 # Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

## From pendulums, to sound, to Schrödinger's equation, waves and vibrational motion are of fundamental importance to all of the disciplines of physics. Please direct all questions concerning the causes, mechanics, applications, and significance of oscillatory behavior into this category.

###### 10,918 Questions
Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What equation relates frequency and wavelength and speed of light?

(Frequency) x (Wavelength) = Speed of light.

Note carefully that the "speed of light" in the equation above is the speed of light in the medium that the wavelength is measured in. In vacuum it will be the famous constant "c", but when light travels through any sort of material it's speed is slowed and its wavelength shortened by a factor called the refractive index of the medium. Because wavelength and speed are reduced by the same factor the equation still holds. Light's frequency is not affected by the medium.

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Computer Hardware
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What wave is ripples on a pond?

A Transverse wave of particles.

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Science
Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What will vibration of air molecules produce?

Vibrating gasses, like air, produce longitudinal waves of pressure, some of which can be perceived as sound. If the molecules are ionized, they will also produce electromagnetic radiation.

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Electronics Engineering
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# Difference between damped and forced oscillation?

Damped (or free) oscillation occurs when an object is set to vibrate at its natural frequency while forced oscillation involves the application of a force to keep an object in constant or repetitive motion.

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Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How does each part of the pendulum work?

A pendulum could be almost anything, even a soap on a string. They're not picky, so I can't really say I know how each part works.

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Civil Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How would you describe vibration?

Vibration is the harmonic reaction of a structure to a force load.

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Electronics Engineering
Circuits
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What type of feedback is used in the oscillator circuit?

There are many different types of oscillator circuits, the majority of which use positive feedback.

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Electricity and Magnetism
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How electromagnetic wave produced?

electromagnetic waves are produced by the changes in the sub atomic level when heat or electricity is applied to an atom electron which is present in lower energy level will obsorbs energy and jumps in to higher energy level after that it again jumps in to lower energy level.when the electron is jumping in to lower energy level it emitts energy in the form of photons.these transmission of photons is said to be electromagnetic waves.in the electromagnetic waves electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

EM waves can also be produced by the action of a radio-frequency current in an antenna. Radio transmitters produce power at a single frequency and the antenna acts as a tranducer taking the power from the transmitter and converting it into power that is radiated into space and can be received at a distant point.

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Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# Do light waves act like sound waves?

yes

yes except light is a transverse wave, and sound is longitudinal wave and needs a median to travel through (which is why light waves can travel through space and sound waves can not)

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Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How do you find the period of a square wave?

Take the reciprocal of its frequency, just like any wave of any other shape.

Graphically, the period is the length of time between consecutive occurrences

of the same point in the wave form, just like any other wave.

The only tough part about a square wave is that there are only two points on it

that you can definitely identify in time ... the rising transition and the falling transition.

But that's OK. The time between two rising transitions or two falling transitions is

still the period, even if the square wave is ugly and its positive time and negative

time are unequal, or it has a DC component.

If the transitions are sloped rather than instantaneous, then the zero-crossings are

easily identifiable points in time. These characteristics are all easily spotted on an

oscilloscope.

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Electronics Engineering
Physics
Trigonometry
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How do you calculate the freq of a sine wave?

Suppose a sine wave of the form y = A*sin(k) with

• A = amplitude or maximum value of the function y (namely when k = pi/2 or 90°)
• k = the value on the x-axis of the function

It's typical of a sine wave that it's periodic, which means the function y repeats itself after a certain period. This period is equal to 2*pi or 360°, for example:

for k = pi/2, 5*pi/2, 9*pi/2, ... the value of y will be the same and equal to A (notice that 5*pi/2 = pi/2 + 2*pi and 9*pi/2 = 5*pi/2 + 2*pi)

In physics it's a more common practice to write a sine wave as y = A*sin(omega*t) with omega the angular frequency specified in radians/s (omega refers to the Greek letter) and t the time specified in seconds.

Now, when you want to calculate the frequency f of a sine wave (which is not equal to the angular frequency) or in other words the number of complete cycles that occur per second (specified in cycle/s or s-1 or Hz), you need to know the time T required to complete one full cycle (specified in s/cycle or just s or Hz-1). The frequency f is then equal to 1/T.

Knowing omega you can calculate the frequency in a different and more common way:

since the sine wave is periodic and after a time T one cycle has been completed (thus one period), it follows that omega*T = 2*pi for the function y to have the same value after one period (the function y having the same value is equal to completing one cycle).

Let's rearrange this formula by bringing 2*pi to the left and T to the right, so we get:

omega/(2*pi) = 1/T and since 1/T = f we finally get:

f = omega / (2*pi)
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Chemistry
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# Resonance structure for peroxynitrite ion ONOO?

From the 1O=N_2O_3O- the 3O- can "attack" the N and push the 1O's second bond off the N to form O3N- and from there, any one of the O's is equally likely to put its extra electron pair into a double bond with N, while the negative charge goes back to one of the other two O's which simultaneously attaches to the other and releases the N, forming the original structure. This is possible in part because the extra electron on N in O3N- pushes the O's tightly together.

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Science
Math and Arithmetic
Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# How are wave velocity frequency period and wavelength related?

Wave frequency can be calculated by dividing the speed of the wave (if we're talking about electromagnetic waves in vacuum, that would be the speed of light, c) by wavelength.

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Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# Why can't sound wave be polarized?

For polarization the direction of the oscillation has to be perpendicular to the direction of travel. In sound waves, which are longitudinal waves, this isn't the case and thereby can not be polarized.

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Chemistry
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What is the frequency of light having a wavelength of 4.50x10-6cm?

Given:

Wavelelngth λ = 4.5 × 10−6 cm = 4.5 × 10−8 m

Speed of light c = 299,792,458 m/s.

Frequency f = c / λ = 299,792,458 m/s / 4.5 × 10−8 m = 6,662,054,622,222,222 Hz

= 6,6620 × 1014 Hz.

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Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# When does a pendulum swing have the most momentum?

At the bottom of it's swing. This is because it has accelerated to it's peak velocity due to gravity.

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Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# The phase velocity vp of traveling wave is?

For a transverse wave (i.e. the particles conveying the wave move in a direction perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation) the phase velocity (or wave velocity) is the wavelength divided by the period. For a taut string the phase velocity (m/s) is sqrt(F/u) where F is the tension (N) and u is the mass per unit length of the string (kg/m).

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Science
Music
Performing Arts
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# When can a resonance occur?

An object is set to oscillates with maximum amplitude by another object.

Resonance occurs when a standing wave is created.

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Science
Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# If air resistance is negligible then terminal velocity is the velocity of shock waves?

If resistance is negligible, then there is no terminal velocity.

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Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# Sound is a longitudinal wave What does the word 'longitudinal' mean?

It means the disturbance (e.g., pressure difference) goes in the same direction as the direction of the wave. In a transversal wave, on the other hand, the disturbance goes at a right angle.

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Electronics Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What is different between signal generators and oscillator?

The basic differences are a signal generator can provide several typical types of waves - square, triangle, sine, etc, and can do so for varying frequencies. In truth, a signal generator is just a very advanced oscillator. A basic discrete oscillator will only be able to provide 1 type of wave, and usually at a very limitted frequency range (control of this can be had in the use of varying inductors and capacitors).

Also, more advanced signal genenerators may have "inputs" as well as "outputs" for more complicated testing.

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Electronics Engineering
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What is the frequency range used by 802.11A and what modulation technique is used?

2.4GHz is used & OFDM

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Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What are the disadvantages of oscillators?

The biggest disadvantages with oscillators are that they have to be stabilized with control heaters. If the oscillator is operated in a non temperature controlled environment it will drift off frequency and it is not good policy to transmit over a wider that necessary bandwidth. The frequency on either side of the offending transmitter will be affected.

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Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What is nodal surface?

A surface where the amplitude of a standing wave changes sign (negative becomes positive and vice versa) and the probability to find an elctron is zero..:)

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Electricity and Magnetism
Electrical Engineering
Circuits
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

# What is sinusoidal voltage?

A sinusoidal voltage is an oscillating voltage that can be described mathematically through the use of a sine function.

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