Sound Waves

Sound waves are a mechanical oscillation of pressure. It is a series of vibrations that can be heard.

Asked in Sound Waves

What happens to the intensity of the received sound when a surface receiving sound is moved from its original position to a position three times farther away from the source of the sound?

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It will be 1/9 as intense (or badly phrased, "nine times lower"). Intensity is defined as the energy crossing per unit area in unit time. So intensity will be inversely proportional to the square of the distance. So as distance is multiplied by 3 times then intensity would be reduced by 3² i.e. 9 times. (A meter reveals that the sound level has dropped by 9.54 dB.) For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 * (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 * (1/3)² = (I/ 9) *Do not forget that the sound pressure is not the same as sound intensity. Sound pressure needs the distance law 1/r. (No square at all). For sound pressure we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse distance law = 1/r. p1 and r1 belong to the close distance and p2 and p2 belong to the far distance. p2 = p1 x r1/r2 p2 = p1 x 1/3 = p1 / 3 Three times farther away gives one third the sound pressure of the close sound pressure. For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 x (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 x (1/3)² = I1 / 9 Three times farther away gives one ninth the sound intensity of the close sound intensity. Scroll down to related links and look at "Sound pressure p and the inverse distance law 1/r". For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 * (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 * (1/3)² = I1 / 9 Three times farther away gives one ninth the sound intensity of the close sound intensity. Do not forget that the sound pressure is not the same as sound intensity. Sound pressure needs the distance law 1/r. (No square at all). For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 x (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 x (1/3)² = I1 / 9 Three times farther away gives one ninth the sound intensity of the close sound intensity. For sound pressure we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse distance law = 1/r. p1 and r1 belong to the close distance and p2 and p2 belong to the far distance. p2 = p1 x r1/r2 p2 = p1x 1/3 = p1 / 3 Three times farther away gives one third the sound pressure of the close sound pressure. Scroll down to related links and look at "Sound pressure p and the inverse distance law 1/r". For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 x (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 x (1/3)² = I1 / 9 Three times farther away gives one ninth the sound intensity of the close sound intensity. For sound pressure we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse distance law = 1/r. p1 and r1 belong to the close distance and p2 and p2 belong to the far distance. p2 = p1 x r1/r2 p2 = p1 x 1/3 = p1 / 3 Three times farther away gives one third the sound pressure of the close sound pressure. Scroll down to related links and look at "Sound pressure p and the inverse distance law 1/r". For sound intensity (acoustic intensity) we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse square law = 1/r². I1 and r1 belong to the close distance and I2 and r2 belong to the far distance. I2 = I1 * (r1/r2)² I2 = I1 * (1/3)² = I1 / 9 Three times farther away gives one ninth the sound intensity of the close sound intensity. For sound pressure we use in the free field (direct field) the inverse distance law = 1/r. p1 and r1 belong to the close distance and p2 and p2 belong to the far distance. p2 = p1 * r1/r2 p2 = p1 * 1/3 = p1 / 3 Three times farther away gives one third the sound pressure of the close sound pressure. Scroll down to related links and look at "Sound pressure p and the inverse distance law 1/r".
Asked in Physics, Sound Waves

What are the uses of multiple reflection of sound?

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1) Megaphones and musical instrumentsà Megaphones or loudhailers, horns, musical instruments are all designed to send sound in a particular direction without spreading it in all directions. In these instruments, a tube followed by a conical opening reflects sounds successively to guide most of the sound waves from the source in the forward direction. 2) Stethoscopeà In stethoscope the sound of a patient's heartbeat is guided by along the tube of the stethoscope to the doctor's ears by multiple reflections of sound. 3) Curved ceilingsà the ceilings of a concert halls, conference halls and cinema halls are made curved so that sound after reflection reaches all the corners of the halls. 4) Sound boardsà in large halls or auditorium, large concave wooden boards are placed behind the speaker. The speaker stands at the focus of this concave reflecting surface. After reflection the sound is spread evenly towards the audience. This makes the sound readily available even at a distance.
Asked in Math and Arithmetic, Sound Waves

What numbers come after centillion?

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Powers of 10 (named numbers and number of zeroes) including centillion 10303 : 10^0 = one 10^3 = thousand 10^6 = million 10^9 = billion 10^12 = trillion 10^15 = quadrillion 10^18 = quintillion 10^21 = sexillion 10^24 = septillion 10^27 = octillion 10^30 = nonillion 10^33 = decillion 10^36 = undecillion 10^39 = duodecillion 10^42 = tredecillion 10^45 = quattuordecillion 10^48 = quindecillion 10^51 = sexdecillion 10^54 = septdecillion 10^57 = octodecillion 10^60 = novemdecillion 10^63 = vigintillion 10^66 = unvigintillion 10^69 = duovigintillion 10^72 = trevigintillion 10^75 = quattuorvigintillion 10^78 = quinvigintillion 10^81 = sexvigintillion 10^84 = septvigintillion 10^87 = octovigintillion 10^90 = novemvigintillion 10^93 = trigintillion 10^96 = untrigintillion 10^99 = duotrigintillion 10^100 = googol 10^102 = tretrigintillion 10^105 = quattuortrigintillion 10^108 = quintrigintillion 10^111 = sextrigintillion 10^114 = septtrigintillion 10^117 = octotrigintillion 10^120 = novemtrigintillion 10^123 = quadragintillion 10^126 = unquadragintillion 10^129 = duoquadragintillion 10^132 = trequadragintillion 10^135 = quattuorquadragintillion 10^138 = quinquadragintillion 10^141 = sexquadragintillion 10^144 = septquadragintillion 10^147 = octoquadragintillion 10^150 = novemquadragintillion 10^153 = quinquagintillion 10^156 = unquinquagintillion 10^159 = duoquinquagintillion 10^162 = trequinquagintillion 10^165 = quattuorquinquagintillion 10^168 = quinquinquagintillion 10^171 = sexquinquagintillion 10^174 = septquinquagintillion 10^177 = octoquinquagintillion 10^180 = novemquinquagintillion 10^183 = sexagintillion trigintilliard 10^186 = unsexagintillion untrigintillion 10^189 = duosexagintillion untrigintilliard 10^192 = tresexagintillion duotrigintillion 10^195 = quattuorsexagintillion 10^198 = quinsexagintillion 10^201 = sexsexagintillion 10^204 = septsexagintillion 10^207 = octosexagintillion 10^210 = novemsexagintillion 10^213 = septuagintillion 10^216 = unseptuagintillion 10^219 = duoseptuagintillion 10^222 = treseptuagintillion 10^225 = quattuorseptuagintillion 10^228 = quinseptuagintillion 10^231 = sexseptuagintillion 10^234 = septseptuagintillion 10^237 = octoseptuagintillion 10^240 = novemseptuagintillion 10^243 = octogintillion 10^246 = unoctogintillion 10^249 = duooctogintillion 10^252 = treoctogintillion 10^255 = quattuoroctogintillion 10^258 = quinoctogintillion 10^261 = sexoctogintillion 10^264 = septoctogintillion 10^267 = octooctogintillion 10^270 = novemoctogintillion 10^273 = nonagintillion 10^276 = unnonagintillion 10^279 = duononagintillion 10^282 = trenonagintillion 10^285 = quattuornonagintillion 10^288 = quinnonagintillion 10^291 = sexnonagintillion 10^294 = septnonagintillion 10^297 = octononagintillion 10^300 = novemnonagintillion 10^303 = centillion Centummillion or uncentillion 306 duocentillion 309 trecentillion 312 quattuorcentillion 315 quinquacentillion 318 sexcentillion 321 septencentillion 324 octocentillion 327 novencentillion 330 decicentillion 333 undecicentillion 336 duodecicentillion 339 tredecicentillion 342 quattuordecicentillion 345 quinquadecicentillion 348 Centumsedecillion or Sedecicentillion 351 septendecicentillion 354 octodecicentillion 357 novendecicentillion 360 viginticentillion 363 Primo-vigesimo-centillion or unviginticentillion 366 duoviginticentillion 369 tresviginticentillion 372 quattuorviginticentillion 375 quinquaviginticentillion 378 sesviginticentillion 381 septemviginticentillion 384 octoviginticentillion 387 centumvigintinonillion, centumundetrigintillion or novemviginticentillion 390 Trigintacentillion 393 Untrigintacentillion 396 Duotrigintacentillion 399 Trestrigintacentillion 402 quattuortrigintacentillion 405 quinquatrigintacentillion 408 sestrigintacentillion 411 septentrigintacentillion 414 octotrigintacentillion 417 Noventrigintacentillion or bentaggoogol 420 quadragintacentillion 423 unquadragintacentillion 426 duoquadragintacentillion 429 tresquadragintacentillion 432 quattuorquadragintacentillion 435 quinquaquadragintacentillion 438 sesquadragintacentillion 441 septenquadragintacentillion 444 octoquadragintacentillion 447 novenquadragintacentillion 450 quinquagintacentillion 453 unquinquagintacentillion 456 duoquinquagintacentillion 459 tresquinquagintacentillion 462 quattuorquinquagintacentillion 465 quinquaquinquagintacentillion 468 sesquinquagintacentillion 471 septenquinquagintacentillion 474 octoquinquagintacentillion 477 novenquinquagintacentillion 480 sexagintacentillion 483 unsexagintacentillion 486 duosexagintacentillion 489 tresexagintacentillion 492 quattuorsexagintacentillion 495 quinquasexagintacentillion 498 sesexagintacentillion 501 septensexagintacentillion 504 octosexagintacentillion 507 novensexagintacentillion 510 septuagintacentillion 513 unseptuagintacentillion 516 duoseptuagintacentillion 519 treseptuagintacentillion 522 quattuorseptuagintacentillion 525 quinquaseptuagintacentillion 528 seseptuagintacentillion 531 septenseptuagintacentillion 534 octoseptuagintacentillion 537 novenseptuagintacentillion 540 octogintacentillion 543 unoctogintacentillion 546 duooctogintacentillion 549 tresoctogintacentillion 552 quattuoroctogintacentillion 555 quinquaoctogintacentillion 558 sexoctogintacentillion 561 septemoctogintacentillion 564 octooctogintacentillion 567 novemoctogintacentillion 570 nonagintacentillion 573 unnonagintacentillion 576 duononagintacentillion 579 trenonagintacentillion 582 quattuornonagintacentillion 585 quinquanonagintacentillion 588 senonagintacentillion 591 septenonagintacentillion 594 octononagintacentillion 597 Undeducentillion or Novenonagintacentillion 600 Ducentillion 603 unducentillion 606 duoducentillion 609 treducentillion 612 quattuorducentillion 615 quinquaducentillion 618 seducentillion 621 Septenducentillion 624 octoducentillion 627 Novenducentillion or tentaggoogol 630 deciducentillion 633 undeciducentillion 636 duodeciducentillion 639 tredeciducentillion 642 quattuordeciducentillion 645 quinquadeciducentillion 648 sedeciducentillion 651 septendeciducentillion 654 octodeciducentillion 657 novendeciducentillion 660 Vigintiducentillion (eleventyillardplex?) 663 unvigintiducentillion 666 duovigintiducentillion 669 tresvigintiducentillion 672 quattuorvigintiducentillion 675 quinquavigintiducentillion 678 sesvigintiducentillion 681 septemvigintiducentillion 684 octovigintiducentillion 687 novemvigintiducentillion 690 trigintaducentillion 693 untrigintaducentillion 696 duotrigintaducentillion 699 trestrigintaducentillion 702 quattuortrigintaducentillion 705 quinquatrigintaducentillion 708 sestrigintaducentillion 711 septentrigintaducentillion 714 octotrigintaducentillion 717 noventrigintaducentillion 720 quadragintaducentillion 723 unquadragintaducentillion 726 duoquadragintaducentillion 729 tresquadragintaducentillion 732 quattuorquadragintaducentillion 735 quinquaquadragintaducentillion 738 sesquadragintaducentillion 741 septenquadragintaducentillion 744 octoquadragintaducentillion 747 novenquadragintaducentillion 750 quinquagintaducentillion 753 unquinquagintaducentillion 756 duoquinquagintaducentillion 759 tresquinquagintaducentillion 762 quattuorquinquagintaducentillion 765 quinquaquinquagintaducentillion 768 sesquinquagintaducentillion 771 septenquinquagintaducentillion 774 octoquinquagintaducentillion 777 novenquinquagintaducentillion 780 sexagintaducentillion 783 unsexagintaducentillion 786 duosexagintaducentillion 789 tresexagintaducentillion 792 quattuorsexagintaducentillion 795 quinquasexagintaducentillion 798 sesexagintaducentillion 801 septensexagintaducentillion 804 octosexagintaducentillion 807 novensexagintaducentillion 810 septuagintaducentillion 813 unseptuagintaducentillion 816 duoseptuagintaducentillion 819 treseptuagintaducentillion 822 quattuorseptuagintaducentillion 825 quinquaseptuagintaducentillion 828 seseptuagintaducentillion 831 septenseptuagintaducentillion 834 octoseptuagintaducentillion 837 novenseptuagintaducentillion 840 octogintaducentillion 843 unoctogintaducentillion 846 duooctogintaducentillion 849 tresoctogintaducentillion 852 quattuoroctogintaducentillion 855 quinquaoctogintaducentillion 858 sexoctogintaducentillion 861 septemoctogintaducentillion 864 octooctogintaducentillion 867 novemoctogintaducentillion 870 nonagintaducentillion 873 unnonagintaducentillion 876 duononagintaducentillion 879 trenonagintaducentillion 882 quattuornonagintaducentillion 885 quinquanonagintaducentillion 888 senonagintaducentillion 891 septenonagintaducentillion 894 octononagintaducentillion 897 Novenonagintaducentillion 900 Trecentillion 903 untrecentillion 906 duotrecentillion 909 trestrecentillion 912 quattuortrecentillion 915 quinquatrecentillion 918 sestrecentillion 921 septentrecentillion 924 octotrecentillion 927 noventrecentillion 930 decitrecentillion 933 undecitrecentillion 936 duodecitrecentillion 939 tredecitrecentillion 942 Trecentiquattuordecillion or quattuordecitrecentillion 945 quinquadecitrecentillion 948 sedecitrecentillion 951 septendecitrecentillion 954 octodecitrecentillion 957 novendecitrecentillion 960 vigintitrecentillion 963 unvigintitrecentillion 966 duovigintitrecentillion 969 tresvigintitrecentillion 972 quattuorvigintitrecentillion 975 quinquavigintitrecentillion 978 sesvigintitrecentillion 981 septemvigintitrecentillion 984 octovigintitrecentillion 987 novemvigintitrecentillion 990 trigintatrecentillion 993 untrigintatrecentillion 996 duotrigintatrecentillion 999 trestrigintatrecentillion 1002 quattuortrigintatrecentillion 1005 quinquatrigintatrecentillion 1008 sestrigintatrecentillion 1011 septentrigintatrecentillion 1014 1octotrigintatrecentillion 1017 noventrigintatrecentillion 1020 quadragintatrecentillion 1023 unquadragintatrecentillion 1026 duoquadragintatrecentillion 1029 tresquadragintatrecentillion 1032 quattuorquadragintatrecentillion 1035 quinquaquadragintatrecentillion 1038 sesquadragintatrecentillion 1041 septenquadragintatrecentillion 1044 octoquadragintatrecentillion 1047 novenquadragintatrecentillion 1050 quinquagintatrecentillion 1053 unquinquagintatrecentillion 1056 duoquinquagintatrecentillion 1059 tresquinquagintatrecentillion 1062 quattuorquinquagintatrecentillion 1065 quinquaquinquagintatrecentillion 1068 sesquinquagintatrecentillion 1071 septenquinquagintatrecentillion 1074 octoquinquagintatrecentillion 1077 novenquinquagintatrecentillion 1080 sexagintatrecentillion 1083 unsexagintatrecentillion 1086 duosexagintatrecentillion 1089 tresexagintatrecentillion 1092 quattuorsexagintatrecentillion 1095 quinquasexagintatrecentillion 1098 sesexagintatrecentillion 1101 septensexagintatrecentillion 1104 octosexagintatrecentillion 1107 novensexagintatrecentillion 1110 septuagintatrecentillion 1113 unseptuagintatrecentillion 1116 duoseptuagintatrecentillion 1119 treseptuagintatrecentillion 1122 quattuorseptuagintatrecentillion 1125 quinquaseptuagintatrecentillion 1128 seseptuagintatrecentillion 1131 septenseptuagintatrecentillion 1134 octoseptuagintatrecentillion 1137 novenseptuagintatrecentillion 1140 octogintatrecentillion 1143 unoctogintatrecentillion 1146 duooctogintatrecentillion 1149 tresoctogintatrecentillion 1152 quattuoroctogintatrecentillion 1155 quinquaoctogintatrecentillion 1158 sexoctogintatrecentillion 1161 septemoctogintatrecentillion 1164 octooctogintatrecentillion 1167 novemoctogintatrecentillion 1170 nonagintatrecentillion 1173 unnonagintatrecentillion 1176 duononagintatrecentillion 1179 trenonagintatrecentillion 1182 quattuornonagintatrecentillion 1185 quinquanonagintatrecentillion 1188 senonagintatrecentillion 1191 septenonagintatrecentillion 1194 octononagintatrecentillion 1197 novenonagintatrecentillion 1200 Quadringentillion 1203 unquadringentillion 1206 duoquadringentillion 1209 tresquadringentillion 1212 quattuorquadringentillion 1215 quinquaquadringentillion 1218 sesquadringentillion 1221 septenquadringentillion 1224 octoquadringentillion 1227 novenquadringentillion 1230 deciquadringentillion 1233 undeciquadringentillion 1236 duodeciquadringentillion 1239 tredeciquadringentillion 1242 quattuordeciquadringentillion 1245 quinquadeciquadringentillion 1248 sedeciquadringentillion 1251 septendeciquadringentillion 1254 octodeciquadringentillion 1257 novendeciquadringentillion 1260 vigintiquadringentillion 1263 unvigintiquadringentillion 1266 duovigintiquadringentillion 1269 tresvigintiquadringentillion 1272 quattuorvigintiquadringentillion 1275 quinquavigintiquadringentillion 1278 sesvigintiquadringentillion 1281 septemvigintiquadringentillion 1284 octovigintiquadringentillion 1287 novemvigintiquadringentillion 1290 trigintaquadringentillion 1293 untrigintaquadringentillion 1296 duotrigintaquadringentillion 1299 trestrigintaquadringentillion 1302 quattuortrigintaquadringentillion 1305 quinquatrigintaquadringentillion 1308 sestrigintaquadringentillion 1311 septentrigintaquadringentillion 1314 octotrigintaquadringentillion 1317 noventrigintaquadringentillion 1320 quadragintaquadringentillion 1323 unquadragintaquadringentillion 1326 duoquadragintaquadringentillion 1329 tresquadragintaquadringentillion 1332 quattuorquadragintaquadringentillion 1335 quinquaquadragintaquadringentillion 1338 sesquadragintaquadringentillion 1341 septenquadragintaquadringentillion 1344 octoquadragintaquadringentillion 1347 novenquadragintaquadringentillion 1350 quinquagintaquadringentillion 1353 unquinquagintaquadringentillion 1356 duoquinquagintaquadringentillion 1359 tresquinquagintaquadringentillion 1362 quattuorquinquagintaquadringentillion 1365 quinquaquinquagintaquadringentillion 1368 sesquinquagintaquadringentillion 1371 septenquinquagintaquadringentillion 1374 octoquinquagintaquadringentillion 1377 novenquinquagintaquadringentillion 1380 sexagintaquadringentillion 1383 unsexagintaquadringentillion 1386 duosexagintaquadringentillion 1389 tresexagintaquadringentillion 1392 quattuorsexagintaquadringentillion 1395 quinquasexagintaquadringentillion 1398 sesexagintaquadringentillion 1401 septensexagintaquadringentillion 1404 octosexagintaquadringentillion 1407 novensexagintaquadringentillion 1410 septuagintaquadringentillion 1413 unseptuagintaquadringentillion 1416 duoseptuagintaquadringentillion 1419 treseptuagintaquadringentillion 1422 quattuorseptuagintaquadringentillion 1425 quinquaseptuagintaquadringentillion 1428 seseptuagintaquadringentillion 1431 septenseptuagintaquadringentillion 1434 octoseptuagintaquadringentillion 1437 novenseptuagintaquadringentillion 1440 octogintaquadringentillion 1443 unoctogintaquadringentillion 1446 duooctogintaquadringentillion 1449 tresoctogintaquadringentillion 1452 quattuoroctogintaquadringentillion 1455 quinquaoctogintaquadringentillion 1458 sexoctogintaquadringentillion 1461 septemoctogintaquadringentillion 1464 octooctogintaquadringentillion 1467 novemoctogintaquadringentillion 1470 nonagintaquadringentillion 1473 unnonagintaquadringentillion 1476 duononagintaquadringentillion 1479 trenonagintaquadringentillion 1482 quattuornonagintaquadringentillion 1485 quinquanonagintaquadringentillion 1488 senonagintaquadringentillion 1491 septenonagintaquadringentillion 1494 octononagintaquadringentillion 1497 novenonagintaquadringentillion 1500 Quingentillion 1503 unquingentillion 1506 duoquingentillion 1509 tresquingentillion 1512 quattuorquingentillion 1515 quinquaquingentillion 1518 sesquingentillion 1521 septenquingentillion 1524 octoquingentillion 1527 novenquingentillion or Megafugafour 1530 deciquingentillion 1533 undeciquingentillion 1536 duodeciquingentillion 1539 tredeciquingentillion 1542 quattuordeciquingentillion 1545 quinquadeciquingentillion 1548 sedeciquingentillion 1551 septendeciquingentillion 1554 octodeciquingentillion 1557 novendeciquingentillion 1560 vigintiquingentillion 1563 unvigintiquingentillion 1566 duovigintiquingentillion 1569 tresvigintiquingentillion 1572 quattuorvigintiquingentillion 1575 quinquavigintiquingentillion 1578 sesvigintiquingentillion 1581 septemvigintiquingentillion 1584 octovigintiquingentillion 1587 novemvigintiquingentillion 1590 trigintaquingentillion 1593 untrigintaquingentillion 1596 duotrigintaquingentillion 1599 trestrigintaquingentillion 1602 quattuortrigintaquingentillion 1605 quinquatrigintaquingentillion 1608 sestrigintaquingentillion 1611 septentrigintaquingentillion 1614 octotrigintaquingentillion 1617 noventrigintaquingentillion 1620 quadragintaquingentillion 1623 unquadragintaquingentillion 1626 duoquadragintaquingentillion 1629 tresquadragintaquingentillion 1632 quattuorquadragintaquingentillion 1635 quinquaquadragintaquingentillion 1638 sesquadragintaquingentillion 1641 septenquadragintaquingentillion 1644 octoquadragintaquingentillion 1647 novenquadragintaquingentillion 1650 quinquagintaquingentillion 1653 Uunquinquagintaquingentillion 1656 duoquinquagintaquingentillion 1659 tresquinquagintaquingentillion 1662 quattuorquinquagintaquingentillion 1665 quinquaquinquagintaquingentillion 1668 sesquinquagintaquingentillion 1671 septenquinquagintaquingentillion 1674 octoquinquagintaquingentillion 1677 novenquinquagintaquingentillion 1680 sexagintaquingentillion 1683 unsexagintaquingentillion 1686 duosexagintaquingentillion 1689 tresexagintaquingentillion 1692 quattuorsexagintaquingentillion 1695 quinquasexagintaquingentillion 1698 sesexagintaquingentillion 1701 septensexagintaquingentillion 1704 octosexagintaquingentillion 1707 novensexagintaquingentillion 1710 septuagintaquingentillion 1713 unseptuagintaquingentillion 1716 duoseptuagintaquingentillion 1719 treseptuagintaquingentillion 1722 quattuorseptuagintaquingentillion 1725 quinquaseptuagintaquingentillion 1728 seseptuagintaquingentillion 1731 septenseptuagintaquingentillion 1734 octoseptuagintaquingentillion 1737 novenseptuagintaquingentillion 1740 octogintaquingentillion 1743 unoctogintaquingentillion 1746 duooctogintaquingentillion 1749 tresoctogintaquingentillion 1752 quattuoroctogintaquingentillion 1755 quinquaoctogintaquingentillion 1758 sexoctogintaquingentillion 1761 septemoctogintaquingentillion 1764 octooctogintaquingentillion 1767 novemoctogintaquingentillion 1770 nonagintaquingentillion 1773 unnonagintaquingentillion 1776 duononagintaquingentillion 1779 trenonagintaquingentillion 1782 quattuornonagintaquingentillion 1785 quinquanonagintaquingentillion 1788 senonagintaquingentillion 1791 septenonagintaquingentillion 1794 octononagintaquingentillion 1797 novenonagintaquingentillion 1800 Sescentillion 1803 unsescentillion 1806 duosescentillion 1809 tresescentillion 1812 quattuorsescentillion 1815 quinquasescentillion 1818 sesescentillion 1821 septensescentillion 1824 octosescentillion 1827 novensescentillion 1830 decisescentillion 1833 undecisescentillion 1836 duodecisescentillion 1839 tredecisescentillion 1842 quattuordecisescentillion 1845 quinquadecisescentillion 1848 sedecisescentillion 1851 septendecisescentillion 1854 octodecisescentillion 1857 novendecisescentillion 1860 vigintisescentillion 1863 unvigintisescentillion 1866 duovigintisescentillion 1869 tresvigintisescentillion 1872 quattuorvigintisescentillion 1875 quinquavigintisescentillion 1878 sesvigintisescentillion 1881 septemvigintisescentillion 1884 octovigintisescentillion 1887 novemvigintisescentillion 1890 trigintasescentillion 1893 untrigintasescentillion 1896 duotrigintasescentillion 1899 trestrigintasescentillion 1902 quattuortrigintasescentillion 1905 quinquatrigintasescentillion 1908 sestrigintasescentillion 1911 septentrigintasescentillion 1914 octotrigintasescentillion 1917 noventrigintasescentillion 1920 quadragintasescentillion 1923 unquadragintasescentillion 1926 duoquadragintasescentillion 1929 tresquadragintasescentillion 1932 quattuorquadragintasescentillion 1935 quinquaquadragintasescentillion 1938 sesquadragintasescentillion 1941 septenquadragintasescentillion 1944 octoquadragintasescentillion 1947 novenquadragintasescentillion 1950 quinquagintasescentillion 1953 unquinquagintasescentillion 1956 duoquinquagintasescentillion 1959 tresquinquagintasescentillion 1962 quattuorquinquagintasescentillion 1965 quinquaquinquagintasescentillion 1968 sesquinquagintasescentillion 1971 septenquinquagintasescentillion 1974 octoquinquagintasescentillion 1977 novenquinquagintasescentillion 1980 sexagintasescentillion 1983 unsexagintasescentillion 1986 duosexagintasescentillion 1989 tresexagintasescentillion 1992 quattuorsexagintasescentillion 1995 quinquasexagintasescentillion 1998 sesexagintasescentillion 2001 septensexagintasescentillion 2004 octosexagintasescentillion 2007 novensexagintasescentillion 2010 septuagintasescentillion 2013 unseptuagintasescentillion 2016 duoseptuagintasescentillion 2019 treseptuagintasescentillion 2022 quattuorseptuagintasescentillion 2025 quinquaseptuagintasescentillion 2028 seseptuagintasescentillion 2031 septenseptuagintasescentillion 2034 octoseptuagintasescentillion 2037 novenseptuagintasescentillion 2040 octogintasescentillion 2043 unoctogintasescentillion 2046 duooctogintasescentillion 2049 tresoctogintasescentillion 2052 quattuoroctogintasescentillion 2055 quinquaoctogintasescentillion 2058 sexoctogintasescentillion 2061 septemoctogintasescentillion 2064 octooctogintasescentillion 2067 novemoctogintasescentillion 2070 nonagintasescentillion 2073 unnonagintasescentillion 2076 duononagintasescentillion 2079 trenonagintasescentillion 2082 quattuornonagintasescentillion 2085 quinquanonagintasescentillion 2088 senonagintasescentillion 2091 septenonagintasescentillion 2094 octononagintasescentillion 2097 novenonagintasescentillion 2100 Septingentillion 2103 unseptingentillion 2106 duoseptingentillion 2109 treseptingentillion 2112 quattuorseptingentillion 2115 quinquaseptingentillion 2118 seseptingentillion 2121 septenseptingentillion 2124 octoseptingentillion 2127 novenseptingentillion 2130 deciseptingentillion 2133 undeciseptingentillion 2136 duodeciseptingentillion 2139 tredeciseptingentillion 2142 quattuordeciseptingentillion 2145 quinquadeciseptingentillion 2148 sedeciseptingentillion 2151 septendeciseptingentillion 2154 octodeciseptingentillion 2157 novendeciseptingentillion 2160 vigintiseptingentillion 2163 unvigintiseptingentillion 2166 duovigintiseptingentillion 2169 tresvigintiseptingentillion 2172 quattuorvigintiseptingentillion 2175 quinquavigintiseptingentillion 2178 sesvigintiseptingentillion 2181 septemvigintiseptingentillion 2184 octovigintiseptingentillion 2187 novemvigintiseptingentillion 2190 trigintaseptingentillion 2193 untrigintaseptingentillion 2196 duotrigintaseptingentillion 2199 trestrigintaseptingentillion 2202 quattuortrigintaseptingentillion 2205 quinquatrigintaseptingentillion 2208 sestrigintaseptingentillion 2211 septentrigintaseptingentillion 2214 octotrigintaseptingentillion 2217 noventrigintaseptingentillion 2220 quadragintaseptingentillion 2223 unquadragintaseptingentillion 2226 Septingentiquadragintabillion or duoquadragintaseptingentillion 2229 tresquadragintaseptingentillion 2232 quattuorquadragintaseptingentillion 2235 quinquaquadragintaseptingentillion 2238 sesquadragintaseptingentillion 2241 septenquadragintaseptingentillion 2244 octoquadragintaseptingentillion 2247 novenquadragintaseptingentillion 2250 quinquagintaseptingentillion 2253 unquinquagintaseptingentillion 2256 duoquinquagintaseptingentillion 2259 tresquinquagintaseptingentillion 2262 quattuorquinquagintaseptingentillion 2265 quinquaquinquagintaseptingentillion 2268 sesquinquagintaseptingentillion 2271 septenquinquagintaseptingentillion 2274 octoquinquagintaseptingentillion 2277 novenquinquagintaseptingentillion 2280 sexagintaseptingentillion 2283 unsexagintaseptingentillion 2286 duosexagintaseptingentillion 2289 tresexagintaseptingentillion 2292 quattuorsexagintaseptingentillion 2295 quinquasexagintaseptingentillion 2298 sesexagintaseptingentillion 2301 septensexagintaseptingentillion 2304 octosexagintaseptingentillion 2307 novensexagintaseptingentillion 2310 septuagintaseptingentillion 2313 unseptuagintaseptingentillion 2316 duoseptuagintaseptingentillion 2319 treseptuagintaseptingentillion 2322 quattuorseptuagintaseptingentillion 2325 quinquaseptuagintaseptingentillion 2328 seseptuagintaseptingentillion 2331 septenseptuagintaseptingentillion 2334 octoseptuagintaseptingentillion 2337 novenseptuagintaseptingentillion 2340 octogintaseptingentillion 2343 unoctogintaseptingentillion 2346 duooctogintaseptingentillion 2349 tresoctogintaseptingentillion 2352 quattuoroctogintaseptingentillion 2355 quinquaoctogintaseptingentillion 2358 sexoctogintaseptingentillion 2361 septemoctogintaseptingentillion 2364 octooctogintaseptingentillion 2367 novemoctogintaseptingentillion 2370 nonagintaseptingentillion 2373 unnonagintaseptingentillion 2376 duononagintaseptingentillion 2379 trenonagintaseptingentillion 2382 quattuornonagintaseptingentillion 2385 quinquanonagintaseptingentillion 2388 senonagintaseptingentillion 2391 septenonagintaseptingentillion 2394 octononagintaseptingentillion 2397 novenonagintaseptingentillion 2400 Octingentillion 2403 unoctingentillion 2406 duooctingentillion 2409 tresoctingentillion 2412 quattuoroctingentillion 2415 quinquaoctingentillion 2418 Sexoctingentillion 2421 septemoctingentillion 2424 octooctingentillion 2427 novemoctingentillion 2430 decioctingentillion 2433 undecioctingentillion 2436 duodecioctingentillion 2439 tredecioctingentillion 2442 quattuordecioctingentillion 2445 quinquadecioctingentillions 2448 sedecioctingentillion 2451 septendecioctingentillion 2454 octodecioctingentillion 2457 novendecioctingentillion 2460 vigintioctingentillion 2463 unvigintioctingentillion 2466 duovigintioctingentillion 2469 tresvigintioctingentillion 2472 quattuorvigintioctingentillion 2475 quinquavigintioctingentillion 2478 sesvigintioctingentillion 2481 septemvigintioctingentillion 2484 octovigintioctingentillion 2487 novemvigintioctingentillion 2490 trigintaoctingentillion 2493 untrigintaoctingentillion 2496 duotrigintaoctingentillion 2499 trestrigintaoctingentillion 2502 quattuortrigintaoctingentillion 2505 quinquatrigintaoctingentillion 2508 sestrigintaoctingentillion 2511 septentrigintaoctingentillion 2514 octotrigintaoctingentillion 2517 noventrigintaoctingentillion 2520 quadragintaoctingentillion 2523 unquadragintaoctingentillion 2526 duoquadragintaoctingentillion 2529 tresquadragintaoctingentillion 2532 quattuorquadragintaoctingentillion 2535 quinquaquadragintaoctingentillion 2538 sesquadragintaoctingentillion 2541 septenquadragintaoctingentillion 2544 octoquadragintaoctingentillion 2547 novenquadragintaoctingentillion 2550 quinquagintaoctingentillion 2553 unquinquagintaoctingentillion 2556 duoquinquagintaoctingentillion 2559 tresquinquagintaoctingentillion 2562 quattuorquinquagintaoctingentillion 2565 quinquaquinquagintaoctingentillion 2568 sesquinquagintaoctingentillion 2571 septenquinquagintaoctingentillion 2574 octoquinquagintaoctingentillion 2577 novenquinquagintaoctingentillion 2580 sexagintaoctingentillion 2583 unsexagintaoctingentillion 2586 duosexagintaoctingentillion 2589 tresexagintaoctingentillion 2592 quattuorsexagintaoctingentillion 2595 quinquasexagintaoctingentillion 2598 sesexagintaoctingentillion 2601 septensexagintaoctingentillion 2604 octosexagintaoctingentillion 2607 novensexagintaoctingentillion 2610 septuagintaoctingentillion 2613 unseptuagintaoctingentillion 2616 duoseptuagintaoctingentillion 2619 treseptuagintaoctingentillion 2622 quattuorseptuagintaoctingentillion 2625 quinquaseptuagintaoctingentillion 2628 seseptuagintaoctingentillion 2631 septenseptuagintaoctingentillion 2634 octoseptuagintaoctingentillion 2637 novenseptuagintaoctingentillion 2640 octogintaoctingentillion 2643 unoctogintaoctingentillion 2646 duooctogintaoctingentillion 2649 tresoctogintaoctingentillion 2652 quattuoroctogintaoctingentillion 2655 quinquaoctogintaoctingentillion 2658 sexoctogintaoctingentillion 2661 septemoctogintaoctingentillion 2664 octooctogintaoctingentillion 2667 novemoctogintaoctingentillion 2670 nonagintaoctingentillion 2673 unnonagintaoctingentillion 2676 duononagintaoctingentillion 2679 trenonagintaoctingentillion 2682 quattuornonagintaoctingentillion 2685 quinquanonagintaoctingentillion 2688 senonagintaoctingentillion 2691 septenonagintaoctingentillion 2694 octononagintaoctingentillion 2697 novenonagintaoctingentillion 2700 Nongentillion 2703 unnongentillion 2706 duonongentillion 2709 trenongentillion 2712 quattuornongentillion 2715 quinquanongentillion 2718 senongentillion 2721 septenongentillion 2724 octonongentillion 2727 novenongentillion 2730 decinongentillion 2733 undecinongentillion 2736 duodecinongentillion 2739 tredecinongentillion 2742 quattuordecinongentillion 2745 quinquadecinongentillion 2748 sedecinongentillion 2751 septendecinongentillion 2754 octodecinongentillion 2757 novendecinongentillion 2760 vigintinongentillion 2763 unvigintinongentillion 2766 duovigintinongentillion 2769 tresvigintinongentillion 2772 quattuorvigintinongentillion 2775 quinquavigintinongentillion 2778 sesvigintinongentillion 2781 septemvigintinongentillion 2784 octovigintinongentillion 2787 novemvigintinongentillion 2790 trigintanongentillion 2793 untrigintanongentillion 2796 duotrigintanongentillion 2799 trestrigintanongentillion 2802 quattuortrigintanongentillion 2805 quinquatrigintanongentillion 2808 sestrigintanongentillion 2811 septentrigintanongentillion 2814 octotrigintanongentillion 2817 noventrigintanongentillion 2820 quadragintanongentillion 2823 unquadragintanongentillion 2826 duoquadragintanongentillion 2829 tresquadragintanongentillion 2832 quattuorquadragintanongentillion 2835 quinquaquadragintanongentillion 2838 sesquadragintanongentillion 2841 septenquadragintanongentillion 2844 octoquadragintanongentillion 2847 novenquadragintanongentillion 2850 quinquagintanongentillion 2853 unquinquagintanongentillion 2856 duoquinquagintanongentillion 2859 tresquinquagintanongentillion 2862 quattuorquinquagintanongentillion 2865 quinquaquinquagintanongentillion 2868 sesquinquagintanongentillion 2871 septenquinquagintanongentillion 2874 octoquinquagintanongentillion 2877 novenquinquagintanongentillion 2880 sexagintanongentillion 2883 unsexagintanongentillion 2886 duosexagintanongentillion 2889 tresexagintanongentillion 2892 quattuorsexagintanongentillion 2895 quinquasexagintanongentillion 2898 sesexagintanongentillion 2901 septensexagintanongentillion 2904 octosexagintanongentillion 2907 novensexagintanongentillion 2910 septuagintanongentillion 2913 unseptuagintanongentillion 2916 duoseptuagintanongentillion 2919 treseptuagintanongentillion 2922 quattuorseptuagintanongentillion 2925 quinquaseptuagintanongentillion 2928 seseptuagintanongentillion 2931 septenseptuagintanongentillion 2934 octoseptuagintanongentillion 2937 novenseptuagintanongentillion 2940 octogintanongentillion 2943 unoctogintanongentillion 2946 duooctogintanongentillion 2949 tresoctogintanongentillion 2952 quattuoroctogintanongentillion 2955 quinquaoctogintanongentillion 2958 sexoctogintanongentillion 2961 septemoctogintanongentillion 2964 octooctogintanongentillion 2967 novemoctogintanongentillion 2970 nonagintanongentillion 2973 unnonagintanongentillion 2976 duononagintanongentillion 2979 Trenonagintanongentillion 2982 quattuornonagintanongentillion 2985 quinquanonagintanongentillion 2988 Senonagintanongentillion 2991 septenonagintanongentillion 2994 octononagintanongentillion 2997 nongentinonagentanonillion or undemillillion or googood or novenonagintanongentillion 3000 Millillion 3003 Millilliardilliardplex (british or american?) 6003 sexmilliaquingentsexagintillion 19683 Myrillion 30003 Googolplex (10googol) Graham's number (number of zeroes requires power tower) ----
Asked in Electromagnetic Radiation, Waves Vibrations and Oscillations, Sound Waves

How can you compare electromagnetic waves to sound waves?

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The clearest difference is in their speeds. Sound travels around 720 miles an hour at sea level. Light travels at 186,000 miles per second. That is it goes a foot in about a picosecond. Sound will go a foot in about one milisecond. Sound needs a medium like air or water to travel and is greatly effected by the medium. Light travels without much regard for its' medium or the lack of one. It is effected when going through glass and crystals. Light will bend and even separate into its constituent colors. Sound is produced mechanically. Light is caused by the electron activity in an atom. It can be mechanically generated but is an electronic activity. Sound occurs when molecules are excited by a repeated mechanical action. A speaker cone moving back and forth causes air pressure variations that our ear gathers and starts translating it into something our brains can deal with. Light happens when the atoms valence electrons are made to jump into a higher orbit and when they fall back down they give off a photon. It is light in a confusing quantum package that has the properties of both having mass and being an electromagnetic wave.
Asked in Sound Waves

What name is given to the reflected sound waves in a cave or an empty hall?

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what is the name given to the reflected sound waves in a cave or an empty hall
Asked in Energy, Waves Vibrations and Oscillations, Sound Waves

Is radiant energy the same as sound waves?

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Radiant energy is a term that is almost exclusively used for electromagnetic energy. When something is hot, it emits radiant energy. The sun is an obvious example, but all object actually emit radiant energy. The hotter the object, the more energy. Sound does carry energy, but it is not electromagnetic. Objects can emit sound and even "radiate" sound, but the term radiant energy is not normally used for sound.
Asked in Science, Energy, Sound Waves

What is sound energy?

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Sound waves have energy. The energy in a sound wave is both kinetic and potential energy. Read below for the details. This answer refers to the simplest form of sound, sound in air. There is also sound in liquid and solid materials where the details get more complicated. Sound is vibration in air, regions of air being compressed and rarefied as the sound wave propagates. Just as in a vibrating spring, the medium has mass and moves and so moving mass is kinetic energy. Just as in the spring there is compression and rarefaction, so there is elastic potential energy. It takes energy to create the compressed regions and they the compressed regions return that energy when they expand. In fact, one can show that these two are equal in a sound wave, potential energy = kinetic energy, just like a spring. Just like in a vibrating spring, the total energy is constant and equal to the average kinetic energy plus the average potential energy.
Asked in Sound Waves

Why wouldn't you be able to hear someone speak in outer space?

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Sound needs matter to pass through to distribute the waves. There is no matter in the vacuum of space for a sound wave to travel through, so you can't hear anything in space.
Asked in Sound Waves

What happens when two sound waves collide?

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They collide and travel together, producing high crests and deep troughs. This is called "constructive inference". If the crests align with troughs and troughs with crests, "destructive inference" occurs. The waves are now "out of phase" and their wave heights are subtracted from one another, producing smalls crests and troughs or even briefly cancelling out the waves completely. Sound waves don't interact much with each other at all. The constructive and destructive interference mentioned above will be percieved by your ears or a microphone though. You can't effectively cancel two sound waves by shooting them at each other.
Asked in Farm Animals, Animal Life, Sound Waves

What animals use infrasound?

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African Elephants for communication
Asked in Computer Hardware, Computer Maintenance, Sound Waves

How can I fix my built in mic on my desktop?

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When you say "fix" does that mean it used to work at some point and then it stopped working all of a sudden? This can be due to a recent upgrade. Maybe you upgraded to Windows 10, which in such case it's common to run into such internal mic issues. There are three things you can try: 1. Update all driver: The issue may be due to some conflict with the drivers. You can update manually or download and install a software called "driver easy." The driver easy automatically recognizes your windows version and will install the best drivers for it. It's easy to use as well. 2. Also, you can try setting your mic as the default. In some cases, this helps. All you need to do is right-click on the speaker icon at the bottom right, select "recording devices," then in the sound dialog, click the recording tab and select your mic as default.
Asked in Physics, Medical Technologies, Sound Waves

Application of ultrasonics?

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The ultrasonics used in various applications like in Industrial , medical ,etc. # INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: 1. ultrasonics are used for soldering and drilling purposes . 2. ultrasonics are used for cutting and welding purposes also . 3. ultrasonics are used to emulsify immiscible liquids like mercury and water. 4. ultrasonics are used for cleaning of tiny objects like watches etc ., 5. ultrasonics are also used in the sterilization of water and milk. #MEDICAL APPLICATION 1.Ultrasonics waves are used for relieving neuralgic and rheumatic pain . 2.Ultrasonics waves are used to destroy dangerous tissues in the human bodies . 3. Ultrasonics are used in extraction of broken teeth without pain . 4. Ultrasonics waves are used to find the velocity of blood flow and the movement of heart in human body also .
Asked in Physics, Lakes and Rivers, Sound Waves

Does sound travel in a straight line?

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sound yes sound travel in a straight line What Sound Looks Like The answer is yes and no. If you drew a line from the source of a sound to where you were when you perceived it, it would appear to be a line. However, upon further analysis (the depth of that depending on the sound you are looking at), you would see that it actually travels in a wave form, having an amplitude, frequency, wave length, period and speed. Does sound travel in a straight line? No, sound travels in a wave, therefore it does not travel in a straight line. It does travel in a line, just not a staright one
Asked in Sound Waves

What does 'the frequency of a sound wave mean?

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It means, how many vibrations per second are there. It means, how many vibrations per second are there. It means, how many vibrations per second are there. It means, how many vibrations per second are there.
Asked in Physics, Space Travel and Exploration, Sound Waves

Is there sound in space?

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No, there is no sound in space because there is no air. Without air sound will not travel anywhere. Sound is created by a wave moving. For a wave to move, it needs a medium. Sound travels in air or water. There is no air or water in the vacuum of space. Believe it or not...this is actually false. An amazingly sensitive microphone, in a sense, was used to discover the constant B-flat coming from a black hole. (This found on NASA's website. Based on research from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory." This comes from the Space.com website... "Sound can travel through space, because space is not the total vacuum it's often made out to be. Atoms of gas give the universe a ubiquitous atmosphere of sorts, albeit a very thin one. Sound, unlike light, travels by compressing a medium. On Earth, the atmosphere works well as a sound-carrying medium, as does water. The planet itself is very adept at transmitting an earthquake's seismic waves, a form of sound. Space, though not as efficient, can also serve as a medium. If a brave and clever astronaut could safely remove her helmet and shout into the cosmos, her voice would carry." Also do keep in mind that actually their are tons of particles in space. Just not near as many parts per million as here on Earth. As a matter of fact NASA has even released such research on this to attempt to solve a problem with near light speed travel. Hydrogen atoms would bombard the front of the craft at high rates of speed. Essentially such a collision of particles would break up the vehicle in a short amount of time. This alone proves space isn't a pure void. Besides...their is nothing to force all the molecules in the universe to stay attached to everything. Therefore it only seems logical to assume some do escape into the "void" we know as space.
Asked in Units of Measure, Sound Waves

What measurement do we use to measure loudness?

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The unit of measurement for loudness is in decibels. Human hearing damage/lose can be sustained by long or repeated exposure to levels above 85dB.
Asked in Sound Waves

What unit is a wave's velocity measured in?

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the distance.... ....over time. In Metres/second.
Asked in Science, Waves Vibrations and Oscillations, Sound Waves

What are sound waves?

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sound waves are the vibrations that occur in a material as a sound passes through it.
Asked in Mechanics, Sound Waves

How does the frequency affect the sound made by soundwaves?

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The frequency of a sound wave affects the pitch of the sound. If the frequency of a wave increases causing more waves for every second, the pitch will go up, and vice-versa.
Asked in Physics, Industrial Engineering, Sound Waves

What are some industrial applications of ultrasonics?

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CLEANING Cleaning was one of the earliest industrial applications of ultrasonics. Objects to be cleaned are placed in a bath of fluid which is violently agitated by a number of ultrasonic transducers. The fluid may be water or solvent based, depending on the application. Traditionally the transducers were fitted around the walls of the cleaning bath, but some modern equipment uses an external transducer attached to a resonant probe which transmits the vibrations to the fluid. The ultrasonics may affect the cleaning process in several ways. Rapid movement in the fluid can help to de-wet surfaces, overcoming surface tension, and may also help to dislodge dirt particles and carry them away from the surface. Cavitation is probably the most interesting (and potent) effect - the shock waves generated by tiny implosions of vapour bubbles can be devastating at close range. The bubbles are so tiny that they can penetrate even the smallest crevices, making the process ideal for parts which could not be cleaned by other methods. Note also that the process must be well controlled to minimise erosion of the surfaces of the parts being cleaned. The standard test of ultrasonic intensity in a cleaning bath is to immerse a standard foil strip for a set time, then remove it and count the number of holes. CUTTING Imagine a knife which moves itself backwards and forwards in a sawing action, thirty thousand times a second. True the distance moved is very small but the acceleration is so high that nothing can move with the blade or stick to it. Ultrasonic scalpels are used by surgeons where they want to cut without exerting any pressure. In industry ultrasonic cutting tools are used for products that are difficult to cut by other means. The heat generated by the ultrasonic vibrations can also be useful. Some man-made fabrics are cut and simultaneously sealed using ultrasonic knives to prevent fraying. ULTRASONIC MACHINING Ultrasonics have been used in several ways for machining metals. Lathe tools may benefit from deliberately-induced vibrations to prevent "chatter" which compromises the surface finish of the finished component. Ultrasonic drills, used on very hard ceramics, work by grinding or eroding material away - a liquid slurry around the drill bit contains loose hard particles which are smashed into the surface by the vibrations, eroding material away and creating more loose hard particles METAL FORMING CarnaudMetalbox R&D (now a part of Crown Cork and Seal - the biggest packaging company in the world) and Loughborough University developed a new aerosol can using a number of novel metal-forming processes, starting with ultrasonic necking (i.e. reducing the diameter of the can at one end). The advantage of using ultrasonics in this case was to minimise friction between the can and the die, thus reducing the forming force. Without ultrasonics the force was so high that the can body would buckle and collapse during the necking process. With ultrasonics a 30% reduction in can diameter could be achieved in a single operation (in conventional necking processes the maximum is typically about 5%). The ultrasonic forming process went into production making small-diameter aerosol cans in a UK factory. The production line still runs intermittently, making promotional packaging for several prominent customers. One of its products ("Fleurs de Paris" parfum deospray can) won a silver in the 1997 Metal Packaging Manufacturers Association awards. METAL WELDING Ultrasonics can be used to weld different metals together, without solder and flux or special preparation. The process is different to plastic welding in that the two components are vibrated parallel to the interface. This is a more intuitively logical method of generating friction between them, but frictional heating is not thought to be the prime mechanism of the process - the temperature needed to melt (or even soften) most metals would be very difficult to achieve. Instead the mechanism is thought to be diffusion-bonding: atoms of each part diffuse into the other when the two surfaces are brought together in close contact. The ultrasonics promotes this close contact by breaking down the surface oxide layers, allowing the "raw" metals to make contact. PLASTIC WELDING Plastic welding is used for a huge variety of products ranging from blister packs, cartons and small consumer goods up to car fuel tanks and dashboards. It works by generating heat exactly where it is needed - at the interface between the components to be joined. The components are clamped between a vibrating sonotrode and a fixed mounting. Strangely, the vibrations are usually applied perpendicular to the contact surface, although much of this vibration may be converted to in-plane movement. This also has the advantage that the clamping pressure will keep the sonotrode in contact with the component - serrated surfaces are generally not required. Best results are achieved when the components are clamped close to the interface ("near-field" welding) but if this is not possible then the process can still work at a distance ("far-field"). Staking, or insertion, is a variation of this process in which a metal part (generally a threaded bush) is driven into a hole in a plastic component, which then solidifies around it to form a permanent join. This is a convenient method of producing strong tapped holes in a plastic part. SIEVING Industrial sieves are normally agitated at low frequency to help the product to distribute itself evenly over the surface and to help the small particles go through. Vibrating the mesh at ultrasonic frequencies (in addition to this low-frequency oscillation) can improve the rate of flow dramatically, preventing the product from blocking the holes in the mesh and helping to separate the small particles from the large. SINTERING The powder-metallurgy process is used to manufacture top-quality steels and other metals. The powder must be packed as closely as possible before the sintering process begins to prevent the formation of voids or other weaknesses in the finished product. Published research papers indicate that a significant increase in the packing density can be achieved using ultrasonics. Can anyone confirm that this process is in production? NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Ultrasonic waves are projected through a medium (water) and a object (carbon fiber) and the internal structure can be analized for foriegn objects because the sound waves are bounced at different rates through the foriegn material than expected.
Asked in Science, Mechanics, Waves Vibrations and Oscillations, Sound Waves

What is controlled by the amplitude of a sound wave?

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The amplitude of a sound wave is the pressure of the medium at a given point.
Asked in Science, Physics, Waves Vibrations and Oscillations, Sound Waves

What must occur for a sound wave to be produced?

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Sound needs a media to propagate. Sound can not propagate in a vacuum. Sound waves, unlike light, are essentially compression waves and the sound in order to move from one place to other needs molecules to compress and decompress against, hence the wave is transmitted. In a vacuum, there are no molecules. Hence no sound.