because i am bored at school!
It started in 1954 (the same year the Algerian War for Independence from France began) and ended in 1975. It went on longer in Vietnam until the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam and made the entire country communist governed. The Vietnamese had been fighting for a lot longer than before the USstepped in to help.
1. If one could think about direct army involvement then it would be Sept. 27, 1950 when the US establishes the Military Assistance Advisory Group, Indochina (MAAG) in Saigon to aid the French military (the French had been fighting communist rebels in Vietnam, their pre-WWII colony, since 1945 A.D.).
2. If one could think about direct combat engagement then it would be November 1, 1955 -- The US re-designates MACG, Indochina, as MACG, Vietnam to specify its new direct combat advisory role with the North Vietnamese Army. The US essentially took over the advisory role from the French, who were leaving Vietnam after their defeat at Diem Bien Phu in 1954. The Department of Defense views this date as the earliest qualifying date for inclusion on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. In fact this allows US military personnel to use live weapons in Vietnam aka 'to win'!
3. March 1959 -- Ho Chi Minh declares a People's War to unite all of Vietnam under his leadership. His Politburo orders a changeover to an all-out military struggle. From the communist perspective, the "Vietnam War" against the US has now officially started.
4. December 11, 1961 -- US aircraft carrier "Core" arrives in Saigon with 65 helicopters and 4000 air and ground crewmen assigned to operate them for the North Vietnamese Army. Also, US pilots start to train & fly support missions with the North Vietnamese Air Force. This really marks the first larger scale participation of US military "advisers.
5. August 7, 1964 -- In response to the incidents involving US naval vessels USS. Maddox and the USS Turner Joy, the US Congress overwhelmingly passes the "Gulf of Ton-kin Resolution," allowing the President "to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force" to prevent further attacks against US forces. Many people view this as the "official" start of the war, although there was never a declaration of war.
6. March 8, 1965 -- The first US combat troops arrive in Vietnam, as 3500 Marines land at China Beach to defend the American air base at Da Nang. They join 23,000 American military advisers already in Vietnam. The arrival of combat troops is considered by some the start of the war, although American military advisers had been in Vietnam for over 10 years.
Here is more input and answers from others:
For US Medals at the very top of the "Pyramid of Honor" (The highest US medals awarded) lists do exist. The Medal of Honor, the highest medal awarded, has numerous lists that can be checked, as do the next highest, the Distinguished Service Cross.
There are monthly payments made for life for the medal, so any number of sources would also provide a verification list. Also, a DD-214 (Discharge Certificate) would list all medals and awards received by a service member, but would NOT tell you what the medal was awarded for; this would be found on the accompanying certificate with the medal.
They feared the Communists would win control.
The Vietnam War was the longest war ever fought by the United States. It lasted more than 15 years, from 1959 to 1975. It was also the first war that the United States lost.
WHY THE WAR WAS FOUGHT The United States entered the war to stop the spread of Communism in Southeast Asia. American leaders feared that Communist forces would gain control of Vietnam. After that, nation after nation might fall to Communism. Communism is a political and economic system that the United States strongly opposed. Vietnam had been split in half in 1954, after fighting a war to gain independence from France. When French forces withdrew, Vietnamese Communists gained control of North Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of the North Vietnamese Communists. South Vietnam had a non-Communist government. This government was weak. But the United States supported it in order to keep the Communists from taking control of all of Vietnam.
FROM ADVISERS TO TROOPS At first, the United States supported South Vietnam with only money and military advisers. The number of advisers in Vietnam jumped from 800 to nearly 17,000 during the early 1960s while John F. Kennedy was U.S. president. In 1964, U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson reported that North Vietnam had attacked U.S. Navy ships along Vietnam's coast. Nearly 80,000 U.S. troops were in South Vietnam by the end of 1965. . The United States conducted a brutal air war against North Vietnam. In one year, the air force flew 150,000 bombing missions. By 1967, the United States had dropped more bombs on North Vietnam than it dropped on its enemies during World War II (1939-1945). By 1969, at the height of the war, the United States had about 543,000 troops in Vietnam. Many of them were teenagers. The average age of Americans fighting in Vietnam was 19.
END OF THE WAR Although Nixon increased the bombing of North Vietnam, he began withdrawing U.S. troops. Without U.S. support, South Vietnam's government collapsed. North Vietnam won the war in 1975. Vietnam was reunited as a Communist nation. Millions of people died in the Vietnam War. Many of them were civilians, not soldiers. The war created about 10 million homeless Vietnamese refugees. It left hundreds of thousands of orphans.
They got involved in Vietnam because they wanted to stop the spread of communism (domino theory) and after France left Vietnam the US felt they needed to take matters into their own hands.
After WWII, President Truman (and the other western allies) viewed Communism (in the form of the Soviet Union) as the greatest post-war threat. The turning point for Asia came in Dec. 1949 when Chinese communist forces won the civil war in China. Now the U.S. feared all of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand) might fall to communism.
When France pulled-out of Vietnam in 1955-56, the U.S. basically felt it had to fill the void in order to prevent Ho Chi Minh from unifying Vietnam under communist rule (the 1956 peace accords with France had divided Vietnam in half). So starting in 1955, the U.S. started sending military advisers to assist the South Vietnamese Army. The conflict continued to escalate as communist rebels in the South gained more control of the countryside, which required more & more U.S. military advisers & equipment to prop-up the South Vietnamese army. Finally, in 1965, we sent combat troops to prop-up South Vietnam.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded for "Heroic or meritorious achievement or service." While there is no complete list compiled of Bronze Stars awarded during Vietnam, medals awarded may be looked up on the National Archives website. You can search by name and several other ways on the site linked below.
Number of Bronze Stars awarded (Source: National Archives):
The 1950s had the beat-niks; the 1960s had the hippies. The 1970s were transitional, the 1980s was the age of "disco", the 1990s was a "Gay & Womens & Civil Rights decade" (the USSR & South Africa and apartheid fell in the 1990s) combined with a "copy cat"/or "remake"/or "wannabe"/or "repeat" generation (which-ever term the reader wants to use)...which has carried over into the 21st century with repeat cars (Cameros, Mustangs, etc.), repeat television shows (like game shows), repeat commercials (like Mr. Clean with the ring in his ear), repeat movies like "Bewitched", "Kojack", "Wild West", "Hawaii 5-0", etc.
To an extent, history does repeat itself. In the US, the 1890s were called the "Gay Ninties" (Gay meaning Happy). The 1920s were called the "Roaring Twenties." The 1930s were called the "Depression Years" and the 1940s were the war years (WWII).
58,196 names have been listed on the Vietnam wall. However, Does 58,168 cover the MIA's, the POW's, the many people that were spit on, shouted at, called "non-Americans" after what they were forced to do in Southeast Asia?Answer
According to the Scholastic Encyclopedia of the United States at War, 58,168 U.S. troops died in Vietnam.Answer58,000 Answer58,196 names are listed on the Vietnam wall. AnswerMost casualty figures I've seen say 45,000. I'm not positive, but I think those are KIAs and not a mixture of KIAs and wounded. There are also approximately 10,000 MIAs, who may or may not be dead. AnswerThere are nearly 60,000 names on the Vietnam wall now. We have been adding over the last few years the names of the veterans who have passed on. The numbers were approx. 58,929 last I looked. AnswerAbout 58,000 Americans died of combat related injuries. There were a lot of casualties.
The Vietnam Conflict resulted in an estimated 58,000 US casualties.
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See website: Agent Orange
Sectionalism in post-War of 1812 United States was based on peculiar institution, or slavery. This is something that is taught from first grade through college. The United States was divided, north and south, over the issue of slavery. Slavery was the reason for the Missouri Compromise among other agreements to even out slave and free states prior to the Civil War.
The significance of MAD, or mutually assured destruction in the Cold War, boils down to the reason behind the term Cold War itself. The Cold War, where conflict was between go-betweens on each side: for example, South Korea vs. North Korea or South Vietnam vs. North Vietnam, were pitched battles between logistics of the Americans and logistics of the Soviets. The Soviets and Americans never engaged in prolonged pitched conflict with each other. It was "cold" because neither side fired weapons at the other, in anger. Otherwise, it would be "hot". Think "hot-headed" and a gun, and "cooled off" and a gun, and you get the gist of it.
Sure, they have a gun, but no one's shooting in the latter.
The reason the conflagration, or an open war never occurred was due to the policy of mutually assured destruction. Mutually assured destruction boiled down to this: with enough nuclear weapons and enough ways of getting them to their destination, anyone who got a first strike would still not be feeling very swell in the morning. No one would get out of the pit without paying dearly for it.
This was the basis of the oft-repeated and cliche line of the physicist Albert Einstein, "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones."
The specter of the nuclear and thermonuclear weapon provided such a tool of utter, wanton devastation, that both sides pursued peaceful dealings with one another, despite the military-industrial complexes of both the Soviet Union and the United States revving up, quite openly to obliterate one another.
The promise of mutually assured destruction, where the mass of nuclear weapons and delivery systems were so great, that both sides knew for certain, if one of the nations fell, so would the other; they avoided the what was once considered "inevitable" conflict that would have happened if mutually assured destruction was not a policy shared between the two.
I am a Silver Star winner from the Vietnam War. It is on 1st Aviation Brigade, APO San Francisco 96307.
General Orders Number 2554
Dated 14 June 1967
Date of action: 31 January 1967
This is not so much a improvement but a extention of above. Most units have web sites and list Silver Star recipients. As I was with the 173rd AIB and the 11th ACR, both have list of MOH,DSC and Silver Stars awarded.Names, rank and dates are provided. Bronze Stars and Purple Hearts were so numerous, it was decided not efficient to list.
The Tet Offensive (1968) was a military failure for the NVA, but a political success for North Vietnam. The reason is because up to the Tet Offensive, the US Presidential Administration had been proclaiming that the Communists were weak, under-supplied, disorganized, and low in morale. The Tet Offensive completely proved them wrong, you have a near-simultaneous uprising against US and South Vietnamese targets (military barracks, airfields, administration units, even the US embassy in Saigon was overrun and in North Vietnamese hands for a few hours).
While all the NVA/Viet Cong attackers in each case were eventually killed, taken prisoner, or driven off, the incident shook not only the credibility of the US Administration, but also proved to the world that the NVA and Viet Cong still had lots of fight left. Two years later, the Nixon administration decided to start the gradual withdrawal of American troops, eventually the South Vietnamese ARVN (Army, Republic of Vietnam) was unable to withstand the onslaught of NVA and Viet Cong attacks. The war ended in April 1975 with the NVA marching into Saigon and the last helicopter lifting off the roof of the American Embassy.
The US Navy doesn't (and didn't) like small combatants in their inventory; especially wooden ones, like the WWII PT Boats. Close to 300 of those boats were intentionally destroyed (burned) in the Philippines at the close of the war. Wooden boats are a maintenance headache; wood rots, and the maintenance inventory of the US Navy was designed & organized to support steel vessels, not wood.
Secondly, the USN distains small boat combatants. Small boats are necessary for taxing personnel from vessel to vessel and conducting errands in bays, etc. But not the combatants. Combatants such as the WWII MTB (Motor Torpedo Boats-aka PT boats); and the USN's Brown Water Navy in Vietnam, which utilized a host of riverine craft such as the Swift Boats (PCF-Patrol Craft Fast), PBRs (Patrol Boat River), Alpha Boats (ASPB-Assault Support Patrol Boats), and the Monitors were only a "wartime necessity." And all save some PBRs and two Swift Boats were retained in the US (and the Swift Boats were salvaged from scrap yards by some veterans!).
There is no money in small combatants when defense budgets are rationed out to the military. The big money is in "big ticket items" such as warships for the navy, bombers for the air force and tanks for the army. That's where the big money is justified. The army, navy and air force fight for their share of the defense budget each year that it's being offered.
Only lately, since Operation Iraqi Freedom began it's campaign, and then only late in the game, has the US Navy become interested again in small patrol boats. So far, probably no more than a hundred such combatants have been placed into service with the USN. These are not the PTs & Swifts of days gone by, but in some cases inflatibles, and civilian appearing water craft painted up in military schemes. There is no more official Brown Water Navy, just some small patrolling in troubles regions over-seas. Coronado in California is training them, as they did during the Vietnam war; Mare Island used to used old Viet War PBRs (those were all fiberglass), but the Mare Island closed down in '95, and tranferred what they had left to Sacramento. Sacramento is surrounded by rivers.
Attack aircraft headed for North Vietnam were generally armed with 500lb, 750lb, and 1,000lb general purpose HE (High Explosive) bombs. Aircraft headed for South Vietnam were generally in support of US/allied troops in contact (engaged in a firefight/battle with the enemy). Those bombs could be the same as those bombs headed north (to North Vietnam) or 250 pounders or napalm. Napalm was generally for ground troop support (CAS-Close Air Strikes) in RVN (Republic South Vietnam) and not as popular as television and story books (and war stories in general) like to depict. Audiences ENJOY FLAME and BIG FIRES on TV and at the Movies. Troops in the Nam got a kick out of it too, but in reality the flames went out shortly after impact. Sure, things burnt up in the kill zone (impact area), but the enemy simply backed up...waited...then moved foreward again. The USN or USAF A1 Skyraider (propeller driven/actually a WWII designed Dive Bomber that was designed in WWII but NEVER saw action in WWII, its first war was Korea, 2nd war was Nam) was a popular napalm dropper, then the F100 Super Sabre which was the King of supporting ground troops in Nam. The Super Sabre fought from 1961 until the middle of 1971 in Vietnam, it has the longest combat time in STEADY combat than any other US fighter bomber in history.
USAF A1s were painted in camo; USN A1s were white or grey in color. The F100 was strictly a USAF bird and came in silver or camo paint schemes. Other US jets could also drop nape, but the A1s and F100 did it the most.
The F100 was really a great strafer, it flew low and fast firing its four 20mm cannons as it came by you. Probably more 20mm shells were fired by the strafing F100s than any other US jet in Vietnam.
Conscription is another name for being drafted into the military.
1965 1966 1967
Strategic Air Command, the air arm of the Navy, the U.S. Air Force in general and Marine Corps Aviation that bombed North Vietnam into rubble in 1972-73. Also, all the men and women who fought against the murdering North Vietnamese and their Soviet and Chinese supporters.
To many for as much as is appreciated today.
What a waste...
When Soviet & US/Allied forces drove their invasions toward the enemies positions, such as the center of Berlin or near the 38th parallel in Korea or the 17th parallel in Vietnam, that's where the leadership of those particular combatants would draw the line.
Land and water
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