has never been a successful constitutional challenge won on this premise.

Also: if you are bound by an agreement that you signed with another party (perhaps an employer) it would be best to consult an attorney on the matter.

Law & Legal Issues
Contract Law

What does ratify a contract mean?

To ratify a contract is to approve of it after the fact when the ratifying party either had no obligation under it or disclaimed any obligation under it. An example would be where a contract is made by an agent for a principal, but the agent had no authority to make the contract. The principal is under no duty to abide by it; however he does have the right to ratify it after reviewing it and deciding he wants it.

Law & Legal Issues
Civil Lawsuits
Email and IM

Can you serve a subpoena by email?

State law dictates the manner of service that is required in the jurisdiction. Therefor, there is no unequivocal answer to this question. You need to refer to the law of the prevailing jurisdiction.

Law & Legal Issues
Legal Definitions

What is the legal definition of a ship?

According to 33 USCS § 1471 (5), the noun "ship" is defined as --
"(A) a seagoing vessel of any type whatsoever, and
(B) any floating craft, EXCEPT an installation or device engaged in the exploration and exploitation of the resources of the seabed and the ocean floor and the subsoil thereof."

Law & Legal Issues

What does TENDER a contract mean?

It just means "to offer".

Law & Legal Issues
Citizenship and Marriage

Can a natural born us citizen have his citizenship revoked against his will?

The law prohibits the taking of your citizenship against your will, but there are certain actions a citizen can take which are classed to be a free-will decision that constitutes renunciation of their citizenship. Which means if you commit these such acts you are willfully aggreeing to the loss of your citizenship.

The ways to lose your natural born US citizenship are detailed in 8 USC 1481:

1.Becoming naturalized in another country.

2.Swearing an oath of allegiance to another country.

3.Serving in the armed forces of a nation at war with the U.S., or if you are an officer in that force.

4.Working for the government of another nation if doing so requires that you become naturalized or that you swear an oath of allegiance to that country.

6.Being convicted of committing treason.

Law & Legal Issues

What does code 4 mean in law enforcement?

"No further assistance needed"

Business & Finance
Law & Legal Issues

What is plaintiffs bar?

Hi, in the court of law there is 3 sections of the court room, The judges desk, the defendant bar where the person that was accused of doing the crime, and there is a plaintiff bar where the prosecutor sits, or if its not a murder case, just a regular old case like stealing, damage of property etc. its the person who is suing.

Law & Legal Issues
Criminal Law

Is murder legal anywhere?

Societies have sanctioned murder (pursuant to a death penalty) when committed by a government. Although justification for such killings is commonly advanced by claiming a retributive purpose (this reasoning goes back to biblical times), it is a form of profound denial to claim they are completely free of "malice aforethought". Attempts to legitimize such killings through social consensus do not negate their moral status as murder. There is no question that such killings are "deliberate and premeditated." The universally experienced discomfort connected with killing another human being has yet to be fully owned up to in the few jurisdictions where the death penalty is legal.

Killings associated with war are similarly excused as something other than murder. At its core, the distinction is conceptual and illusory.

Remember, murder and killing are distinctly different legal concepts.

Killing is causing the death of another person.

Murder is a legal definition of certain types of killing. By definition, an illegal killing is murder, and thus, murder is always illegal.

Virtually all known societies have situations where killing is perfectly legal: such situations can depend on a great deal of variables, from the "who did" the killing, do "who was" killed, to the actions of either at the time of the killing, to other conditions in force at the time of the killing. All of these circumstances must be collected together to determine if a killing is murder or not. If the killing is deemed illegal, then it becomes murder.

Thus, murder is never legal anywhere.

Law & Legal Issues
Criminal Law
Jail Incarceration

How much jail time for impersonating a police officer?

Depends on what you did. Did you kill someone or were you just showing off to someone? So it depends on the action.

Law & Legal Issues
Corrections System

Is there a phone number for Chino state prison?

Yeah there is, but i dont know it. If you speak to my cousin tell him i said hi. Yeah there is, but i dont know it. If you speak to my cousin tell him i said hi.

Law & Legal Issues

What are some gun names?

YES, Kalashnikov- but let's include Mauser, Enfield, Winchester, Marlin, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Glock, Taurus, Ruger, Luger, Holland & Holland, Merkel, Parker, Purdey, Savage, Mossberg, Arisaka, Browning, Dan Wesson, Auto Ordnance, Mosin, Lebel- and the oldest gun maker still in business- Beretta. There are thousands more.

Law & Legal Issues

What are the Pennsylvania knife carrying laws?

Pennsylvania - Pa. C.S.A. 18.908. Prohibited offensive

weapons. (a) Offense defined.--A person commits a

misdemeanor of the first degree if, except as authorized

by law, he makes, repairs, sells, or otherwise deals in,

uses, or possesses any offensive weapon. (b) Exception.--

It is a defense under this section for the defendant to

prove by a preponderance of evidence that he possessed of

dealt with the weapon solely as a curio or in a dramatic

performance, or that he possessed it briefly in

consequence of having found it or taken it from an

aggressor, or under circumstances similarly negativing any

intent or likelihood that the would be used unlawfully.

(c) Definition.--As used in this section "offensive

weapon" means... any... dagger, knife, razor or cutting

instrument, the blade of which is exposed in an automatic

way by switch, push-button, spring mechanism, or


- also see 24 P.S. 13-1317.2. re: students bringing weapons

on to school property.]

Pennsylvania case law:

Where opening knife required lock to be released, and

once lock was released blade could be exposed by flip of

wrist, knife did not have blade which could be "exposed in

an automatic way"... by "otherwise" legislature referred

to knives that were opened by some sort of mechanism which

is not a "switch," "push-button," or "spring" mechanism

but still a mechanism... (1979)


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