Phidippides, I believe. But you should probably check wikipedia...
There is a problem here - Pheidippides was dead by the time of the battle. He had run to Sparta to summon them to help Athens fight off the invading Persians. On his return after running nearly 200 miles, he died of exhaustion. Meanwhile the Athenians and Plataeans stayed in the hills around Marathon where the superior Persian cavalry could not get at them, waiting for the Spartans to arrive. On the tenth day, the Athenians saw the Persian cavalry being embarked on ships, and took the opportunity of running down and defeating the inferior Persian infantry on the plain, caught without their cavalry protection. After this battle, the Athenians realised where the Persian cavalry was being shipped to - around to Athens to disembark and gallop up through the gates opened by traitors. The whole Athenian army - all 18,000 - ran over the hills the 26 miles back to Athens and formed up in front of the city just as the Persian cavalry was disembarking. Frustrated, the Persians re-embarked and went home. It is this run by the 18,000 after whom the Marathon run of today commemorates, not the already dead Pheidippides as is commonly claimed by peddlers of a 'good story'. The real story is far more interesting and evocative of admiration. The reality of the 9,000's feat is enhanced by the fact that they ran in sandals carrying armour, shields and weapons, and their staple diet was bread. Rather different and more challenging compared to the conditions of today's pampered athletes. But with their city, property and families as the prize, they had a compelling incentive as well as unrivaled guts.
At the Battle of Marathon, the Persians and Athenians fought. The Persians outnumbered them, but Athens still won.
The Athenian and Plataian infantry remained in the hills around the Plain of Marathon where they were safe from the Persian cavalry. They were awaiting the reinforcement of the Spartan army.
The observed the Persian cavalry being embarked, and took the opportunity to run down and defeat the inferior Persian infantry unprotected by its cavalry, and routed them.
They then realised the Persian cavalry was being shipped around Cape Sounion to land near Athens and gallop up and take the undefended city as the gates were opened by traitors within. They ran back the 26 miles to the city and formed up in front of the gates just in time. The Persians gave up and went home.
The Athenians made this run in sandals, carrying armour and weapons, after having already fought the battle at Marathon.
Today's marathon runners who think they replicate this run get it pretty easy by comparison.
Yes, he expanded Macedonia, brought the Greek city-states under his control, and prepared to take over the Persian Empire, but assassination ended this.
As part of a Greek blocking force, they helped hold the pass for three days to make the Persians try to break through by turning the bottleneck by sea. The Greek navies were waiting offshore to pounce on the Persian navy to try to eliminate it and its threat to the Greek cities. As it turned out, the Greek navies were defeated and withdrew to try again at Salamis. The land blocking force at Thermopylae, its mission now invalidated, withdrew. The Spartan contingent of 300 heavy infantry and 2,100 light infantry, together with the Thespian contingent, remained holding the pass to allow the other city contingents to escape to the walls of friendly cities before the Persian cavalry broke through and rode them down in open countryside. They were killed to a man, a noble sacrifice to save their comrades.
Athens was overconfident when it entered the war, imagining the combination of the money it collected from its empire, the strength of its walls, and the dominance of its navy would see it through. The Persians swung the balance, donating money to the Peloponnesian League to buy and man a fleet to match the Athenian one. With it's fleet defeated, its sea food route closed, and city besieged, Athens was starved out.
It is called a stalemate, draw, or tie in a game.
In a war, they usually declare a winner anyway, but they call it a hollow or Pyrrhic victory, meaning that the "victory" was so devastating that it might as well be a loss.
A battle fleet is an operational naval task force designed to operate as a coordinated unit, which is subdivided into battle groups.
The Battle of Marathon was a turning point during the first Persian invasion of Greece. The Persians vastly outnumbered the Greeks on the battlefield, but the Greeks were able to defeat them. The Greeks charged the Persian troops with a thin weaker line, while the Greeks' left and right flanks consisted of stronger troops who quickly surrounded the Persian troops and attacked them on both sides. It was a crushing defeat for the Persians, and the battle convinced the Greeks that while the Persian Empire had vast armies and archers, it was possible to defeat them.
The resources and time (15,000 versus 1000, from 72-73 CE) that Rome committed to capture an insignificant fortress like Masada, and the intensity of its defence, when an accommodation could have been negotiated is remarkable. The underlying reason is a matter for speculation, with the modern discovery of a male and his family in a cave under the rim of the fortress. It appears that a very important man was holed up and the stubborn defence could have been to protect him. An obvious answer would be that this was the would-be king who sparked the revolt put down in 70 CE.
This could have been Jesus the Nazarene whose revolution in 33 CE was put down and he was crucified as a revolutionary - his body (allegedly dead after a mere few hours on the cross - it normally took several days to die) had been released in a deal with Roman governor Pontius Pilate which also involved a prisoner-exchange with Jesus' son Jesus bar Rabbas (Barabbas - son of the Rabbi). It may have been the latter who was prominent in the revolt in 66-70 CE and whose body was found in the cave at Masada. Or it may have been some other pretender. Speculative, but it fits the intensity of the Roman determination and resources to eliminate the source of trouble.
They were having a religious festival at the time and told the Athenians they would be along as soon as it was over. The Athenians lurked in the hills around the plain of Marathon to avoid the superior Persian cavalry while they waited for the Spartan army. However on the tenth day they saw the Persian cavalry being embarked on ships, took the opportunity to run down and defeat the inferior Persian unarmoured infantry without its usual cavalry protection. Having done this, they thought about where the Persian cavalry was going and realised that it was heading for undefended Athens, with traitors ready to open the gates for them as they galloped up from the port.
he Athenian army ran back over the hill the 26 miles to Athens, arriving just as the Persian cavalry was disembarking, and formed up in front of the city walls. Frustrated, the Persians re-embarked and went home. This run by the 9,000 Athenian infantry and their 9,000 light infantry is the origin of today's Marathon run. The Athenians had it much tougher than today's pampered athletes - they ran in sandals and armour carrying their shields and weapons.
The Spartan army left as soon as the festival was over, but arrived a day too late for the battle, marching on to view the battlefield, congratulated the Athenians, and went home.
Britain had to finance its army defending the American colonies to hold off the invading French and their Indian allies. They levied taxes to help pay for this, and many of the American colonists didn't want to pay and organised a revolt.
The Assyrian Empire stretched from Assyria west to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. This was taken over by the rise of the Babylonian Empire, which in turn was taken over by the Persians, who extended it into Libya and Egypt in the west and eastward to Central Asia and today's Pakistan.
The citizen soldiers who risked their lives in battle didn't want any old political appointee to lead them in battle, so it was usual for the soldiers to parade in arms and vote for the war leader.
there was a war against uk